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SANITARY NAPKINS - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Layout

PRODUCT PROFILE A sanitary napkin, sanitary towel, sanitary pad, menstrual pad, maxi pad, or pad is an absorbent item worn by a woman while she is menstruating. The Sanitary napkin industry is closely connected with the mode of life, which is in turn directly correlated to housing. Accordingly this industry has always grown by keeping space with improvement in living and it is new indispensable for sanitary in modern housing. In India, the technology for sanitary napkins available by processing of raw cotton spinning and weaving to napkins. On small scale, the processed cotton is purchased which is woven. Sanitary Napkin for Ladies monthly uses well done enterprises can provide not only the standard type sanitary napkin machine but also the specified machinery for producing any type sanitary napkin according to the requirement & specifications. Extending to the abilities of own engineering, the machinery for producing maternity pad, adult's pad is also available. Feminine hygiene (lady napkins) is hygiene absorbent products engineered to absorb and retain body fluid without causing any leakage. The user should always feel dry and comfortable. It consists of an absorbent pad sandwiched between two sheets of nonwoven fabric. There are 3 major types of products, viz, (a) Thick sanitary napkins. (b) Ultra thin sanitary napkins. (c) Panty liners being used in the market. The size of each and their content vary from market to market. PROPERTIES • They have high degree of softness and loosely fitted fibers. • They are highly absorbent so that they can take up blood quickly and hold it up after absorption. • They are made of clean fibres that do not have an unpleasant odour when wet or dry. • They should have sufficient wet strength treated with wetting agents or wet strength imparting resins such as urea formaldehyde or Melamine resins. Applications • Sanitary Napkins are exclusively used by adult girls & Ladies around the world during their menstrual periods as a means of maintaining physical aid & to avoid wetting or staining of the clothes. • Sanitary Napkin is not reasonable & it is to be thrown away only, when it is saturated with wet liquids. • Its use is much popular amongst the educated class of adult girls & ladies. Global demand Market status & potential in India Today, the global market for absorbent hygiene products is over US$ 50 billion (including wipes). The evolution of hygiene products in Europe and the North America has taken 4 to 5 generations. Feminine care was introduced over 100 years ago. Baby diapers were invented 60 years ago. Adult incontinence products appeared 30 years ago. The total market size of sanitary napkins is estimated at over two and half billion pieces in 2006-07 with a value at about Rs 4.7 bn. While the urban market has been growing at 20%, the rural market is growing at 7%. Overall, segment is annually growing at an average of over 9% for quite some time and is estimated to cross Rs 5.9 billion at the end of 2009-10. The market demand of sanitary napkin in 2011-12 is estimated Rs.7.91 billion. A growth rate of over 18% to 20% is expected in India for the sanitary napkins market, which holds a huge potential and excellent profit margin for the manufacturers. Therefore the demand of sanitary napkin in the market is enormous and therefore its market position is splendid. Hence it is an excellent field to venture.
Plant capacity: 120000 pieces/dayPlant & machinery: 32 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 204 Lakhs
Return: 49.00%Break even: 37.00%
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MODIFIED POTATO STARCH - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

PRODUCT PROFILE Potato starch is starch extracted from potatoes. The cells of the root tubers of the potato plant contain starch grains (leucoplasts). To extract the starch, the potatoes are crushed; the starch grains are released from the destroyed cells. The starch is then washed out and dried to powder. Potato starch is essential as a universal binding and food thickening agent. Leveraging on potato starch production and producing modified potato starch that is specially customized for various applications in food, textile and paper manufacturing industries. Product characteristics Appearance - powder a clear white colour Surface of starch granules app. 30 ha/g Specific density app. 1.55 g/ml Specific heat 1.22 J/g Bulk weight of starch 80% DS app. 0.7 g/ml DS of moist centrifuge app. 0.6 g/ml Brightness (MgO2 = 100%) app. 95 % Size ranges between 5 and 100 ?m Applications Starch and modified starches have a broad range of applications both in the food and non food sectors. The largest users of starch in the EU (30%) are the paper, cardboard and corrugating industries. Other important fields of starch application are textiles, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, construction and paints. In the medium and long run starch will play an increasing role in the field of “renewable raw materials” for the production of biodegradable plastics, packaging material and moulds. The powder has very consistent as the major raw materials are available in house with very good quality. The best value provided by the modified starch over native starch is the reduction in downtime and improvement in paper quality. Additional benefits offered by the modified starches are improvement in wastewater discharge quality with charged starches, elimination of chemical and equipment for on site conversion of native starches, reduction in labor costs due to the simplicity of cooking and using modified starches etc. Global demand Starch, one of the most present biomaterials has witnessed significant developments over the years. After witnessing a temporary dip in growth in the year 2008 and 2009, the world market for starch, by consumption is expected to recover and register healthy growth to reach 80 million metric ton by 2015. The Global starch market is likely to get respite from deceleration in its market growth, with growth poised to receive a new lease of life in the next few years, thanks to the growing consumption of liquid starches and modified starches. The modified starch market is projected to be the fastest growing segment over the period 2007-2015. The US represents the largest geographic market for starch, having accounted for a share of about 51% in the total volume of starch consumed in 2009. Given the countrys large per capita income, the demand for starch in the US has been steadily on the rise. Asia Pacific represents the fastest growing market over the period 2007-2015. Growing employment opportunities, and subsequent increase in per capita income over the last few years, particularly in China and India, have been driving the growing demand for starch in the region. The demand of the product in the market is immense and therefore its market position is splendid. Hence it is an excellent field to venture.
Plant capacity: 45000 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 654 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of the project: 1618 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 50.00%
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MAIZE PROCESSING (Maize Starch, Liquid Glucose, Gluten, Dextrose) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study

PRODUCT PROFILE The maize also called "Corn or Indian Corn" is widely cultivated in India; Maize ranks high among the four or five principal cereal crops of the world. Maize is utilized in more diversified ways than any other cereal. Starch is the main product of a maize processing unit, which is consumed in various other industries like food, pharmaceuticals, textiles, paper, hotels and restaurants, etc. The other products include Gluten, Germ, Fiber (husk) and Corn Steep Liquor. Gluten has great demand in animal feed industry because of its high protein content (70%). Germ is expressed to extract germ oil which is low cholesterol containing edible oil. Fiber, mainly the husk, is used by animal feed manufacturers. It has demand in wet form itself for animal feed. Corn Steep Liquor is one of the substrates for culture media for manufacturing of antibiotics and other microbial production systems. Applications Besides food, maize and maize products have numerous industrial uses such as in adhesives, explosives and soaps, and for textile sizing, etc. Maize starch is employed in the manufacture of asbestos, ceramics, dyes, plastics, oil cloth, linoleum, paper, and paper boards, and in textiles, mining, deep oil drilling, and cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The derivatives of maize starch include glucose or corn syrup, corn sugar, dextrin, and industrial alcohol, which is employed in different industries. The grain is used for making various alcoholic beverages. Corn oil obtained from the embryo (i.e. young plant in its earliest stages of development) is used in paints, varnishes, rubber substitutes and as a cooking medium. Maize starch is extensively used as a sizing material in the textile and paper industries. In the food industry, it is used in the preparation of pies, puddings, lad dressings and confections. The further use of the products of maize are Dextrose (used in baking, beverage and canning industries), Maize Starch Syrup (used in the food processing industry, chiefly in confectionery), Pop corn and the various by products of maize are maize oil, seen, steep water etc. Global demand The viability of a maize processing plant depends upon the availability and uninterrupted supply of raw material to the unit. On an average, a unit with a crushing capacity of 100 MT/ day will require about 30000 MT of maize per year (assuming 300 days of operation of the plant). Hence, the availability of raw material is one of the important considerations in deciding the location of maize processing unit. Maize is the most widely grown crop in the Americas with 332 million metric tons grown annually in the United States alone. Approximately 40% of the crop 130 million tons is used for corn ethanol, transgenic maize (Genetically Modified Corn) made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. While natural maize varieties grow to 12 meters (39 ft) tall, most commercially grown maize has been bred for a standardized height of 2.5 meters (8.2 ft). Sweet corn is usually shorter than field corn varieties. The starch is the main product of a maize processing unit, which is consumed in various other industries like food, pharmaceuticals, textiles, paper, hotels and restaurants, etc. The Starch industry in India is thus poised to rapid strides once again keeping behind the impacts of the global recession during recent years. The target of indigenous production of over 6 million MT will require the Indian Starch industry to increase their production during the next ten years. To meet the growing demand, per hectare yield of maize is estimated to rise to 2.36 MT as against 1.7 MT currently by the end of 2020. Therefore the scope for this product is very bright. An entrepreneur venturing into this project will find it very lucrative. Cost Estimation: Capacity: 200MT Maize processed/day Starch 133 MT/day Glucose 20 MT/day Gluten 18 MT/day Germ 8 MT/day Fiber 4MT/day Steep Water 12MT/day
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: 3175 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 7310 Lakhs
Return: 33.00%Break even: 40.00%
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Frozen Finger Chips - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Profile: The potato is a tuber grown underground on a specialized plant part (subterranean stem) known as stolon. A potato tuber is usually oval to round in shape, although intermediate shapes are also frequently encountered. It consists of an inner flesh and an outer protective cover known as a skin. There is a great variation in flesh colour and skin finish. And these two characteristics broadly, if not completely, determine the consumer preference vis à vis acceptability. The eye shaped depressions on a potato tuber is known as its eyes, and actually these are the dormant buds, which give rise to new shoots under suitable conditions. These white to creamy white or pigmented new shoots are known as sprouts. And that is why the process is known as sprouting. This is a very important process in potato, because a sprouted potato is not acceptable for consumption. But optimum sprouting is a desired attribute when the tubers are used for propagation. Factors affecting the growth of French fries French fries/wedges are growing at the rate of 25% in the country and it is likely to increase in coming years. The reason of this fast rate of growth is: 1. Fast growth of international fast food chain (25 to 30%) not only in metro but in other large towns. 2. Growing preference for Western snacks due to changing life style. French fries/wedges are likely to cut into Indian snacks like Samosa, Tikki, Pakoras etc. 3. Change in retail formats super market, shopping malls etc also stimulate the retail sales, as products are attractively displayed in visi coolers/ deep freezers. 4. Demographic changes like, increasing income, small family, more working women etc. results into more eating out and purchase of ready to cook products. 5. French fries are also a complement item to many food products in restaurants, Bars and Pubs; this trend is growing and will contribute to its overall demand in near future. 7. A significant proportion of fresh French fries are also expected to get converted to frozen French fries. Global Scenario Frozen Food in India industry profile provides top-line qualitative and quantitative summary information including: market share, market size (value and volume 2006 to 10, and forecast to 2015). The profile also contains descriptions of the leading players including key financial metrics and analysis of competitive pressures within the market. The market for frozen food in India increased at a compound annual growth rate of 15.2% between 2004 and 2009. The Indian frozen food market generated total revenues of $325.9 million in 2010, representing a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 16.6% for the period spanning 2006 to 2010. The food processing industry has been slated for accelerated growth. It is projected to be a futuristic industry and it is anticipated that, over the years, it will emerge as a leading player in the global markets. As a result, the industry is seen to be witnessing feverish activity. Therefore the scope for this product is very bright. An entrepreneur venturing into this project will find it very lucrative.
Plant capacity: 4840 MT/Annum or 1200 Kg potato per hourPlant & machinery: 293 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 1757 Lakhs
Return: 50.00%Break even: 34.00%
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Lead Acid Battery - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Profile: The lead-acid storage battery, an important energy storage device, is the most widely used secondary storage cell by automobile and other industries. Storage cells are devices which release a flow of electron through an external circuit as a result of reactions occurring between the active electrode materials and ions transported by the electrolyte. The cells in which the reactions are reversible are called secondary cells. In these cells the active materials can be returned to their original state by applying electrical current from an external source in the opposite direction to the flow of the cells discharge current. We are dependent on lead acid batteries for many uses in our lives that can be subdivided into four broad categories: engine starting, motive power and standby power, valve regulated battery. There are two distinct designs of recombination battery currently use: Absorbed electrolyte and Gelled electrolyte. Lead acid battery industry is divided into three main sectors: SLI batteries, industrial batteries and transaction batteries. SLI batteries are primarily used in motor vehicle. Industrial batteries include those used for uninterrupted power supply and transaction batteries are used to power electric vehicles such as forklifts. Characteristics: The lead battery uses lead oxide as the active material of the positive electrode and metallic lead in a high surface area porous structure, as the negative material. The physical and chemical properties of these materials are listed below: • Typically a charged positive electrode contains both variations, ? PbO2 (Orthorhombic) and ? PbO2 (Tetragonal) • The equilibrium potential of the ? PbO2 is more positive than that of ? PbO2 by 0.01V. • The cured plate consists of lead sulphate, lead oxide and some residual lead (?5%). • The electrolyte is a sulfuric acid solution, about 1.28 specific gravity or 37% acid by weight in a fully charged condition. • As the cell discharges, both electrodes are converted to lead sulfate and the process reverses on charge. Application: The lead acid battery is used in a wide variety of applications, and in the past few years many new applications have arisen: • The most common use of the lead acid battery is for starting, lighting, and ignition in automobiles and other vehicles with internal combustion engines. • Lead acid batteries are used as the power source in off the road vehicles such as golf carts, forklift trucks, mining vehicles, and construction and industrial equipment. • It also has applications in DC Power System which includes a battery charger (rectifier/charger) which has a sufficient capacity to recharge the batteries at the proper voltage while simultaneously supplying power to the dc load. • In Static uninterruptible AC Power System (UPS) a storage battery is linked to the utility power to provide a continuity of service in the event of an interruption of the utility power. • Valve regulated batteries are used for standby applications such as in telephonic systems, uninterruptible power systems, burglar, fire alarms and emergency lighting. Global Scenario Lead acid batteries are considered to have one of the fastest global growth rates. Usage of lead acid battery is expected to grow further with technological advancements in the electric vehicles market. Although efforts are on to develop a miracle battery for electric vehicles, lead acid batteries are one of the few battery technologies that are considered as the workhorses of today’s Electric Vehicle fleet. The influx of cutting edge technology has brought forth a new genre of long lasting, lead acid batteries featuring smaller size and lightweight attributes. The global market for Lead Acid Batteries (Automotive) is forecast to reach US$15.4 billion by the year 2015, charged by sustained demand from automobiles industry, specifically the aftermarket/replacement market. Emergence of next generation electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) will further drive the market. Since there is a huge demand for Lead acid battery in market therefore the entrepreneur venturing in this field expects an enormous success.
Plant capacity: 300000 Nos./AnnumPlant & machinery: 416 Lakhs
Working capital: N/AT.C.I: Cost of project : 1327 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 56.00%
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Non Woven Fabric - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Layout

Product Profile: Non woven fabric is a fabric like material made from long fibres, bonded together by chemical, mechanical, heat or solvent treatment. The term is used in the textile manufacturing industry to denote fabrics, such as felt, which are neither woven nor knitted. Non woven materials typically lack strength unless densified or reinforced by a backing. In recent years, non wovens have become an alternative to polyurethane foam. Non woven fabrics are engineered fabrics that may be a limited life, single use fabric or a very durable fabric. They are flat, porous sheets that are made directly from separate fibers or from molten plastic or plastic film. They are not made by weaving or knitting and do not require converting the fibers to yarn. Non woven polypropylene (P.P.) fabric is made of spun bond polypropylene which can be recycled, naturally decompose and completely incinerates without any production of poisonous pollutant. Even though the bags look like a textile, they are in fact made from spun bonded polypropylene, commonly known as PP, which is a by-product of crude oil. No water is used in the production process and thereby not polluted. The material is recyclable thus environmentally friendly & assists with Environment protection. Properties of non woven fabric: Non woven fabrics provide specific functions such as absorbency, liquid repellency, resilience, stretch, softness, strength, flame retardancy, washability, cushioning, filtering, bacterial barrier and sterility. These properties are often combined to create fabrics suited for specific jobs, while achieving a good balance between product use-life and cost. They can mimic the appearance, texture and strength of a woven fabric and can be as bulky as the thickest paddings. In combination with other materials they provide a spectrum of products with diverse properties, and are used alone or as components of apparel, home furnishings, health care, engineering, industrial and consumer goods. Applications of Non woven Fabrics • Wipes and dusters, tea and coffee bags, fabric softeners, food wraps, filters, bed and table linen, etc. • Hygienic care as in baby diapers, feminine hygiene products, adult incontinence items, dry and wet pads, but also nursing pads. • Healthcare, like operation drapes, gowns and packs, face masks, dressings and swabs, etc. • Interlinings, insulation and protection clothing, industrial work wears, chemical defence suits, shoe components, etc. • Application in automotive: boot liners, shelf trim, oil and cabin air filters, moulded bonnet liners, heat shields, airbags, tapes, decorative fabrics, etc. • Roofing and tile underlay, thermal and noise insulation, house wrap, drainage, etc. • Geotextiles: asphalt overlay, soil stabilization, drainage, sedimentation and erosion control, etc. • Filtration of air and gas, Hevac, Hepa, Ulpa filters • Industrial: cable insulation, abrasives, reinforced plastics, battery separators, satellite dishes, artificial leather, air conditioning, coating. • Home furnishing, Agriculture, leisure and travel, school and office etc. Non woven bags Non woven bags have been emerging as the most popular alternative with local stores and big retailers because bags made of this material offer the texture and durability of a cloth bag at a much lower cost. These bags are the cheapest alternative to plastic. The non woven bags have generated the highest order from the market since the plastic bag ban. Polypropylene is not harmful. It is recyclable, hence good for environment. There are various kinds of non woven bags such as non woven rice bag, carry bag, catering bag, banyan cut bag, fruit and vegetables bag, grocery/shopping bag, PP bag, gift bag, printed bag and many more. For example non woven rice bags are extensively used to store rice in place of conventional plastic and paper bags. Non woven rice bags have high tensile strength and are highly durable. Non woven fabric bags are widely used as packing material due to so many advantages over conventional sacks. These bags are excellent for covering products and goods thereby protecting them from moisture and dust. Market Scenario Global sales of non woven fabrics are forecast to increase 6.9 percent annually through 2015 to 9.2 million metric tons. This rate is acceleration from the 2005 o 2010 periods, reflecting a low base as global recessionary conditions restrained non wovens fabric demand in 2008 and 2009 before improving somewhat in 2010. Continued growth in global manufacturing and construction activity, as well as gains in personal income will promote demand. Product sales will grow faster in area terms, rising 7.3 percent per year to 198 billion square meters, reflecting a modest decrease in average non wovens weight. This will be due primarily to increased demand in developing areas for a variety of lighter weight disposable non woven products, supported by manufacturer efforts to make them more affordable and technological advances that are making new generations of non woven fabrics lighter. The sales of non woven fabrics in India will increase 12.7% per year in constant dollars from $214 million in 2007 to $390 million by the end of 2012. These dollar sales represent non woven materials that are produced within India and non wovens that are imported in roll good forms or in a converted state, such as baby diapers or modified bitumen roofing materials. The personal hygiene market- which includes adult incontinence products, feminine hygiene products, and infant diapers and training pants will continue to account for the single largest share of non wovens demand in 2012.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: 1.00%Break even: N/A
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Geotextiles for Road and Construction - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Profile Geotextiles is defined as permeable textile materials used in contact with soil, rock, earth or any other geotechnical related material as an integral part of civil engineering project, structure, or system. Geotextiles have proven to be among the most versatile and cost-effective ground modification materials. Their use has expanded rapidly into nearly all areas of civil, geotechnical, environmental, coastal, and hydraulic engineering. They form the major component of the field of geosynthetics, the others being geogrids, geomembranes and geocomposites. Based on their structure and the manufacturing technique, geotextiles may be broadly classified into woven and nonwoven. Woven geotextiles are manufactured by the interlacement of warp and weft yarns, which may be of spun, multifilament, fibrillated or of slit film. Nonwoven geotextiles are manufactured through a process of mechanical interlocking or thermal bonding of fibers/filaments. Mechanical interlocking of the fibers/filaments is achieved through a process called needle punching. Needle-punched nonwoven geotextiles are best suited for a wide variety of civil engineering applications and are the most widely used type of geotextile in the world. Interlocking of the fibers/filaments could also be achieved through thermal bonding. Heat-bonded geotextiles should be used with caution, as they are not suitable for filtration applications or road stabilization applications over soft soils. Geotextile Functions The mode of operation of a geotextile in any application is defined by discrete functions: separation, filtration, drainage, reinforcement, sealing and protection. Depending on the application the geotextile performs one or more of these functions simultaneously. There are various applications such as separation, filtration, drainage (transmissivity), reinforcement, sealing function, etc. Areas of Application The major application areas of geotextiles in transportation engineering are flexible paved road construction, drainage applications and pavement overlays. Geotextiles extend the service life of roads, increase their load carrying capacity, and reduce rutting. The weak subgrades the geotextile extends the service life of a flexible pavement section by a factor of 2.5 to 3.0 compared to a non stabilized section. A geotextile effectively increased the pavement sections total AASHTO structural number by approximately 19%. Geotextiles also play a major role in construction of paved roads over areas having high ground water table. Drainage of water from pavements has always been an important consideration in road design; current methods of pavement design have resulted in base courses that do not drain well. Market Scenario Geo Textiles have proven to be versatile and cost effective ground modification materials. Their use expanded rapidly into nearly all areas of civil engineering, geotechnical, environmental, coastal and hydraulic engineering. Geo-Textiles is forecasted to achieve the highest growth rates among the twelve technical textile application areas. The rate of 4.6% per annum between 2000 and 2005 is set to increase to 5.3% per annum during 2005 to 2010. The world demand for Geo Textiles is projected at about 4715 million square meters by 2014 mostly from China and India. Globally the value of the sector is growing at a rate of around 5% a year and accounts for 0.80% share of the total technical textile segment. This share is expected to go up marginally to 2010. It is predicted that global demand for geosynthetics will increase 5% annually to 4.7 billion square metres in 2013. With India is making huge investments in infrastructure development in roads, railways, dams, irrigation projects, airports, seaports, and construction projects where geosynthetics can be used in enhancing design flexibility, cost effectiveness, aesthetics, functionality and long term durability of the civil, marine, environment engineering projects we undertake. Consequently the demand for geotech segment is set to grow phenomenally. Cost Estimation:
Plant capacity: 1800 MT Geotextiles (270 gsm)/Annum Plant & machinery: 200 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of project: 467 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 59.00%
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Extraction of Ultra Pure Silicon from Rice Husk Ash - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Profitability Ratios

Profile Rice husk ash is a unique source of high grade amorphous silica. The silica present in rice husk, being of biogenic origin, is inherently amorphous. Amorphous silica obtained from rice husk is chemically active and hence a very useful product. At higher temperatures, it undergoes a phase change resulting into crystalline forms of silica The silica precipitation technology is a novel method for silica precipitation where the chemicals used are regenerated making it a closed loop operation. Successful studies for extraction of silica on laboratory scale, which meet the industrial requirements, have been carried out. Also studies are being carried out for suitable application of the undigested ash obtained after extraction, in water treatment plants with or without further improving the activated carbon content of the ash. 70% conversion is achieved on ash basis and around 90 to 95% on silica in ash basis. Properties of Silicon Property - Value Crystal structure - Diamond cubic Atomic weight - 28.085 Melting point °C - 1410 Boiling point °C - 2355 Vapour pressure; Pa at 880°C - 1.33 X 10-8 Density gm/cm3 at 25°C - 80 Critical temp °C - 2339 Process of extraction 1. Digestion: This involves the digestion of the rice husk ash with caustic at specific conditions. In this process the silica in the ash is gets extracted with caustic to form sodium solution. After the completion of the digestion the solution is filtered for the residual undigested ash present in the solution. The clear filtrate is taken for precipitation. 2. Precipitation: This step involves precipitation of silica from the sodium silicate solution. Carbon dioxide at a specific flow rate is passed through the silicate solution at design conditions. Continuous stirring is employed during the operation. The precipitated silica is filtered, washed with water to remove the soluble salts and dried. The filtrate containing sodium carbonate is taken for regeneration. 3. Regeneration: Regeneration is the step where calcium compound reacts with the sodium carbonate to form calcium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The resulting solution is filtered to remove the solid calcium carbonate and aqueous sodium hydroxide is used for digestion again. The calcium carbonate is washed with water and dried. The dried calcium carbonate can be either calcined to get calcium oxide, which is reused, for regeneration or the calcium carbonate is sold and fresh calcium hydroxide is used for regeneration which gives an option of one more value addition. 4. Production of Ultrapure Silicon A chlorine based system is used in the method of transferring silicon from SiO2 to polysilicon. The process is flexible enough to allow the use of chlorine as the halide conversion medium by modifying the process, hydrogen, argon and a silicon chloride containing gas are injected into inductively coupled plasma operating at a temperature of approximately 2500°C. Under these conditions, the silicon chlorides decompose to silicon, chlorine, and possibly hydrogen ions, and the gaseous product flows into a baffled cold trap held at approximately 1500°C. by resistance heating. The Si ions react with electrons from the ionized hydrogen gas to form molten silicon metal condensate that can be vacuum cast into polysilicon ingots. The hot chlorine laden gas is drawn from the cold trap and pushed through a fluidized bed at approximately 1200°C, containing silica (SiO2) particulate. Prior to the injection of the hot chlorine gas, the silica particulate is pre heated in a dryer to approximately 1000°C. A small amount of hydrogen is required in the fluidized bed in order to facilitate the formation of HCl gas and begin the reaction: 4HCl + SiO2 ?2H2 O + SiCl4 Additionally, some SiCl3 H will be formed by the reaction: HCl + SiCl4 ? SiCl3 H + Cl2 Si + HCl ? Applications of Pure Silicon Silicones have a wide range of application because of their excellent properties of thermal stability etc. They find wide application in adhesive, lubricants, protective coatings and mold release agents manufacturing. They are widely used as from stabilizers for poly methanes, diffusion, pumps antifoaming agents for liquid, textile finishes. Silicones also find application in manufacturing of weather proofing concretes. Silicon is used in the aluminium industry to improve castability and weldability, not to add strength as noted in the text. Silicon-aluminium alloys tend to have relatively low strength and ductility, so other metals, especially magnesium and copper, are often added to improve strength. Silicon resins are widely used as coatings, moulding compounds, laminates sealants, room temperature curing cements for electrical insulation, impregnating electric coils, bonding agents and vibrating damping devices. Semiconductor grade silicon is used in the manufacture of silicon chips and solar cells. Fumed silica is used as filler in the cement and refractory materials industries, as well as in heat insulation and filling material for synthetic rubbers, polymers and grouts. Silicon rubbers are versatile materials, which find application in a wide variety of products. It is also used in medical devices used within the body (surgical).
Plant capacity: 300 Kg/dayPlant & machinery: 246 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 557 Lakhs
Return: 39.00%Break even: 46.00%
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Maize Wet Milling Process - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Profile Maize is third important cereal/crop after wheat and rice and has a great potential of processing due to its high nutritive value and commercial uses. Maize (also known as corn) is common name for a cereal grass widely grown for food and livestock fodder. Maize ranks with wheat and rice as one of the world’s chief grain crops. Starch is produced from maize than any other crop. Maize is the most important raw material for industrial starch. Other products are germ; corn gluten and fiber. There is basic series of dry milling or wet milling process required for getting optimum quality products. Both the milling processes have merits and demerits of the quality of products and cost effectiveness. In case of wet milling there is series step for cleaning, steeping wet grinding centrifuging, drying and packaging. The whole wet milling process required large amount of demineralized water. There is also larger amount environmental pollution problem, which should be neutralized by preliminary treatment to get neutral effluent. There is larger amount of raw material available in India, which can exploit by manufacturing different available product in the maize. Manufacturing process technology is available in India, for the manufacturing of maize base products. Major plant and machineries are available in India. Few of them require to import. All the products manufactured from maize are food base product so it has very good market demand now as well as it will be stay in future also due to rapid population growth. As a whole the project is good one. Properties Starch: It is white, amorphous non crystalline powder, it can be acid hydrolyzed to form dextrose or it may be enzymatic hydrolysis to form dextrose. It is insoluble in water and forms irreversible gel in the hot water. It swells water at room temperature Zein/Maize Protein: White to slightly yellow powder; odorless, nontoxic protein of the prolamine class, derived from corn; contains 17 amino acids; tasteless; free of cystine, lysine, and tryptophane. A resinous material dispersible in water with neutral sulfonated castor oil; soluble in dilute alcohol; insoluble in water, dilute acids, anhydrous alcohol, turpentine, esters, oils, fats; d 1.226 Combustible. Germ: It is yellowish solid product & Content mostly total part as fat. Fiber: It is bright yellow crystal powder, ash content about 5% ? Applications Maize has several kinds of applications in the form of maize starch, maize fiber, germ, corn etc. Maize starch forms viscous, relatively short and opaque paste with cereal flavor. Its paste sets to stiff gels. It is widely used for thickening sauces, gravies, puddings and pie fillings. Maize starch finds numerous uses in the bakery industry for the production of cakes, cookies, in ice cream preparations etc. In Paper industry a large quantity of starch is consumed as a surface sizing agent, as a binder, as a paper coating agent etc. In textile industry, starch is used in sizing to strengthen the warp yarn, in finishing and changing the appearance of fabric after it is bleached, dyed or printed, in printing and increase the consistency of printing pastes. Also starch is used as a component in finishing agent to glaze and polish sizing thread. Maize Fiber can be used for the preparation of cattle feed production, manufacturing of non caloric high fiber food products, essential chemicals, vitamins and for making of natural food colour. Germ is used for making corn oil; maize (corn) protein is used for manufacturing of gluten, preparation of glutanic acid as well as other available amino acids. It may also be used for the protein substitute in the different food products. Market Scenario The production of maize is likely to go up by 19 per cent to touch 21 million tons in 2010 11. India is estimated to generate an annual demand of nearly 23 million ton of corn by 2011-12. According to Vision 2025, released on Thursday by Indian Maize Development Association (IMDA), India's demand for maize is likely to be 22.73 million tons in 2011-12, out of which 19.66 million tons would be for non-food uses like poultry and cattle feed. IMDA also said that total production of maize is estimated to rise to 42 million tons in 2025 from a projected 22 million tons in 2010, if the output increases by 6 to 7 million ton in every five year. India, Asia’s second-largest grower of corn after China, generally sells around two to three million tons of corn a year in global trade of about 90 million tons. Cost Estimation: Capacity : Maize Starch: 69300 MT/Annum Maize Zein/Protein: 5940 MT/Annum Maize Fiber Flour: 7920 MT/Annum Maize Germ: 7920 MT/Annum
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: 2531 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of project : 4639 Lakhs
Return: 46.00%Break even: 44.00%
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Goat Farming for Meat and Breeding - Cattle Breeding Farm, Fodder, Livestock Farming, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Economics

Profile Goat is one of the world’s smallest domesticated livestock, have been actively managed for food and fiber earlier and longer than cattle and sheep. Goats can survive on bushes, trees, desert scrub, and vegetation that sheep and cattle are not able to consume. This dietary versatility and adaptability combined with a hardy constitution is what makes goats a primary livestock animal for most of the world. The goat; a mini cow is multipurpose animal to provide milk meat, hide, hair (fur) and manure for soil. In hilly areas goats are also used for hauling light load. Now in rural areas goat farming plays a vital role to solve unemployment. The economic return from keeping goats is high compared to other farming enterprises. Goats can reproduce under extreme conditions that would eliminate other species. They can live in hot, tropical climates as well as cool, temperate climates. They seem to be able to live and even flourish under desert conditions. These factors have made goats a very important domestic animal. Goat farming can be a profitable occupation of a farmer and can be fit well into mixed farming. Classification of Goats The wild goats have four species as follows Ibex (Capra ibex), Spanish Idex (Capra pyrenacia), Markhor (Capra falconeri), and Wild Goat (Capra aegarus). On the basis of body weight goat breeds in India can be broadly classified as large sized (Jamunapari, Beetal, Jhakarana), mediusm sized (Sirohi or Marwari/Golwadi, Zalabari, Kitchi, Surti, Sangamneri, Osmanabadi, Gaddi, Ganjam, Chegu) and small sized (Bengal types, Assam hill goat). The scientific name of domestic goat is Capra hircus aegagrius. Advantages of Goat Farming / Utility of Goats: • The goat is a multipurpose animal producing meat, milk, hide, fiber and manure. In hilly areas, goats are also used for hauling light loads. • Goats have very few demands of housing and management. They hardly need separate housing and happily share their homes with their owners or his other livestock. • Goats can be raised by landless agricultural labourers, ladies and children because they can thrive well on variety of leaves, shrubs, bushes, kitchen waste etc. • Goat farming can be a profitable occupation for a farmer and can fit well into mixed farming. • Goats are cheaper to maintain, easily available and have a friendly disposition. • Goats are capable of adapting to various agro climatic conditions ranging from arid dry to cold arid to hot humid. They can be raised in plains, hilly tracts, sandy zones and at high altitudes. • Goats are more tolerant to hot climate than other farm animals. • Goats suffer from fewer ailments than other large animals. • Goats are called the foster mother of man, as their milk is considered better for human nutrition than other species of livestock. Milk is cheap, wholesome, easily digestible and nutritious. • Goat milk is finer than cow milk i.e. the fats and proteins are present in a finer state and are more easily digestible, especially by children and invalids. • Goat milk has lesser allergic problems than other species of livestock. • Goat milk is used as ayurvedic medicine for personas ailing with asthma, cough, diabetes etc. And has higher buffering qualities and this enhances its value for patients suffering from peptic ulcers, liver dysfunction, jaundice, billiard disorders and other digestive problems. • Goat hide is used for the manufacture of leather products. • Goat hairs are used for the manufacture of rugs and ropes. • Pashmina shawls, Mohair and Kashmere carpets are in great demand and are sold at very high prices. • Goat manure is 2.5 times richer in nitrogen and phosphoric acid than cow manure. Market Scenario The world population of goats is approximately 674 million, of which 94% are found in the developing countries. Africa and Asia account for about 81% of the total population in the developing countries, including a bewildering variety of breeds. Goat rearing is the backbone of economy of small and landless farmers in India. It is an insurance against crop failure and provides alternate source of livelihood to farmers all the year round. Goats play an important role in income generation, capital storage, employment generation and improving household nutrition. Goats are among the main meat-producing animals in India, whose meat (chevon) is one of the choicest meats and has huge domestic demand. Besides meat, goats provide other products like milk, skin, fibre and manure. Goats are important part of rural economy, particularly in the arid, semi arid and mountainous regions of the country with more than 124 million population. The largest amount of goat milk is produced in India, followed by Bangladesh and Sudan. China has the largest total number of goats in the world, but they are mainly kept for meat production. ?
Plant capacity: 1000 GoatsPlant & machinery: 6 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 115 Lakhs
Return: 47.00%Break even: 33.00%
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  • One Lac / Lakh / Lakhs is equivalent to one hundred thousand (100,000)
  • One Crore is equivalent to ten million (10,000,000)
  • T.C.I is Total Capital Investment
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