Best Business Opportunities in Bhutan - Identification and Selection of right Project, Thrust areas for Investment, Industry Startup and Entrepreneurship Projects

The economy of Bhutan, one of the world's smallest and least developed countries, is based on agriculture and forestry, which provide the main livelihood for more than 60% of the population. Agriculture consists largely of subsistence farming and animal husbandry. The economy is closely aligned with India's through strong trade and monetary links and dependence on India's financial assistance. Most production in the industrial sector is of the cottage industry type. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian migrant labour. Model education, social, and environment programs are underway with support from multilateral development organisations.

The industrial sector is in a nascent stage, and though most production comes from cottage industry, larger industries are being encouraged and some industries such as cement, steel, and ferroalloy have been set up. Most development projects, such as road construction, rely on Indian contract labour. Agricultural produce includes rice, chilies, dairy (some yak, mostly cow) products, buckwheat, barley, root crops, apples, and citrus and maize at lower elevations. Industries include cement, wood products, processed fruits, alcoholic beverages and calcium carbide.

Bhutan’s hydropower industry accounts for 32% of the nation’s economy. The dependency on a single sector is a potential risk factor, the report states. As an alternative revenue generation sector, the government is promoting tourism, which also hopes to generate employment. Like in most countries, the Cottage and Small Industry (CSI) play a pivotal role in the overall industrial economy of Bhutan.

 

Business Sectors

Agriculture Industry

Agriculture in Bhutan has a dominant role in the Bhutan's economy. Approximately 80% of the population of Bhutan are involved in agriculture. Over 95% of the earning women in the country work in the agricultural sector. Majority of the refugees in this Himalayan nation are also employed in the agricultural sector. Agriculture in Bhutan is characterized by its labor-intensive nature with relatively low intensity of farm inputs.

Major crops cultivated in Bhutan are maize and rice. Maize accounts for 49% of total domestic cereal cultivation, and rice accounts for 43%. Rice is the major staple crop. Agriculture in the country includes cultivation of wheat and other minor cereal crops. Paddy is the primary crop in those regions where proper irrigation is available. Apart from paddy, other crops like wheat, barley, oil seeds, potato and different vegetables are also cultivated in these lands. The primary goals of agriculture in Bhutan are to raise the per capita income of the people living in rural areas, to enhance self-sufficiency in staple crops, and to increase the productivity per unit of farm labor and agricultural land.

There may be investment opportunities in:

  • Dall Mill (Split Dalls/ Pulses for Chhilke-wali Moong, Urad, Arhar, Channa, Masoor)
  • Poha (Rice Flakes)
  • Atta, Maida Suji & Wheat Bran (Wheat Flour Plant) Roller Flour Mill
  • Rice Powder, Puttu and Wheat Powder
  • Biscuits & Candy
  • Rice Mill(Parboiled Rice)
  • Bakery industry, etc.


Minerals and Mining

The country’s mineral industry was small and insignificant to its economy and was dominated by the production of cement, coal, dolomite, gypsum, and limestone. Known resources included deposits of beryl, copper, graphite, lead, mica, pyrite, tin, tungsten, and zinc. Mining is one of the fastest growing industries in Bhutan generating average revenue of 54 million U.S. dollars or contributing 3 percent to country's GDP.

Industrial mineral products were the primary output of Bhutan’s mineral industry and included dolomite, graphite, marble and slate, and sand and stone. The production of a variety of stone materials and energy fuels had been increasing steadily in recent years and corresponded to the increased demand for these commodities in the construction sector. While major exports of minerals are made in raw form, Bhutan processes some of its minerals into value-added products such as calcium carbide, cement, and ferrosilicon.

Accordingly, Bhutan’s policies on mining and quarrying consider inter-generational equity. This is important since minerals constitute vital raw materials for the mineral based manufacturing industries and are a major resource for economic development of a country. Bhutan is endowed with rich mineral resources that has allowed for the sustainable growth of a mineral based industry and export base. This mineral resource exploitation and value addition has helped generate employment and can contribute towards poverty alleviation.

There may be investment opportunities in:

  • Artificial Marble Tiles
  • Granite (Marble) Polishing Batti (Bar)
  • Granite Marble Cutting and Polishing Unit
  • Calcium Carbonate from Marble Chips
  • Coal Washing Unit
  • Ferro Silicon Manufacturing
  • Gypsum plaster boards
  • Beneficiation of chromium, nickel and manganese ore
  • Integrated production unit of gypsum powder, gypsum board
  • P.V.C. laminated gypsum ceiling tiles, etc.


Livestock Industry

Livestock farming practices continue to evolve in response to rapid modernization and growing economic opportunities in the Bhutan Himalaya. Animal husbandry is an integral part of farming activities in Bhutan and, especially in the high altitude or alpine regions, animal husbandry forms virtually the sole economic activity. The consumption of animal products is an important element of the Bhutanese diet.

Livestock is an integral part in all Bhutanese farming systems. While most households rear livestock for home consumption, livestock farming and nomadic herding are the predominant activities in the alpine and cool temperate zones. Over 80 per cent of rural households own cattle. Other significant livestock include poultry (reared by about 65% of rural households), pigs (38%), horses (23%), goats (15%) and yaks (2%). Inadequate pasture land and poor access to markets are significant constraints to improving production, but increasing urban demand for livestock products is encouraging farmers near urban areas to keep better breeds and improve feed and fodder management. In the livestock sector artificial insemination covers not only Jersey breeds that are high yielding but also for the production of Jatsa and Jatsam that are local high yielding varieties.

The indigenous cattle are the most important livestock genetic resources for food, animal energy and household income in Bhutan. Poultry farming is one of the important livestock farming components in Bhutan.

There may be investment opportunities in:

  • Aquaculture Fish Farming
  • Prawn/Shrimp Farming
  • Poultry & Broiler Farming
  • Management of Rabbits/Angora Rabbit Farming
  • Goat & Sheep Farming
  • Poultry Farm for Producing Eggs
  • Animal Feed Using Date Pits, Discarded Dates and Other Ingredients
  • Pig Farming
  • Cattle Feed, etc.

 

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MACARONI, VERMICILLI & NOODLES MANUFACTURING - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Macaroni are made from wheat flour, carbonic salt water, pure salt, soft water and other additives. Carbonic salt water with sodium or potassium carbonate as the main constituent is an important additive giving the stickiness, elasticity, smoothness and good taste. India has the larger number of festivals in the world. These festivals are chiefly religious, secular and social. The festivals are therefore an intimate part of our religious as well as secular life. They are at the same time related to some ancient religious length, to the cycle of reasons, and to the community's need of change, release and economic well-seeing. Vermicelli, commonly known as "SAVAT" in India, is such an ancient symbol of festival. The vermicelli is in use since the early period of Indian civilization. Vermicelli now-a-days is eaten by all community of people. Vermicelli is consumed not only in India but in other countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, U.S.A, U.K, all African and Middle East Countries apart from other Asian countries. Instant noodles is a ready to cook and serve snack food which has become very popular in India in the recent years after its introduction on mass scale of M/s. Food Specialties Ltd, New Delhi under the brand name "Maggi". Instant noodles are manufactured in two kinds, namely, seasoned noodles and plain noodles with soup bag. The former must contain a seasoning liquid and highly humid glutinous wheat is used to prevent weakness in stickiness. The latter requires a white colour as its first prerequisite rather than stickiness. Thus wheat powder containing ash content of 0.3 - 0.45% is used as the raw materials. Ready to cook foods like macaroni, instant noodles, vermicelli etc are very popular in India. The changing life style of people in the present scenario has made ready to cook foods more popular among masses. But there is less number of single units for macaroni in India so far. Now day’s macaroni manufacturing machines have become fully automatic, compact with high speed and effectiveness. All machineries are indigenously available and if they needed can also be imported from Japan, Germany, and Italy. The demand for macaroni, instant noodles and vermicelli food product is increasing day by day in India and it has a high demand in both domestic and foreign markets. Both the present demand as well as its future is very bright. The products have got a good export potential and the demand of macaroni is increasing day by day and with a colossal increase in its demand, more units are required to be set up to fill demand supply gap. Thus new entrepreneurs can venture into this field and he will find it a lucrative trade. From the observation of increase of market growth it can be predicted that there will be a good prospect of the new entrepreneurs. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Indo Nissin Foods Ltd. M T R Foods Pvt. Ltd. Nestle India Ltd. Om Oil & Flour Mills Ltd. Surya Agroils Ltd.
Plant capacity: 300 MT/Annum, 100 MT Macaroni Per Annum, 100 MT Vermicelli Per Annum, 100 MT Atta Noodles Per AnnumPlant & machinery: 17 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 38 Lakhs
Return: 46.00%Break even: 54.00%
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FRUIT PROCESSING (Mango, Lychee, Pineapple, Orange & Pomelo for Concentrates, Juice in Cans)- Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials

Fruit juice is a naturally contained liquid in fruit or vegetable tissue. Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fresh fruits or vegetables flesh without the application of heat or solvents. Many commercial juices are filtered to remove fiber or pulp, but high-pulp fresh orange juice is a popular beverage. Juice may be marketed in concentrate form, sometimes frozen, requiring the user to add water to reconstitute the liquid back to its "original state". However, concentrates generally have a noticeably different taste from that of their "fresh-squeezed" counterparts. Other juices are reconstituted before packaging for retail sale. Common methods for preservation and processing of fruit juices include canning, pasteurization, freezing, evaporation and spray drying. The Fruit Juice Market is generally Sub-Divided into three Main Types: Long life juice, short life juice, freshly squeezed juice. Long life and short life products are pasteurized to varying degrees, which then has a direct affect on their shelf life. Long life juices usually keep for 6-12 months while the packaging is kept sealed, and because of the pasteurization process applied and packing method, do not require chilling. Short life juices have a shelf life of up to 30 days and must be kept chilled.Freshly squeezed fruit juices do not undergo any pasteurization treatment and are usually packed and delivered to retailers within 24 hours. Therefore freshly squeezed juice must be kept chilled and has a shelf life of only a few days. Fruit juices consist of 100% pure fruit juice made from the flesh of fresh fruit or concentrates and contain no preservatives or any other added ingredients. Some minor exceptions exist in order to ensure that the final product is of an acceptable taste. These exceptions are very specific and are controlled by government legislation in the form of the Fruit Juices & Nectars Regulations.
Plant capacity: 1500 MT/Annum (Mango, Lychee, Pineapple, Orange & Pomelo) Concentrates & Juice Pack in 1 & 20 Ltrs.Concentrate Pack in 1 Kg.Plant & machinery: 211 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 585 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 39.00%
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GOOD FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Production Schedule

The growing industrialization and associated use of energy have led the world to face energy crisis which is gaining serious concern day by day. In principle, solar energy can supply all the present and future energy needs of the world on a continuous basis. This makes it one of the most promising of the non-conventional energy sources. India has made marked gains in the construction of both hydro-electric and thermal power generating plants. Installed generating capacity has increased manifold since demand has increased at an even faster rate. Thus the burden of power generation is still on fossil fuels. Solar energy can play an important role in meeting energy demands in future years. Thus greater stress should be given on technical development for collection and storage of solar energy. If this solar energy is converted to electricity this can meet the growing demands. Thus Indian Industries will get a great benefit. Solar systems are powered by energy from the sun. Two generic types of solar-electric systems are solar photovoltaics and solar thermal electric. The direct utilization based on thermal and photovoltaic are of prime importance because it involves both storage and conversion into chemical as well as electrical form of energy. Solar thermal technologies convert radiant energy from the sun of thermal energy. For low-temperature applications (typically below about 200ºF [95ºC]) such as domestic water heating, concentration of the sunlight is not required. To achieve the high temperatures required for generation of electrical power, the solar energy must be concentrated. All solar thermal electric technologies include a collector, which redirects and concentrates the insolation on a receiver. In the receiver, the solar energy is absorbed, heating a fluid that powers a heat engine to generate electricity. In some systems, a heat exchanger may be used for power generation. Three principal solar thermal concentrator concepts are currently under development for power generation: parabolic trough, central receiver, and parabolic dish. The parabolic trough is the most advanced of the concentrator systems. This technology is used in the largest grid connected solar-thermal power plants in the world. A parabolic trough collector has a linear parabolic-shaped reflector that focuses the sun's radiation on a linear receiver located at the focus of the parabola. The collector tracks the sun along one axis from east to west during the day to ensure that the sun is continuously focused on the receiver. Because of its parabolic shape, a trough can focus the sun at 30 to 100 times its normal intensity (concentration ratio) on a receiver pipe located along the focal line of the trough, achieving operating temperatures over 400 degrees Celcius. A collector field consists of a large field of single-axis tracking parabolic trough collectors. The solar field is modular in nature and is composed of many parallel rows of solar collectors aligned on a north-south horizontal axis. A working (heat transfer) fluid is heated as it circulates through the receivers and returns to a series of heat exchangers at a central location where the fluid is used to generate high-pressure superheated steam. The steam is then fed to a conventional steam turbine/generator to produce electricity. After the working fluid passes through the heat exchangers, the cooled fluid is recirculated through the solar field. The plant is usually designed to operate at full rated power using solar energy alone, given sufficient solar energy. Flat Plate Collectors are the most common type of solar water heating systems for residential and commercial applications. Flat plate collector systems are used comfort heating of a home or commercial building in the winter and for domestic hot water production throughout the year. Flat plate collectors usually heat water to temperatures ranging from 150º to 200º F (66º to 93º C). The efficiency of flat plate collectors varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, and system to system, but usually ranges from as low as 20% to as high as 80%. Solar thermal power is one of the most promising ways to provide renewable energy, giving the fact that it can compete in the middle/long term with conventional power plants. As a result of international cooperation and government grants, many demonstration projects have been carried out or are still in progress. India supports development of both solar thermal and solar photovoltaics (PV) power generation. To demonstrate and commercialize solar thermal technology in India, MNES is promoting megawatt scale projects such as the proposed 35MW solar thermal plant in Rajasthan and is encouraging private sector projects by providing financial assistance from the Ministry. Involvement in the project of various players in the energy sector, such as local industries, the private construction and operations contractors, Rajasthan State Power Corporation Limited (RSPCL), Rajasthan State Electricity Board (RSEB), Rajasthan Energy Development Agency (REDA), Central Electricity Authority (CEA), MNES and others, will help to increase the capacity and capability of local 5technical expertise and further sustain the development of solar power in India in the longer term.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: 1.00%Break even: N/A
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INSTANT NOODLES - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Layout

Instant noodles are dried or precooked noodles fused with oil, and often sold with a packet of flavoring. Dried noodles are usually eaten after being cooked or soaked in boiling water for 2 to 5 minutes, while precooked noodles can be reheated, or eaten straight from the packet. Instant noodles were first marketed by Momofuku Ando, a Taiwanese man who was born in southwestern Taiwan when the island was under Japanese colonial rule, in Japan on August 25, 1958 under the brand name Chikin Ramen. Another milestone was reached in 1971 when Nissin introduced the Cup Noodles, instant noodles in a water proof polystyrene cup to which boiling water could be added to cook the noodles. Further innovations included adding dried vegetables to the cup, creating a complete instant soup dish. Instant noodles are often criticized as being unhealthy or junk food. A single serving of instant noodles is high in carbohydrates but low in fiber, vitamins and minerals. Noodles are typically fried as part of the manufacturing process, resulting in high levels of saturated fat and/or trans fat. Additionally, if served in an instant broth, instant noodles typically contain high amounts of sodium. Instant noodles and the flavoring soup base also contain high amounts of monosodium glutamate. Instant noodles have become a popular food in many parts of the world, though they have undergone changes in flavor to fit local tastes. The size of the packaged food market in India is estimated at $10 billion and is expected to reach $20 billion by 2014, while the share of packaged food in the food and grocery market is expected to touch 5 per cent by the same time. The main categories of packaged food are bakery products, canned/dried processed food, frozen processed food, meal replacement products and condiments. Some emerging new categories in this segment are processed dairy products, frozen ready-to-eat foods, diet snacks, processed meat, probiotic drinks and so on. Some key players in this industry are Hindustan Unilever (tea, instant coffee, biscuits, pulses, instant beverages), Nestle (instant coffee, milk and milk products, ready-to-eat foods), PepsiCo (aerated drinks, fruit juices, cereals, snacks) and Haldirams (sweets, namkeens, syrups, crushes, snacks). The instant noodle market estimated to be valued at Rs 5.5 billion and growing at 15%, has some major players, such as Nestle, Indo Nissan Foods and International Best foods. Nestle India Limited is the market leader in Indian Noodle Market with its Maggi Brand of Noodles which was pioneer brand launched in 1983 in the packaged food market of India. Maggi Noodles is the market leader with 80 % market share in Noodles Market and Maggi Sauces and Ketchup is leader with 37 % market share. The products are producing cash for the company consistently. The Market is growing by 15 % in the Product Category of Noodles. Companies, such as Bikanervala Food and Haldiram are meeting the demand for ready-to-eat snacks by scaling up their operations and launching new traditional snack food offerings, with longer shelf life and better packaging. They have a large variety of products in different flavours and styles, tempting to the palate of all ages. As Indian Market is Brand conscious, other competitors are coming up with more Indianised brand of products. The growing package and canned food market in India at 15% annually provides a huge market potential for new players in this sector. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Indo Nissin Foods Ltd. M T R Foods Pvt. Ltd. Nestle India Ltd. Om Oil & Flour Mills Ltd. Surya Agroils Ltd.
Plant capacity: 2250.00 MT/Annum (Instant Noodles), 20000 Pack 75 Gms Each/Day, 20000 Pack 150 Gms Each/Day, 10000 Pack 300 Gms Each/Day Plant & machinery: 121 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 600 Lakhs
Return: 45.00%Break even: 42.00%
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SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

The growing industrialization and associated use of energy have led the world to face energy crisis which is gaining serious concern day by day. The development of a new energy basis for continued economic growth has therefore become an urgent necessity. With the help of solar power technology, we can tap sun energy in many ways. Solar cells, otherwise known as photovoltaic or photoelectric cells are the most popular devices that help to convert sunlight into electricity. In combination with modules, they are used to manufacture solar panels. Solar energy is also used in the functioning of solar water heaters, melting steel, creating hydrogen fuel and making electricity through solar furnaces. The reflective surfaces used in these solar furnaces helps in concentrating all of sun’s energy into a strategic point which in turn generates a large amount of heat and there by electricity. The majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation. For more than three decades, solar power generated electricity has been dismissed as too costly. But the cost of solar generated electricity is consistently coming down, while the cost of conventional electricity is increasing. Advances in solar cell technology, conversion efficiency and system installation have allowed photovoltaic system (PV) to achieve cost structures that are competitive with other peaking power sources. PV has the unique advantage among renewable resources of being able to produce power anywhere: deserts, cities or suburbs. Though the installation cost of PV is more, but it can be selectively deployed on the grid wherever and whenever needed to reduce distribution capacity constraints and transmission congestion while producing pollution-free power. Both capital costs and operating and maintenance costs are driven by the choice of technology and the area of the solar system. The time is right for the world to adopt the clean and renewable energy source as the major electricity producer. With most part of India enjoying close to 300 sunny days a year, even if 0.5% of land area is brought under solar power, it can meet the entire energy requirement of India in 2030. The Indian government has announced its Solar Mission under the National Action Plan on Climate Change in November 2009 with the goal to generate 1,000 MW of solar power by 2013 and 20,000 MW by 2020. World solar photovoltaic (PV) market installations reached a record high of 7.3 GW in 2009, representing growth of 20% over the previous year, according to the annual PV market report issued by Solarbuzz. The PV industry generated $38.5 billion in global revenues in 2009, while successfully rising over US$13.5 billion in equity and debt, up 8% on the prior year. Indian Government has taken several steps, both on the supply side and the demand side, to offer key incentives to aid the development of solar PV industry. Currently India has 10-12 solar PV cells manufacturers producing about 100 MW of solar PV cells and about 20 manufacturers engaged in module manufacturing with installed capacity of 120 MW. Moreover, currently India has more than 200 manufacturers of solar water heaters and 40 solar cooker manufacturers, and also 5-6 manufacturers are involved in producing solar drying, cooking, process heat, and air conditioning applications. India already is witnessing a huge surge in applications for solar power, varying from street lighting to water heating. Decentralized Distributed Generation (DDG) for meeting rural demand, back-up power for telecommunications, roof based captive systems for individual industries and grid interactive solar power plants are some prominent sectors offering significant market potential for solar PV in India. There is a bright future and good scope for new entrepreneurs in this sector in the coming years.
Plant capacity: 1 MWPlant & machinery: 1435 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 1871 Lakhs
Return: 11.00%Break even: 93.00%
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SOYABEAN NUGGETS (BARIYAN) (AUTOMATIC PLANT)- Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Now a day’s protein enriched ready-to-eat foods are prepared using extrusion cooking. Soyabean after processing by heat treatment or germination to render the nutrients available is consumed in the form of flour, milk, curd, other fermented products and the products like soybean bariyan. Soybean and its various products were not much liked by local population in India earlier due to its characteristic nutty or beans like taste which is not much favoured in India. To avoid this, various qualities of soybean were discovered devoid of favour and were popularized. Soybean bariyan is one among such products. These items can be made on small and tiny industries are not registered with D.G.T.D and hence no proper idea as to the capacity and production figure can be estimated. But owing to the increased varieties and manufacturers coming in this field, it can be concluded that these items are going very good popularly and can be further extended. All the raw materials and plant and machineries are available indigenously and hence unit for making Soyabean bariyan could be installed easily and without any foreign aid either technical or financial. Soyabean bariyan, due to its high nutritive value and protein content, is becoming more and more common in the daily diet of India population. It is consumed by following trades: 1. Household. 2. Hotels & Restaurant. 3. Lodging & Boarding Places. 4. Guest House and community places. 5. Hostels and cafeteria 6. International guest house. 7. Airport and air servicing etc. Owing to its high proteins and nutritional value of this product, there is a good scope and market potential for new players to venture into this field. Few Major players are as under: Premier Proteins Ltd. Dewas Ruchi Soya Inds. Ltd. Mumbai Sakthi Sugars Ltd. Erode
Plant capacity: 300 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 17 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 73 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 42.00%
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ROLLER FLOUR MILL (ATTA, MAIDA & SUJI)- Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Roller Flour mill serve the purpose of processing wheat to convert it into flour. The plant will have facility to produce, maida, suji, atta and bran. These products will be sold as per the guidance issued for Food and Civil Supplies Department of the concerned state. Thus milling is an imperative physical function involved in converting wheat into its milled products. Separating the wheat grain into its constituents (bran, germ and endosperm) Wheat grains are the seed of the wheat plant, which is able to grow in kinds of soil and under widely differing climatic conditions. The principle wheat of commerce belongs to the botanical groups Triticum vulgane, Triticum drum and Triticum compactum. A grain of wheat is avoided in shape and it bears at one end a number of short fine Grains. The grains of wheat consists of three main parts the enveloping skins, the embryo and the endosperm. The relative proportions of these parts vary with the plumpness of the grain but the average composition of wheat is 83% endosperm, 2.5% embryo and 14.5% enveloping skins. The enveloping skins are pericarp consists of the epidermis, epicarp and endocarp. The pericarp represents about 6% of the grain. The seed coat consists of the testa, the hyaline layer which comprises about 2% of the grain. The aleurone layer representing about 6.5% of the grain wheat show a wide range of analytical data which is not unexpected in view of the many varieties which are grown and the very different conditions under which they are cultivated. Flourmill consists of following machineries as blender, sieves, breaks rolls, smooth steel reduction, rolls aspirators, conveyors water washers etc. Flour is classified according to the amount of grain included in the final product. Grain processing systems are generally based on the separation of the following components of the grain: Bran is the hard, brownish outer protective skin of the grain (varies from 6% in corn to 16% in wheat). Bran layers include the cuticle, mesocarp, cross layer, tube cells and testa. The bran layers are a concentrated source of dietary fibre. Endosperm is the inner part of the grain (varies from 60% in rice, barley and oats to 80% of the grain in wheat). It provides the growing plant with food. The main nutrients in the endosperm are protein and carbohydrate. Aleurone consists of one or more layers of cells between the bran and the endosperm (8-10% of total grain). The number of layers varies from 1 cell thick in wheat, rye, oats and maize to up to 3 cells thick in barley and rice. The aleurone layer is a concentrated source of vitamins, minerals and other nutrients. Germ is the part of the seed that becomes a new plant if the seed is sown (varies from 12% in maize and 10% in sorghum to as low as 2% or 3% in other grains). It consists of the embryo and the scutellum. Most of the grain kernel's fat and vitamin E content is found in the germ. The RFM industry is basically in agro-based processing industry engaged in the manufacture of products based on wheat, namely maida, suji, atta and bran. In some states, under special arrangements RFM units produce whole meal atta to meet the requirements of various distribution programmes. Apart from direct consumption by general consumers, maida and sooji produced by RFM units serve as the most important raw material to more than 55 thousand units manufacturing bread, biscuit and bakery products all over the country. Besides this the resultant wheat bran serves as the poultry feed. There is a good scope to venture into this field. Few Major players are as under: Ambe Agro Inds. Ltd. Patna Ambuja Flour Mills Ltd. Patna Anirudh Foods Ltd. North West Delhi Ankit India Ltd. Kolkata Aruppukottai Shri Ramalinga Roller Flour Mills Ltd. Ramanathapuram Bambino Agro Inds. Ltd. Hyderabad Bannari Amman Flour Mill Ltd. Coimbatore Calcutta Flour Mills Ltd. Kolkata Cargill India Pvt. Ltd. Gurgaon Century Flour Mills Ltd. Chennai D F M Foods Ltd. North Delhi Delhi Flour Mills Co. Ltd. North Delhi Flour & Food Ltd. Gallantt Udyog Ltd. Kolkata General Mills India Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai Govind Mills Ltd. Puruliya Gupta Nutritions Pvt. Ltd. Patna Himanshu Flour Mills Ltd. Bhopal Hyderabad Roller Flour Mills Co. Ltd. Hyderabad Jai Mata Foods Ltd. Sangrur Kaushalya Roller Flour Mills Pvt. Ltd. Thane Koodal Industries Ltd. Madurai Modern Flour Mills Ltd. North West Delhi Naga Ltd. Chennai Naga Overseas Pvt. Ltd. Chennai Nath Roller Flour Mills Pvt. Ltd. Muzaffarnagar Okara Flour & General Mills Ltd. Central Delhi Parakh Agro Inds. Ltd. Dhar Patiala Flour Mills Co. Ltd. Patiala Pawan Udyog Ltd. Puruliya Poona Roller Flour Mills Ltd. Pune Prahlad Flour Mills Ltd. Lucknow R K Patel Food Pvt. Ltd. Jalgaon Rohini Foods Pvt. Ltd. Chennai S K Roller Flour Mills Ltd. Sakthi Murugan Agro Foods Ltd. Coimbatore Sakthi Murugan Roller Flour Mills Ltd. Coimbatore Shakti Bhog Foods Ltd. North West Delhi Shree Bankey Behari Exports Ltd. North Delhi Sita Shree Food Products Ltd. Indore Sree Behariji Mills Ltd. Patna Sunil Agro Foods Ltd. Bangalore Super Bakers (India) Ltd. Ahmadabad Trambakam Flour Mills Ltd. Jaunpur U F M Industries Ltd. Cachar Vasai Roller Flour Mills Pvt. Ltd. Thane Vrundavan Agro Inds. Ltd. Panch Mahals Wallace Flour Mills Co. Ltd. Mumbai Wellgo Agro Inds. Ltd. Puruliya Zest Gartex Ltd. Jaipur
Plant capacity: Maida 9500 MT/Year, Atta 3000 MT/Year,Suji 10000 MT/Year,Bran 6600 MT/YearPlant & machinery: 132 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 1328 Lakhs
Return: 51.00%Break even: 29.00%
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PACKAGED DRINKING WATER, SODA WATER AND PET BOTTLES - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Cost of Project

Bottled Water means water intended for human consumption and which is sealed in bottles and other containers with no added ingredients except that it may occasionally contain safe anti-microbial agent. Now-a-days safe and pure drinking water is major necessity for human being. Bottled water industry, colloquially called, the mineral water industry, is a symbol of new life style emerging in India. While a large segment of the population is struggling to get access to potable water supply, a new generation - especially in the urban areas is getting accustomed to bottled water paying handsome prices. Soda water is water which is carbonated and thus made bubbling by the addition of carbon dioxide gas under pressure. Soda water is sometimes used to dilute strong alcoholic drinks, e.g. cocktails such as a whisky and soda, or Campari and soda. It can also be drunk on its own. Soda water gets its name from the sodium salts it contains, said 'salty' compounds adding a distinct and pleasurable quality to many beverages of the alcoholic and non-alcoholic type. PET is the most extensively recycled plastic of the present time. Bottled water is available in differently sized packaging from 200 ml (popular on flights) to 500 ml (a huge hit among the youth) to 1 liter and 2 liter. Despite the large number of small producers, this industry is dominated by the big players – Parle, Bisleri, Coca-cola, Pepsico, Parle Agro, Mohan Meakins, SKN Breweries bottled water in the country when it introduced Bisleri in India 25 years ago. Apart from domestic and commercial use of packaged water, the Indian Railways is a huge potential market. According to officials at Cheerio, the railway ordered 10,000 cases (of 12 bottles each) a day. In coming years the demand of packaged drinking water will be increased very rapidly, so there is a huge scope for new entrepreneurs to venture into this project. The bottled water market is growing at a rapid rate of around 20% a year (down from 50 to 60%). At this growth rate, the Rs 7000 million per year market is estimated to overtake the soft drinks market soon. Multinationals, Coca-Cola, Pepsi, Nestle and others are trying to grab a significant share of the market. There are more than 180 brands in the unorganized sector. The small players account for nearly 19% of the total market. The government decided towards end of the year 2000 to bring about stringent guidelines for packaged water. All companies were made to sell their products only under the BIS (Bureau of Industrial Standards) certification mark. The BIS certification was made mandatory for the segment from April 1, 2001. The bottled water is to be classified as "food" and has been brought under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act. They would have to adhere to rules pertaining to colour, odour, taste, turbidity, total dissolved solids and aerobic microbial count. There is a good scope and good market potential for new entrepreneurs to venture into this field. Cost Estimation:
Plant capacity: Drinking Water – 17280000 Nos. Bottles (1 Ltr.)/Annum,Soda Water – 1008000 Nos. Bottles (600 Ml)/Annum,Drinking Water Jar – 720000 Nos. Jar (20 Ltr.)/AnnumPlant & machinery: 403 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 695 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 60.00%
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GOOD FUTURE PROSPECTS FOR SUGARCANE JUICE IN ASEPTIC PACKAGING - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study

Sugarcane juice is a natural beverage that is delicious and cheap. Sugarcane has been satisfying thirsty palates for centuries together. It's not a drink of the elite class, which is why it's an 'all people's drink'. Freshly extracted sugarcane juice is a very popular drink in India and is available at most small street stalls, often sold alongside other popular beverages. The major problem encountered is the lack of hygiene during crushing operation resulting in the contamination of the juice with a heavy load of micro-organisms which arises due to improper cleaning of the sugarcanes and handling of the finished product. Presently, the juice is being extracted using hand or power operated crusher which cannot be stored for a couple of hours due to its fast deteriorating quality. Sugarcane juice is quite nutritious as it contains natural sugars, minerals like iron, magnesium, phosphorous, calcium and organic acids e.g. malic acid, succinic acid, acotinic acid, amino acid, protein, starch, gums, waxes, non-sugar phosphatides, thus imparts health benefits to the consumers. Sugarcane contains 18-20% solids. The juice produced is served under very unhygienic conditions and hygiene conscious public does not opt for sugarcane juice. Hygienically produced and packaged sugar cane juice could find use as other soft drinks and has good potential market as the juice is nutritious. The sugarcane juice preserved and packed in aseptic packing and bottle has a good storage life and is available during off-season also. The juice is available in many flavors including classic plain, mint, ginger, lemonade, pepper, sweet & salt etc. Sugarcane juice is a high-energy drink that is natural, sweet and is a healthy alternative to refined sugar added drinks. It quickly replaces lost energy in the most arduous of circumstances. It is a flavorful drink on its own and also popular with a twist of lemon and can be mixed with any other juice to produce cocktails high in carbohydrate and vitamins. In India, sugarcane is the primary raw material required for production of sugar. Sugarcane, a very long duration crop, is planted during January-February and July-August period in south India, while during February-March and October-November period in north India. The crop is harvested during October-September. During the period 2000 to 2009, the average yield of sugarcane came down from 70 MT per hectare to 60 MT per hectare. In Tamil Nadu, average production is 135 MT per hectare, whereas in Madhya Pradesh it is less than 40 MT per hectare. Sugarcane production is expected to increase by 10 % to over 300 million tonnes in the 2010-11 crop years. This is on account of improved cane acreage and better yield. Meanwhile, in the 2009-10 crop years, sugarcane production stood at 274 million tonnes. Sugarcane is planted round the year and the crop is harvested during October-September. Sugarcane output, however, would be more than 300 million tonnes in 2010-11 crop years. Moreover, new varieties of sugarcane are promising yield raises to 65 tonne per hectare from 55 tonne per hectare in India's top 2 cane growing states namely Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. If the monsoon rains are normal, India's sugar output may increase to 24-25 million tonnes in 2010-11 crop years according to Managing Director Vinay Kumar of National Federation of Cooperative Sugar Factories (NFCSF). The market for branded fruit-based drinks (Maaza, Frooti, Slice and others), nectar drinks (Real and Tropicana) and others is placed at Rs 8 billion. Of this Rs 6 billion is the market for fruit-based drinks and nearly Rs 2 billion is for fruit nectars. Besides, there is a large segment of kiosk vendors, especially in the urban areas, whose size is estimated at between Rs 8 and Rs 10 billion. The overall market for fruit juices of all types would thus be around Rs 18 billion. Aseptic packaging systems have fundamentally changed the handling of sensitive liquid foods. Distribution and storage no longer require refrigeration, with the result that the shelf life of the package contents is considerably extended. The need for aseptic packaging is rapidly increasing and the system has proved to be invaluable in the distribution of milk and other products. Aseptic package has not only to protect the product but also to maintain the quality of the product. Aseptic packaging systems have played a vital role in providing people all over the world with essential nourishment. Fresh sugarcane juice packed under hygienic conditions is available on the shelf. The concept of sugarcane juice in aseptic packing is not new worldwide, but in India, a very few players are there. Thus, there is a good scope and good market potential in this field. Any new entrepreneur should venture in this sector.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: --
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: 1.00%Break even: N/A
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ETHANOL FROM RICE, RICE STRAW, RICE HUSK, RICE BRAN - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Cost of Project

Ethanol productions from cellulosic materials offer a solution to some of the recent environmental, economic, and energy problems facing worldwide. Nationally, energy costs are on the rise and forecasts of petroleum supply disruptions are once again making news. People are not immune to these events & feel the impact of rising energy prices every time they purchase gasoline, diesel or other petroleum products. Cereal straw, one of the most abundant renewable lignocellulose resources which possess valuable components, has gradually become the research hot spot as a promising substitute for both the fossil fuel resource & petroleum based industry with the increasing calling for bio-fuel and green chemistry. Fermenting sugars produces ethanol. Lignocelluloses materials such as agricultural, hardwood & softwood residues are potential sources of sugars for ethanol production. Ethanol from Rice Straw is manufactured by fermentation. The word fermentation referred originally to the anaerobic metabolism of organic compounds by micro organism compounds simpler than the starting material the modern definition is that of any microbial action controlled by man to make useful product. Some of the substances produced from carbohydrates on a commercial scale by anaerobic microbial metabolism include ethanol and lactic acid. The most important consideration in industrial fermentation is the selection of the proper micro organisms. This choice must provide suitable stability of the process, where upon the engineering and development aspects of process design may initiated. Stock cultures of micro organisms useful in industrial fermentations are usually maintained by the manufacturer, and less frequently in commercial collection or collections at academic or government laboratories. The ethyl alcohol is used as a blend with petrol and the potential for chemicals is being tapped in India. Many of these chemicals are now being made on a much larger scale from petroleum fractions or natural gas liquids. But the advantage of using ethyl alcohol is that the processes are simple, efficient and workable at a smaller capacity level in plants distributed all over the country and not concentrated in centralized complexes. While the technical possibility of chemical conversion of ethyl alcohol is wide, there is need to choose specific items where the advantages exist. India has emerged as the largest user of ethyl alcohol for chemicals over the past three decades. Ethyl alcohol derived from sulphite pulpine plants served as a base for limited quantities of select chemicals in Norway and Sweden in the immediate post-war years and ethyl alcohol derived from molasses was also used for chemicals in the U.K. at that time. In fact, the early production of polyethylene was based on ethyl alcohol in the U.K. France too was exploiting the ethyl alcohol route to chemicals. The U.S. installed a big plant for making synthetic rubber from the two intermediates, styrene and butadiene, derived from ethyl alcohol produced from corn (starch). But the end of the war led to it being closed down. The era of petroleum-derived chemicals, mostly using ethylene and propylene, began in the late Fifties and early Sixties displacing ethyl alcohol as feedstock. Ethyl alcohol ended its tenure as a chemical feedstock in Europe but emerged as a fuel for automobiles in Brazil and in the U. S. Brazil also took up alcohol-based chemicals in a limited way and is now lagging behind India in this area. The U.S. and Europe have little of ethyl alcohol as base for chemicals. Other sugar producing countries such as Cuba, Thailand and Malaysia have not entered this field. The main factor is the large demand and scale of operations, where a petroleum-base dominates. There is a good opportunity and scope for new players to venture into this field. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Amar Alcoholi Ltd. Andhra Sugars Ltd. Ashok Organic Inds. Ltd. Athani Farmers' Sugar Factory Ltd. Bajaj Hindusthan Ltd. Balrampur Chini Mills Ltd. Dalmia Cement (Bharat) Ltd. Dharani Sugars & Chemicals Ltd. Dwarikesh Sugar Inds. Ltd. Empee Sugars & Chemicals Ltd. Gangamai Industries & Constructions Ltd. Globus Spirits Ltd. Godavari Sugar Mills Ltd. Hanil Era Textiles Ltd. Harita-N T I Ltd. India Glycols Ltd. Jeypore Sugar Co. Ltd. K C P Sugar & Inds. Corpn. Ltd. K M Sugar Mills Ltd. Kanoria Chemicals & Inds. Ltd. Kirlampudi Sugar Mills Ltd. Kothari Sugars & Chemicals Ltd. Laxmi Organic Inds. Ltd. M A C Agro Inds. Ltd. [Merged] Maruti Organics Ltd. Mcdowell & Co. Ltd. [Merged] National Industrial Corpn. Ltd. Natural Sugar & Allied Inds. Ltd. Pioneer Distilleries Ltd. Purti Power & Sugar Ltd. Radico Khaitan Ltd. Rajshree Sugars & Chemicals Ltd. Riga Sugar Co. Ltd. Sakthi Sugars Ltd. Shree Renuka Sugars Ltd. Southern Agrifurane Inds. Ltd. Sri Sarvaraya Sugars Ltd. Swarup Vegetable Products Inds. Ltd. Tilaknagar Industries Ltd. Ugar Sugar Works Ltd. United Spirits Ltd. Vijayshree Chemicals (India) Ltd. X L Telecom & Energy Ltd. Yeast Alco Enzymes Ltd.
Plant capacity: 9000 Kls./AnnumPlant & machinery: 1092 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 2201 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 43.00%
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