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Investment Opportunities & Business Ideas in Ghana, West Africa - Identification and Selection of right Project, Thrust areas for Investment, Industry Startup and Entrepreneurship Projects

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Baby & Adult Diapers & Sanitary Pads - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study,Investment Opportunities,Plant Layout

A diaper or nappy is a kind of underwear that allows one to defecate or urinate in a discreet manner. When diapers become soiled, they require changing; this process is often performed by a second person such as a parent or caregiver. Diapers are primarily worn by children who are not yet potty trained or experience bedwetting. . However, they can also be used by adults with incontinence or in certain circumstances where access to a toilet is unavailable. These can include the elderly, those with a physical or mental disability, and people working in extreme conditions such as astronauts. It is not uncommon for people to wear diapers under dry suits. Ever since their introduction several decades ago, product innovations include the use of superabsorbent polymers, resealable tapes, and elasticised waist bands. They are now much thinner and much more absorbent. The product range has more recently been extended into children's toilet training phase with the introduction of training pants and pant diapers, which are now undergarments. Modern disposable baby diapers and incontinence products have a layered construction, which allows the transfer and distribution of urine to an absorbent core structure where it is locked in. Basic layers are an outer shell of breathable polyethylene film or a nonwoven and film composite which prevents wetness and soil transfer, an inner absorbent layer of a mixture of air-laid paper and superabsorbent polymers for wetness, and a layer nearest the skin of nonwoven material with a distribution layer directly beneath which transfers wetness to the absorbent layer. Other common features of disposable diapers include one or more pairs of either adhesive or velcro tapes to keep the diaper securely fastened. Some disposable diapers include fragrances, lotions or essential oils in order to help mask the scent of a soiled diaper or to protect the skin. Care of disposable diapers is minimal, and primarily consists of keeping them in a dry place before use, with proper disposal in a garbage receptacle upon soiling. Uses and Applications Diapers are primarily worn by children who are not yet potty trained or experience bedwetting. . However, they can also be used by adults with incontinence or in certain circumstances where access to a toilet is unavailable. Babies may have their diapers changed five or more times a day. Parents and other primary child care givers often carry spare diapers and necessities for diaper changing in a specialized diaper bag. Market Survey Today, the global market for absorbent hygiene products is over US $ 50 bn (including wipes). The evolution of hygiene products in Europe and the NorthAmerica has taken 4 to 5 generations. Feminine care was introduced over 100 years ago. Baby diapers were invented 60 years ago. Adult incontinence products appeared 30 years ago. a research report by RNCOS, “Indian Baby Care Market Analysis”, found that the market of disposable diapers is growing at snail pace compared to other segments of the baby care market. Diapers’ market reached an estimated INR 1.23 Billion in 2010, posting annual growth of around 12% from 2009. Although, there is a huge potential for diaper market in India as mostly the urban population is using it for their babies, the rural population still lags in it. Many established brands, such as P&G, Kimberly-Clark, and Nobel hygiene are continuously adopting steps to grab more and more market share in this huge untapped market. Further research reveals that the Indian baby care market has substantially grown over the past few years and caught the attention of many international players. India continues to enjoy a healthy birth rate compared to other economies, coupled with the increasing level of disposable income of the working class, which is expected to be sustained for a healthy growth momentum in future. The Indian disposable diaper market is currently pegged at nearly Indian Rupees (Rs) 700m ($17.4m, E12.6m) and 30,000 tonnes/year, and is estimated to grow between 5-10% annually. It comprises brands like Huggies (60% market share) and Pampers (30%) from multinationals Kimberly Clark and Procter & Gamble, respectively. Domestic consumer products major Godrej's Snuggy is the third-largest brand of diapers in the Indian market, with a 10% share. Analysts say it will take some time for the baby diaper market in India to pick up. According to Carlos Richer of Richer Diaper Consulting Services, India has about 45% more infants than China and almost six times more babies than the US. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Carewell Hygiene Products Ltd. Diapers India Ltd. Godrej Hygiene Products Ltd. Gufic Biosciences Ltd. Johnson & Johnson Ltd. Kimberly Clark Lever Pvt. Ltd. Procter & Gamble Hygiene & Health Care Ltd. Regency Diaper Inds. Ltd. Softouch Hygiene Products (Mkt) Ltd. Tainwala Personal Care Products Pvt. Ltd.
Plant capacity: Baby Diapers:45,000.0 Pckts/Day.,Adult Diapers:18,000.0 Pckts/Day., Sanitary Pads:63,000.0 Pckts/Day.Plant & machinery: Rs.855 Lakhs.
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project :Rs.2984 Lakhs.
Return: 32.00%Break even: 39.00%
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Ferro Alloys (Ferro Silicon, Ferro Manganese & Silico Manganese) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study

Ferro manganese are alloys composed of iron and one or two more metals like Mn, Si, Ti, W etc. The ferro alloys have usually lower melting points than their respective alloying metals in pure stable form and thus, can be readily incorporated to obtain the metals as ferro alloys than in their pure terms starting from their ores. It is a principle alloying agent used in steel production steel/iron casting etc, where it also acts as a strengthener and deoxidiser. It imparts corrosion resistance to the products. Ferro manganese along with Fe-Si, Fe-Cr, is a bulk ferro-alloy, Manganese is also added in steels in the form of silico manganese. It dissolves in iron in all proportions, Iron for Farm implements uses upto 1.75% Mn and also in automobile parts. Ship construction industry uses steels with even higher content; riffle barrels and heat treated forgings necessarily use ferro manganese as an alloying additive.Ferro Alloys Plays major role in Steel Production and industrial development. Ferro-alloys are iron based alloys with varied elements introduced in steel making to cater to the specific needs. These are specified additions to the production of steel for various applications. Generally ferro-alloys are designated by base metal indicated as under such as: Ferro – silicon, Ferro – manganese, Silico – manganese, Ferro – chrome etc. Uses and Applications Ferro alloys are iron bearing alloys with additives which are passed on to steel to meet specific needs. The Ferro alloys are brittle and can be crushed to any size to be added to the molten steel as additives. Generally the additives as in steel are invariably added in the form of Ferro alloys. These are established additives in the steel production to obtain specific needs. Market Survey The demand for ferro alloys has been increasing with that of alloy and special steels. At the beginning of the previous decade, it was about half a million tonnes, increased to over 700,000 tonnes by 1997-98 and reached the level of 1.20 mn tonnes in 2006-07. There are six leading players and over 30 small producers. The industry has tied up with companies in Europe for technology inputs. The major users of alloy steel are: auto industry, railways, forgings, tubes, springs and other engineering industries.The leading players are Alloy Steel (SAIL), Mukand (Advanced Design Materials Corp., USA), Mahindra Ugine, Sunflag Irons & Steel, Vishveshvarya Steel, Kalyani Steel, Panchmahal, Indian Seamless, Shah Alloy Kalyani Carpenter.
Plant capacity: Ferro Silicon:59.0 MT/Day.,Ferro Manganese:167.0 MT/Day.,Silico Manganese:130.5 MT/Day.Plant & machinery: Rs.2493 Lakhs.
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project :Rs4280 Lakhs.
Return: 28.00%Break even: 41.00%
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Sanitary Napkins - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Layout

Sanitary napkins have an important place in women's history and in the history of technology. 19th Century research into disposable sanitary napkins marked the humble beginnings of a new era of gynecological sanitary. Disposable sanitary napkins started to be available in the markets only around the year 1895. Its production is a form of porous item that has the capability of absorbing the flow. It comes under Nonwoven fabrics which are sub-categorized under technical textile. Technical textiles are the textile materials which are primarily used for their technical performance and functional properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative characteristics. The 1st sanitary napkins were in the form of a cotton wool or similar stringy rectangular structure, sheathed with an absorbent liner. They are made from a number of types of fabric — most often cotton flannel, or hemp (which is highly absorbent and not as bulky as cotton) which results in high degree of softness and loosely fitted fibers. They are highly absorbent and are made of clean fibres that do not have an unpleasant odour when wet or dry. It posses sufficient wet strength treated with wetting agents or wet strength imparting resins such as urea formaldehyde or Melamine resins. Generally absorption paper, waterproof paper crushed pulp, and non-woven cloth or rayon paper is used as raw material. Absorbency is also probably the most important quality of sanitary napkins. That is why it is basically used for drying or absorbing purpose. This basic and advantageous property of sanitary napkin also helps reducing discomfort. It is important that such sanitary napkins be breathable. Since, it is a vital characteristic for comfort and health. Heat and moisture retention create an environment that favors bacterial development. Many women experience irritation and rash when using regular napkins and most of the bacteria that cause women’s diseases are anaerobe, which means they will die within 30 seconds to 1 minute in oxygen. That is why it is so important for sanitary napkins to be breathable. Uses and Applications Sanitary Napkins are exclusively used by adult girls & Ladies around the world during for maintaining physical aid & to avoid wetting or staining of the clothes. Mostly Sanitary Napkin is not reusable. Its use is much popular amongst the educated class of adult girls & ladies. Market Survey Today, the global market for absorbent hygiene products is over US$ 50 bn (including wipes). Although they are not yet the national standard, sanitary napkins are being perceived as more of a necessity and less of a luxury in India. Urban women make up 20% of the country’s sanitary napkin market. In 2008, there were 96 million women in urban India and, at that time, it was projected that that number would increase by 17% to 1.2 billion women in 2013. With this predicted population growth, the sanitary napkin market could potentially be valued at as much as USD$365m, up from US$166.1m in 2008. The total market for tissue and hygiene products grew by 18% in terms of both volume and value sales in 2011. The market for tissue and hygiene products will continue to grow over the forecast period, backed by various demographics factors, including the increasing role of women in Indian society, greater accessibility of these products to semi-urban and rural areas, and increasing affordability due to a rise in disposable income. The increasing awareness of health and hygiene are driving sales in India. The total market size of sanitary napkins was estimated at over two and half billion pieces in 2006-07 with a value at about Rs 4.7 bn. While the urban market has been growing at 20%, the rural market is growing at 7%. Overall, segment is annually growing at an average of over 9% for quite some time. Until 1993, belted sanitary napkins were the largest segment, in that segment, Johnson & Johnson's Carefree con-trolled about half the market. Along with its beltless brand, Stayfree, share could be estimated at around 75%. Beltless napkins now have catapulted to a share of over 70% of the market. Johnson's overall market share is down to 46% and P&G has gained a penetration of 43%. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Carewell Hygiene Products Ltd. Godrej Consumer Products Ltd. Gufic Biosciences Ltd. Hindustan Unilever Ltd. Johnson & Johnson Ltd. Kimberly Clark Lever Pvt. Ltd. Procter & Gamble Hygiene & Health Care Ltd.
Plant capacity: 576,000 Pcs/Day.Plant & machinery: Rs.134 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs.1624 Lakhs.
Return: 35.41%Break even: 34.00%
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Low Carbon Ferro Manganese (Medium Grade) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

In igneous rocks, which comprise 95% of the earth’s crust the average percentage concentration of manganous oxide is 0.124. This is small in compared with the alumina (15.34), FeO + Fe2O3(6.88) and titania but very much higher than the incidence of the well known metals copper (0.010), zinc ( 0.004), and lead (0.002). In igneous rocks, which comprise 95% of the earth’s crust the average percentage concentration of manganous oxide is 0.124. Manganese is used in metallurgical industries in the form of ferro-manganese. Ferro-manganese contains about 80% Mn and 20% Fe. Generally ferro-manganese is produced in blast furnace or an electric furnace. Low silica ores are preferred as they reduce the slag volume. Secondly, the phosphorous content in the ore should also be low. A high purity ferro-manganese is produced by fused salt electrolysis method. The ore is roasted to produce MnO, followed by leaching with H2SO4 acid to form manganese sulphate. This solution is then neutralised to precipitate iron & aluminium. Other impurities are separated as sulphides. Finally the solution is used for electrolysis to produce ferro-manganese of metallurgical grade. The modern electric furnace route of ferro-manganese production gives 85 - 90% manganese recovery, MnO dust recycling is possible and a high degree of homogenisation, slag control and furnace scrabbing is practised. Further, smelting of high-grade Mn-ore with high-cabon ferro-manganese gives medium carbon ferro-manganese. A silicothermic reduction of manganese ore in an electric furnace yields low-carbon ferromanganese. Uses and Applications Low Carbon Ferro- Manganese is a Ferro alloy with high content of manganese. It gives strength to steel and is used in making of high tension steel; it is widely used in the manufacturing of tool steels, alloys steel & structural steels. Its property causes it to have a high affinity with sulphur in the steel and on combining produces Manganese Sulphide (MnS) which floats up to the metal surface. It is also used as a de-oxidizer and hence finds its usage in the manufacture of 18-8 Austenitic non magnetic stainless steel. In cast iron, manganese is used mainly to counteract the bad effects of sulfur. In steel, manganese acts as a deoxidizer and combines with sulfur, thereby improving the hot-working properties of the steel. Also improves the strength, toughness. Manganese ferroalloys, consisting of various grades of ferromanganese and silicomanganese, are used to provide a key ingredient for steelmaking. Market Survey According to industry experts, the Indian manganese alloy industry has the potential to meet the global challenges despite various constraints. With the necessary supportive measures from the government, the industry can make fast towards the path of sustainable growth and meet the higher requirement of the Indian steel industry. The estimated reserve of chrome ore in India is approx.178 MT. In the longer term, the direction of manganese prices will depend on a combination of economic growth in the industrialised world, and continued expansion of industrialising and emerging economies in Asia and South America. Over the next five years, the rise in steel production will lead to an increase in manganese consumption, with an annual average growth rate of 6% over the next five years, with China and India providing the main impetus for this growth. Global demand for manganese in batteries has been relatively stable at about 300ktpy. This has mainly been accounted for by zinc and alkaline primary batteries, but demand for manganese in rechargeable batteries has risen in recent years. Overall, total demand for manganese is expected to increase by around 6% per year over the next five years. The current scenario of Indian ferro alloys industry has changed due to rapid industrialisation with global steel demand on a high growth trajectory. The estimated production capacity of ferro alloys in India is more than double of the domestic demand, making the industry partially dependent on domestic market and more on export market. The future of industry will depend on international demand and export market against the wider industry impact of energy, ore shortages, production cost volatility and lower profit margin.
Plant capacity: 10 MT/Day.Plant & machinery: 256 Lakhs.
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project:691 Lakhs.
Return: 26.00%Break even: 65.00%
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PARTICLE BOARD FROM BAGASSE - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Bagasse is the waste of sugar industry. It can be used for the production of bagasse base board or solid fuels or for the production of power or for the production of Alcohol. Now we are intending to produce bagasse base board. For the manufacturing of bagasse base board, it-should be in the form of fine particle and other raw material used phenol formaldehyde base adhesive and neem leaf dust. The required plant machineries are solid mixing machine, hydraulic press, hot air dust or drier and S.S made mould. There is gradually demand increase in wood base products. There are few manufacturers who makes board by partial use of fine particles of bagasse. In this product manufacturing there is very minimum amount of environmental pollution. The product board can compete with the ply board or wood base board. This can be very safely handled and transport from one place to another place. Quality of board depend on the fine technique of finishing. Any new entrepreneur may enter into this field will be successful. It is solid, sort and net easily breakable. It is not easily effected by weather and temperature up to 60 0C. It can be transport from one place to another place. It can be sized easily according to requirement. USES & APPLICATION It can be used for making different variety of furniture like, chair, table, bed etc. It can be used for making panel board, windows, doors etc. It can be used for making partition in the room. It is used in Construction companies, school, colleges, paints, and for domestic uses. MARKET SURVEY Few organized and many private organizations are engaged in the manufacturing of ply board or wood board or bagasse base board. There is growth about 5-8% per annum. These is no import of ply board, these is scope of export of ply board as well as wood board is there. In the near future projected demand of bagasse base board will be increased by 5% as this is the product of wood substitute.
Plant capacity: 2000 Nos./DayPlant & machinery: Rs. 637 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 1098 Lakhs
Return: 26.59%Break even: 53.25%
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RICE BRAN OIL (SOLVENT EXTRACTION)- Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Plant Layout

Rice is an important food crop. It is consumed by more than half of the world’s population living in the developing countries. The demand of rice is increasing every day with the rise in population. It is therefore imperative to have continuous and concerted efforts to increase rice production to keep pace with the demand. Among the several approaches, varietal improvement through development of varieties with inherent high yielding potential, resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses and adaptable to various rice growing environment is of paramount importance. Rice bran is a by- product resulting from the processing of rice. Even though the process, which consists in removing certain outer layers of the caryopsis, is basically the same in all cases, it can be carried out in a number of ways, some of which have a vital bearing on the characteristics of the end product. The bran thus produced may have quite different properties; therefore their particular identity should be differentiated and maintained. Rice bran is the main source of rice oil. The majority of available bran continues to be used for animal feeds without being extracted for the oil. Rice oil, also called rice bran oil, has been used extensively in Asian countries. Rice oil is a minor constituent of rough rice when compared with the carbohydrate and protein content. Two major classes of lipids are present: those internal within the endosperm and those associated with the bran. The internal lipids contribute to the nutritional, functional, and sensory qualities of rice. Rice bran oil is truly “The World’s Healthiest” edible oil, containing vitamins, antioxidants, nutrients and Trans fat free. It is not just delicate and flavorful; it can help lower cholesterol, fight diseases, enhance the immune system, and fight free radicals and more. Rice bran oil is extremely light, versatile and delicious. Used to fry, sauté, salad dressings, baking, dipping oils and where ever you use cooking oil. It is amazing cooking oil- light, healthy and also best in taste. Rice bran oil is vastly superior to traditional cooking oils and can be considered nutraceutical (food as medicine) oil that is perfect for all your healthy cooking needs. Rice bran oil is quickly becoming a favorite in commercial frying to replace hydrogenated oils that contain trans fat. This is due to rice bran oils health, flavor and performance benefits. Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling process. Rice bran is the most important source of edible oil among the unconventional sources. Rice bran is the brown coating around the white starchy rice kernel, which is obtained by de-husking paddy and polishing the rice. While white rice holds little nutritional value, the bran that is removed contains 65 percent of the rice kernel’s nutrients and boasts a bounty of healthful benefits. The thin brown layer that is milled off in the processing of white rice, rice bran is just as effective as the other bran in fighting high cholesterol and providing high-grade fiber. USES & APPLICATION The crude bran oil thus obtained can be used for manufacture of soap, emulsifiers, fatty acid, plasticisers, cosmetics and tocoferol (vitamin E) etc. Crude rice bran oil is an edible grade vegetable oil intended for additional processing before human consumption. Crude rice bran oil is also source of high value added by-products. Thus, if the by-products are derived from the crude rice bran oil and the resultant oil is used as a feedstock for biodiesel, the resulting biodiesel could be quite economical and affordable. Crude rice bran oil is a rich source of high value-added byproduct. Therefore, use of rice bran oil as raw material for the production of biodiesel not only makes the process economical but also generates value added bio-active compounds. Crude rice bran oil helps reduce dust in feed, making it more palatable to animals. Moreover it acts as a lubricant in animal feed pelletization stage. Crude Rice bran oil is used as a raw material in manufacturing refined Rice bran oil. Rice bran with low levels of available carbohydrate (25 per cent) and high level of fat (20 per cent) can be considered as a good source of energy when used as a supplementary food for diabetics. Rice bran with 15 to 20 per cent oil can serve as a good source of energy and Essential Fatty Acids (EFA). It is also a commercial source of edible oil. Rice bran wax can be used in the preparation of candles, polishes, cosmetics, emulsifiers and other industrial preparations. It is the cuticle existing between the rice and the husk of the paddy, which comprises the germ the perricorp, and aleuronic layer. The bran is obtained as a by-product in rice milling during polishing of rice obtained after dehusking of paddy etc. MARKET SURVEY India produces about 80 million tonnes of paddy annually. This can yield about 5 million tonnes of rice bran and to the extent of 8 lakhs tonnes of rice bran oil. During 1983 - 84, the country processed only 13 lakhs tonnes of rice bran, though the installed processing capacity is around 32 lakhs tonnes. Production of rice bran oil is currently estimated at about 2 lakhs tonnes and hardly 10-15 per cent of it is of edible grade, although the potential availability is reckoned at about 8 lakhs tonnes. The wide gap between the actual production and the potential availability of rice bran oil is primarily due to the fact that at present around 70 per cent of the paddy produced in the country is processed through huller mills while only 30 percent is processed by modern Sheller mills. It has been estimated that huller mills number about 80,000 while there are only 28,000 modern Sheller mills. PRESENT MANUFACTURERS A G Fats Ltd. Agrawal Oil Extractions Ltd. Agro Tech India Ltd. Balaji Agro Oils Ltd. Bharani Oils Ltd. Boppana Oils Ltd. Cethar Foodoil Ltd. Chaitanya Oils Ltd. Globus Industries & Services Ltd. Goa Agro Oil Ltd. Godavari Edible Bran Oil Ltd. J R Foods Ltd. J S P Oils & Fats Ltd. K G N Agro Internationals Ltd. Kanakadurga Agro Oil Products Ltd. Kedia Overseas Ltd. Lakshmi Energy & Foods Ltd. Malwala Oils Ltd. Midland Industries Ltd. Modi Naturals Ltd. Morinda Overseas Inds. Ltd. Neha Oils Ltd. Patliputra Industries Ltd. Prakash Solvent Extractions Ltd. Raghunath Cotton & Oil Products Ltd. Ravindra Solvent Oils Ltd. Rice Oil & Foods Ltd. S K M Animal Feeds & Foods (India) Ltd. Sambandam Solvent Extraction Ltd. Satyakala Agro Oil Products Ltd. Sethia Oil Inds. Ltd. Sethia Oils Ltd. Shanti Kunj Solvent Ltd. Shree Madhav Edible Products Ltd. Shree Shakthi Agro Oils Ltd. Siddaganga Oil Extractions Pvt. Ltd. Siris Agro Ltd. Sona Oil & Chemical Inds. Ltd. Sonitpur Solvex Ltd. Sree Tulasi Solvent Extractions Ltd. Sri Murugarajendra Oil Industry Ltd. Srihitha Refineries Ltd. Sudha Agro Oil & Chemical Inds. Ltd. Tara Health Foods Ltd. Thapar Agro Mills Ltd. Unique Organics Ltd. Vegepro Foods & Feeds Ltd. Vijay Agro Products Pvt. Ltd.
Plant capacity: 388 MT/DayPlant & machinery: Rs. 615 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 1760 Lakhs
Return: 30.02%Break even: 47.16%
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SILICA FROM RICE HUSK ASH - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Rice husk is an agricultural residue easily available in rice producing countries. India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion & or by gasification. The rice husk contains about 75% organic volatile matter & the balance 25% of the weight of this husk is converted into ash during the firing process, is known as rice husk ash (RHA). This RHA in tern contains around 85%–92% amorphous silica. Silica is one of the valuable inorganic chemical compounds. It can exist in gel, crystalline and amorphous forms. It is the most abundant material in the earth’s crust. Silica is the major constituent of rice husk ash. With such a large ash content & silica content in the ash it becomes economical to extract silica from the ash, which has wide market & also takes care of ash disposal. Precipitated Silica (also called particulate silica) is composed of aggregates of ultimate particles of colloidal size that have not become linked in massive gel network during the preparation process. It is an amorphous form of silica; the word amorphous denotes a lack or crystal structure, as defined by x-ray diffraction. Early interest in amorphous silica was purely academic. Amorphous silica can be broadly divided into three categories. Vitreous silica or glass made by fusing quartz, Silica made indicating either amorphous or crystalline silica with high speed neutrons & Micro amorphous silica. Micro amorphous silica includes sols, gels powders & porous glasses, all of which are composed of ultimate particles or structural units less than 1/um in diameter. These silica have high surface area, generally greater than 3m2/g. Micro amorphous silica can be further divided into micro particulate silica microscopic sheets & fibers & hydrated amorphous silica. .Gynogenic silica’s are formed at high temperature by condensation of SiO2 from the vapor phase, or at lower temperature by chemical reaction in the vapor phase followed, by condensation. Silica formed in an aqueous solution can occur as sols, gels or particles. A gel has a three-dimensional, Continuous structure, where as a sol is a stable dispersion of fine particles. Macroscopic particles are formed by aggregation of smaller particles from either a gel or so. Amorphous silica is precipitated from super saturated solution obtained by concentrating an under saturated solution a hot saturated solution, or generating Si(OH)4 of silica ester SiH4, SiS2, SiCl4 or Si. Precipitated Silica soluble silicate solutions are of fine controlled particle size & porous in nature. Precipitated silica powders have a more open structure with higher volume than dried pulverized gels. The physical & chemical properties or precipitated silica vary according to the manufacturing process. Ultimate & aggregate particle size in silica’s precipitated from solution can be varied by reinforcement & control of suspension pH, temperature & salt content. The particle size in gynogenic silica’s is controlled by combustion conditions. The surface area as determined by nitrogen adsorption is a function of particle size. USES AND APPLICATION Precipitated silica is used as filler for paper & rubber as a carrier & diluents for agricultural chemicals, as an anti caking agent, to control viscosity & thickness and as a cleansing agent in toothpastes & in cosmetics. Precipitated silica also finds its applications as anti caking agents in food industry & as thermal insulators. Precipitated silica is perhaps the best not black filler and reinforcing agent used in rubber industry especially for the production of silicon rubber. The distinguishing feature of the growth of precipitated silica industry in India is that it has classifiably flourished in the small-scale sector. Readily available new materials low capital investment & high rates of return offer a distinct advantage to the small-scale manufacturers to venture into this field. MARKET SURVEY Precipitated Silica is used as filler for paper & rubber as a carrier & diluents for agricultural chemicals, as an anti caking agent, to control viscosity & thickness and as molecular sieves. So, we can better understand the growing demand of precipitated silica by seeing the demand of the following industries.Silicon is a unique material. Its abundance is one of the reasons it is used for a wide range of purposes. One of the most important uses of silicon is as a core element of microchips. To manufacture microchips, the microelectronics industry requires silicon with an impurity level of 10–11. Since silicon forms a stable compound with oxygen (silicon oxide, SiO2), the deoxidization of silicon oxide needed to reach this high level of purity consumes a substantial amount of energy, which, in turn, affects the environment through emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2).Bulk silicon wafers used at the beginning of the integrated circuit making process must first be refined to "nine nines" purity (99.9999999%), a process which requires repeated applications of refining technology. The silicon demand by the PV cell industry can be estimated using the available amount of silicon in combination with the amount of silicon needed to produce 1 MWp of solar cells. Global production of rice, the majority of which is grown in Asia is approximately 550 million tonnes/year. This is generated at a rate of about 20% of the weight of the product rice, or some 110 million tonnes per year globally. The husk in turn contains between 15 and 20% of mineral matter the majority of which is amorphous silica. There is a growing demand for finely divided amorphous silica in the production of high strength, low permeability concrete, for use in bridges, marine environments, and nuclear power plants. This market is currently filled by silica fume. Limited supply and high demand has pushed the price of silica fume to as much as US$ 1,000/tonne in some market. Rice husk has the potential to generate 16.5 to 22 million tonnes of ash containing over 90% amorphous silica that could be used as a substitute for silica fume. The husk has energy content of about 14 GJ/tonne so that the energy potential worldwide would be some 1.5 billion GJ/year, which at US$ 5/GJ would have an annual value of US$ 7.5 billion. This amount of energy is equivalent to over 1 billion barrels of oil per year. PRESENT MANUFACTURERS Anand Engineers Pvt. Ltd. Anand Lubricants Pvt. Ltd. Camco Multi Metal Ltd. Elofic Industries Ltd.
Plant capacity: 20 MT/DayPlant & machinery: Rs. 518 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 832 Lakhs
Return: 24.91%Break even: 48.13%
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READY MIX CONCRETE - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Ready mix concrete is a modern trend of introduction in the Asian Countries. It is already introduced long before in the European Countries. It is new concept of use concrete in the construction area. Ready mix concrete has advantages in the area where immediate requirement of concrete mixture like in the preparation of bridge overhead roads on or the road construction. In India there is a hopefull to get good scope of RMC within short period. The batching, mixing, transportation, placing, compaction, finishing and curing are very complimentary operations to obtain desired good quality concrete. The good quality concrete is a homogeneous mixture of water, cement, aggregates and other admixtures. It is not just a matter mixing these ingredients to obtain some kind of plastic mass, but it is scientific process which is based on some well established principles and governs the properties of concrete mixes in fresh as well as in hardened state. The aim of quality control is to ensure the production of concrete of uniform strength in such a way that there is a continuous supply of concrete delivered to the place of deposition, each batch of which is as nearly like the other batches as possible. The production of concrete of uniform quality involves five definable phases: Batching or measurement of materials, Mixing of concrete, Transportation, Placing, compaction and finishing of concrete, and Curing. USES & APPLICATION It is used in the construction of bridge, dam etc, It is used in the construction overhead roads, pools, multi stories building etc, It can be directly used at the construction site. It help greater element of automation and precision concrete mixing. A much higher quality and more constituent uniformity and increase standardization and speed which is done ten times faster as compared to site mixed concrete. There are many advantages of RMC over site mixed concrete. Technologically speaking, ready mixed concrete is certainly advancement over the age-old site mixed concrete. The benefits of RMC in terms of quality, speed, life-cycle cost and environmental friendliness are overwhelmingly superior to those of site mixed concrete. MARKET SURVEY India is the second largest producer of cement in the world after China. It is followed by Japan and the USA. Cement consumption is very closely linked to the performance of the construction industry; however, since cement is used in both residential and non-residential construction, it doesn’t experience extreme cycles. The non-residential sector is classified into commercial and industrial, and institutional segments. The residential and non-residential sectors are also classified as private and public construction. Cement and ready-mix concrete demand is dependent on the level of construction activities. Construction activities are in turn closely related to a number of macroeconomic factors such as consumer spending, population growth, manufacturing sector growth, inflation rates, government spending etc. The construction industry is the second largest industry in India after agriculture. It accounts for about 11% of India’s GDP. It makes significant contribution to the national economy and provides employment to large number of people. Construction constitutes 40% to 50% of India's capital expenditure on projects in various sectors such as highways, roads, railways, energy, airports, irrigation etc. There are mainly three segments in the construction industry like real estate construction which includes residential and commercial construction; infrastructure building which includes roads, railways, power etc; and industrial construction that consists of oil and gas refineries, pipelines, textiles etc. Building material is any material which is used for a construction purpose. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay, sand, wood and rocks, even twigs and leaves have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use. The biggest increase in private participation is expected in roads (from 5 per cent to 36), ports (47 per cent to 74 per cent) and railways (less than 1 per cent to 20 per cent). The Planning Commission estimates that the remaining infrastructure investments will be funded by the central and state government. According to a study by ASSOCHAM, the burgeoning Indian construction industry, currently worth $70 billion, will rise to US $120 billion by 2010. The Indian construction industry, an integral part of the economy and a conduit for a substantial part of its development investment, is poised for growth on account of industrialization, urbanization, economic development and people's rising expectations for improved quality of living in the coming years. The market size of cement and ready-mix concrete is defined as the amount of cement and ready-mix concrete products supplied to the total Indian marketplace, in a particular period. Therefore, market size is determined by supply rather than demand. The Ready-mix concrete business in India is in its nascent stage. In a developed country 70% of cement produced is used by the Ready-mix concrete industry. The usage of Ready-mix concrete could not be implemented as investors felt that the plants would starve due to non-availability of cement. The levy of additional taxes and duties on RMC, entry tax and excise duty also contributed to the slow development of the concept. PRESENT MANUFACTURERS A C C Concrete Ltd. A C C Ltd. Ahlcon Ready Mix Concrete Pvt. Ltd. Ashoka Buildcon Ltd. Binani Ready Mix Concrete Ltd. D S Kulkarni Developers Ltd. Eastern Gases Ltd. Madras Cements Ltd. My Home Inds. Ltd. N C L Industries Ltd. Navkar Builders Ltd. Prism Cement Ltd. R B Gupta Financials Ltd. R D C Concrete (India) Pvt. Ltd. S R S Real Infrastructure Ltd. Samruddhi Cement Ltd. Tantia Constructions Ltd. Tarmac (India) Pvt. Ltd. Telecommunications Consultants India Ltd. Trishul Concrete Products Ltd. Ultratech Cement Ltd.
Plant capacity: 240 Cu MT/DayPlant & machinery: Rs 320 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 773 Lakhs
Return: 27.08%Break even: 46.09%
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Aluminium Alloy from Scrap and Virgin Metal - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Aluminium, the second most plentiful metallic element on earth, became an economic competitor in engineering applications as recently as the end of the 19th century. It was to become a metal for its time. The emergence of three important industrial developments would, by demanding material characteristics consistent with the unique qualities of aluminium and its alloys, greatly benefit growth in the production and use of the new metal. Aluminium has been termed the versatile metal of the 20th century since it finds application right from the kitchen to the spaceship. The growing popularity of this metal has been attributed to its outstanding physical and chemical properties, viz. lightness, and high strength of its alloys, high electric and thermal conductivity, good workability and the most important of all –its resistance to corrosion. Aluminium and its alloys find extensive applications in road transport, railways and aviation due to their good strength for relatively low weight. Aluminium also finds application in chemical and food processing plants. Owing to its good electrical conductivity, it finds use in electrical industries. Its strength, brightness durability and capacity to take anodic coating and colors are the most important properties for its use for architectural purposes. The first commercial applications of aluminium were novelty items such as mirror frames, house numbers, and serving trays. Cooking utensils were also a major early market. In time, aluminium grew in diversity of applications to the extent that virtually every aspect of modern life would be directly or indirectly affected by its use. Uses Alclad: Aluminium products sometimes are coated on one or both surfaces with a metallurgically bonded, thin layer of pure aluminium or aluminium alloy. If cladding is anodic to the core, it is called Alclad. The cladding of Alclad products electrochemically protects the core at exposed edges and at abraded or corroded areas. Automotive Products: The automotive industry uses wrought aluminium for trim, bumpers, body panels, and various interior parts. Alloys for trim applications are of the aluminium-magnesium type (2xxx series). Aircraft Alloys: The need for low weight in airframes has led to the development of very high-strength aluminium alloys for use as plate, sheet, and extrusions. Rigid Container Sheet: Aluminium rigid container sheet is used mainly for container ends or container bodies. The ends for beverage cans are made of 5182 alloy and usually have tabs made from 5042 or 5082 alloy. Bright Finishing Alloys: A number of alloys are produced especially for surface finishing by bright anodizing. The common bright finishing alloys are 1100, 3002, 5252, 5657, 6463, 7016, and 7029. Building and construction application Electrical applications- Bus bar alloys, transformers Processing equipments Lightening Coal mine machinery Jigs and patterns Reflectors, powders and pastes. Market Survey India's share in world aluminium market is estimated at around 3%. India ranks fifth in bauxite production after Australia (62 mn tons), Guinea (17.50 mn tons), Brazil (16.20 mn tons) and China (10.75 mn tons). With a total output of 9.25 mn tones, the country contributes about 6% of the world's total production of 159 mn tones, India holds the fifth position in reserves base and is ahead of China with 2300 mn tones. India ranked seventh in alumina production with a total output of 3 mn tones, a share of nearly 5% of the global production of 61 mn tones. The per capita consumption of aluminium in India continues to remain abysmally low at under 1 kg as against nearly 25 to 30 kg in the US and Europe, 15 kg in Japan, 10 kg in Taiwan and 3 kg in China. Aluminium has a wide range of applications, from aircraft building to packaging, a major consumer being the electrical industry. The two sectors, electricity and transportation, account for more than half of the total off take. The key consumer industries in India are power, transportation, consumer durables, packaging and construction. Of this, power is the biggest consumer (about 44% of total) followed by infrastructure (17%) and transportation (about 10% to 12%). However, internationally, the pattern of consumption is in favor of transportation, primarily due to large-scale aluminium consumption by the aviation industry. White goods account for nearly 5% of aluminium consumption in the country. The products include electric fans, air conditioners, refrigerators and coolers. The white goods industry uses both extruded products and flats. In the transportation sector, aluminium is used for paneling, floors and windows. So far, it is not used for structural parts and bodies of automobiles. An Indian car uses only about 54 kg of aluminium against a global average of 100 to 110 kg. This sets the high potential for growth with the increase in the automobile sector. Demand for aluminium is estimated to grow at 4 to 6% per annum. The demand for the metal is expected to pick up as the scenario improves for user industries like power, infrastructure and transportation, which are all on the move. In the domestic market, the demand of aluminium is expected to touch 1.5 mn ton by 2015-16. Domestic demand for aluminium foils in 1999-00 was of the order of 41,000 ton. It had gone up to 62,000 tons by 2003-04 and to 76,700 tons in 2006-07. It is projected to reach the level of 100,000 ton by the end of the decade. Foil users, such as the pharmaceuticals, processed foods and telecommunication sectors, have been showing healthy growth. Aluminium foil industry is growing annually at around 7%. In the near future, with the phenomenal rise in disposable incomes, the foil industry is expected to receive a boost. Working couples, for instance, increasingly pack their food in aluminium foils. The growth in demand is expected to follow the increasing demand noticed in China. Few Major Players are as under:- Aravali Infrapower Ltd. Associated Aluminium Inds. Pvt. Ltd. Baheti Metal & Ferro Alloys Ltd. Balaji Aluminium Alloys Pvt. Ltd. Blue Precision Ltd. Camco Multi Metal Ltd. Century Aluminium Mfg. Co. Ltd. Dravya Industrial Chemicals Ltd. Ess Vee Alloys Pvt. Ltd. Hamco Mining & Smelting Ltd. Met Trade (India) Ltd. Namo Alloys Pvt. Ltd. National Steel & Agro Inds. Ltd. Palco Metals Ltd. Shree Pomani Metals & Alloys Ltd. Shrey Industries Ltd. Shri Lakshmi Engg. Inds. Ltd. Sudal Industries Ltd. Sun Industries Ltd. Tulya Alloy Castings Ltd.
Plant capacity: 360 MT/annumPlant & machinery: Rs. 154 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 255 Lakhs
Return: 26.00%Break even: 55.00%
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Particle Board from Rice Husk - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Construction industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Rapid construction activity and growing demand of houses has lead to the short fall of traditional building materials. Bricks, Cement, sand, and wood are now becoming scares materials. Demand of good quality of building materials to replace the traditional materials and the need for cost effective and durable materials for the low cost housing has necessitated the researchers to develop variety of new and innovative building materials. Construction materials of special requirements for the houses in different geographical region to overcome the risk of natural hazard and for protection from sever climatic conditions has also emphasised the need for development of lightweight, insulating, cost effective, durable and environment friendly building materials. Agricultural waste or residue is made up of organic compounds from organic sources such as rice straw, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sugar cane bagasse, coconut shell, and others. Rice husk from paddy (Oryza sativa) is one example of alternative material that can be potentially used for making particle board. Rice husk is unusually high in ash, which is 92 to 95% silica, highly porous and lightweight, with a very high external surface area. Its absorbent and insulating properties are useful to many industrial applications, such as acting as a strengthening agent in building materials. Rice husks are processed into rectangular shaped particle boards. Particle board is as the name suggests a board made of particles of wood obtained mechanically without destroying the inherent character of wood. This new industry initially was started primarily with a view to utilize wood waste. Wood that was left in the forest being unsuitable for lumber industry and wood that was thrown away as waste in various wood industries, (e.g. sawmills, furniture making plywood Industries) could be utilized in making particle board. It may be mentioned here that fiber board also utilizes the same wood waste; the wood is converted into pulp and pressed the bond being obtained mainly from the natural lignin present in wood. In case of particle board, the bond is obtained by using an organic binder-synthetic resin adhesive. The accepted definition of particle board is A sheet material manufactured from small pieces of wood on other lignocelluloses materials, (e.g. chips, flakes, splinters, strands, shives, etc.) agglomerated by use of an organic binder together with one or more of the following agents heat, pressure, moisture a catalyst etc. Uses & Applications The property of this board can be controlled. It has got better acoustic properties and hence better sound absorption. It does not support combustion, thus it is safe to use as it is fine safety measure. It is insect and termite resistant. It is water resistant. It is more economical. It is used in furniture making where cost economy is the main factor. It is used both for movable and built in furniture. It is used in construction industry in making doors, flooring, floor underlayment, ceiling, roof underlayment, walls partition, concrete frame-work and transport industry. Market Survey The large producers account for 15% of the total production, producing some 38 mn sq. m of plywood and block boards. The ecological considerations had, however, placed the industry in jeopardy owing primarily to the restraints put on the use of timber. Alternate materials from agricultural wastes like stalks of cotton and wheat, rice husk and bagasse are slowly getting into the industry as raw material feeds. Kitply Industries, Sarda Plywood, Century Plywood, Novapan, National Plywood, Green-ply and Jayshree Tea remain the main players in the organized sector of plywoods and particle boards, which has some 60 units. There are several SSI units and other informal sector units contributing around 60% of the total production. The Indian market for particle board and plywood is estimated in value terms, at over Rs 37 bn. Of the total market, particle board including medium density fiber board (MDF board) accounts for nearly a quarter of the market. Nearly 85% of the particle board is supplied by the organized sector. Western India has emerged as the leader in the particle board segment. Shirdi Industries (SIL) was setting up a plant for the manufacture of MDF and particle board. The project, which will be India's first and only integrated plant providing complete interior solutions, was being set up at Uttarakhand. It was mainly because of the state government granting the company a status, entitling the company to excise duty, income tax and sales tax exemption besides investment subsidy. The company is also producing pre-laminated board, decorative laminates, floorings, panel door and furniture components from the facility. Few Major Players are as under:- Archidply Industries Ltd. Bajaj Eco-Tec Products Ltd. Bajaj Hindustan Ltd. Ecoboard Industries Ltd. Feroke Boards Ltd. Genus Paper Products Ltd. Kitply Industries Ltd. Novopan Industries Ltd. Nuboard Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Rushil Decor Ltd. Shapoorji Pallonji & Co. Ltd. Shirdi Industries Ltd. Western India Plywoods Ltd.
Plant capacity: 15 Lakh Nos. /annumPlant & machinery: Rs. 152 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 426 Lakhs
Return: 31.00%Break even: 51.00%
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