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Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products (Preservation Techniques, Luncheon Meats, Meat Loaves, Meat Spreads, Canned Meat Products, Maintenance of Eggs, Soups, Gravies, Sauces, Sausage with Machinery, Equipment Details & Factory Layout)


Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products (Preservation Techniques, Luncheon Meats, Meat Loaves, Meat Spreads, Canned Meat Products, Maintenance of Eggs, Soups, Gravies, Sauces, Sausage with Machinery, Equipment Details & Factory Layout)

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 978-81-7833-030-3
Code: NI158
Pages: 504
Price: Rs. 1,575.00   US$ 39.00

Published: 2024
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually ships within 5 days

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Food preservation is a method of maintaining foods at a desired level of properties or nature for their maximum benefits. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. There are various methods of preservation chilling, freezing, curing, smoking, dehydration, canning, radiation preservation etc. Chilling is most widely used method for preservation for short term storage of meat because chilling or refrigeration slows down the microbial growth and enzymatic as well as chemical reactions. Freezing is the method of choice for the long term preservation of meat. It has advantage of retaining most of the nutritive value of meat during storage. Meat smoking was known to man as an aid in preservation for a long time. Smoke contains a large number of wood degradation products such as aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, and phenols etc. which exert bacteriostatic affect besides imparting characteristic smoky flavour. Canning is a process of preservation achieved by thermal sterilization of product held in hermetically sealed containers. Canning preserves the sensory attributes such as appearance, flavour and texture of the meat products to a large extent. Freeze drying of meat is a satisfactory process of dehydration preservation due to better reconstitution properties, nutritive quality and acceptability. It involves the removal of water from the frozen state to vapour state by keeping it under vacuum and giving a low heat treatment. Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is an important aspect of food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically altered the character of the food being preserved. Meat and poultry products are chilled immediately after slaughter to acceptable internal temperatures which insure the prompt removal of the animal heat and preserve the wholesomeness of the products. As such, due to the recent up gradation of preservation techniques, the preservation industry is also growing almost at the same rate as the food industry which is about 10 to 12% per year.
Some of the major aspects of the book are principles of various preservation techniques, standards and quality control measures for meat, meat food products order, eating quality and sensory evaluation of meat, preservation of poultry meat, utilisation of poultry industry by products, mixed poultry by products meal, structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs, luncheon meats, meat loaves, and meat spreads, barbecue style pork loaf using non fat dry milk, canned corned beef products, salisbury steak with textured vegetable protein, general instruction to be observed for processing canned items under sterm or under the combination of stream and water pressure, spaghetti and meat balls in tomato sauce with cheese, etc.
Different preservation techniques are being developed to satisfy current demands of economic preservation and consumer satisfaction in nutritional and sensory aspects, convenience, absence of preservatives, low demand of energy and environmental safety. The present book contains various processes of meat and poultry preservation. All the entrepreneurs, technocrats, persons evolved in meat and poultry processing will be benefited from this book.

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1.1 Chilling/Refrigeration
1.2 Freezing
1.3 Curing
1.3.1 Sodium Nitrates and Nitrite
1.4 Smoking
1.5 Thermal Processing
1.6 Canning
1.6.1 Preparation of Meat and Gravy
1.6.2 Precooking
1.6.3 Filling
1.6.4 Exhausting
1.6.5 Seaming
1.6.6 Retorting or Thermal Processing
1.6.7 Cooling
1.6.8 Storage
1.7 Dehydration
1.8 Irradiation
2.1 Research and Market Analysis
2.2 Business Planning
2.3 Legalities
2.4 Location
2.5 Supplier and Equipment
2.6 Quality Control
2.7 Branding and Marketing
2.8 Pricing
2.9 Employee Training
2.10 Customer Service
2.11 Diversification
2.12 Environmental Considerations
3.1 Chilling
3.2 Freezing
3.3 Curing
3.4 Smoking
3.5 Dehydration
3.6 Canning
3.7 Radiation Preservation
4.1 Feathers
4.2 Blood
4.3 Offal
4.4 Mixed Poultry By-products Meal
4.5 Hatchery Waste
4.6 Poultry Manure
5.1 Egg Cleaning
5.2 Oil Treatment
5.3 Cold Storage
5.4 Thermo-Stabilisation
5.5 Immersion in Liquids
6.1 Freezing Whole, Parts, Rolls, and Meat of Poultry
6.2 Freezing Roasting Chickens and Turkeys
6.2.1 Chickens
6.2.2 Turkeys
6.3 Freezing Poultry Rolls (Raw, Cooked, Cured and
6.3.1 Raw Poultry Rolls
6.3.2 Cooked Poultry Rolls
6.3.3 Cured, Smoked Poultry Rolls
6.4 Freezing Cut-up Poultry
6.5 Frozen Deboned Chicken Meat
6.6 Freeze Drying Chicken
6.7 Freezing Stuffed Turkeys
6.8 Boning Whole Turkeys
6.9 Freezing Whole Boned Turkey Rolls
6.10 Turkey Fillets
6.11 How to Utilize Poultry Skin and Meat Bits in Pot Pies
6.12 Freezing Cornish Game Hens
6.13 Freezing Ducks
6.14 Freezing Geese
6.15 Canned Chicken Products
6.15.1 Canned Whole Chicken
6.15.2 Ingredients for Plain Broth
6.15.3 Procedure For Plain Broth For Broth with Gelatin Added
6.15.4 Fill Cans
6.15.5 Suggested Process
6.15.6 Chill
6.16 Canned Chicken or Turkey Meat
6.16.1 Suggested Process
6.17 Canned Chicken Fricasse
6.17.1 Prepare Chicken
6.17.2 Prepare Gravy
6.17.3 Fill Cans and Close
6.17.4 Suggested Process
6.18 Canned Chicken Stew
6.18.1 Prepare Vegetables
6.18.2 Prepare 90 Gal. of Gravy
6.18.3 Fill and Close Cans
6.18.4 Suggested Process
6.19 Canned Chicken and Dumplings
6.19.1 Prepare Chicken
6.19.2 Prepare Dumplings
6.19.3 Prepare Gravy
6.19.4 Suggested Process
6.20 Canned Turkey and Dumplings
6.20.1 Canned Ham and Dumplings
6.21 Canned Chicken and Noodle Dinner
6.21.1 Suggested Process
6.22 Canned Chicken Noodle Dinner
6.22.1 Procedure
6.22.2 Suggested Process
6.23 Canned Chicken, Mushrooms and Noodles
6.23.1 Procedure
6.23.2 Suggested Process
6.24 Canned Chicken, Mushroom and Macaroni
6.24.1 Procedure
6.24.2 Suggested Process
6.25 Canned Giblet and Noodle Dinner
6.25.1 Prepare Giblets
6.25.2 Prepare Noodles
6.25.3 Prepare Stock
6.25.4 Fill Jars and Close
6.25.5 Suggested Process
6.26 Canned Chicken a La King (Finest Quality)
6.26.1 Prepare a la King Ingredients
6.26.2 Prepare Sauce
6.26.3 Assemble Ingredients and Pack
6.26.4 Suggested Process
6.26.5 Variations
6.27 Canned Chicken a La King (Good Quality)
6.27.1 Prepare a la King Ingredients
6.27.2 Prepare Sauce
6.27.3 Assemble Ingredients and Pack
6.27.4 Suggested Process
6.28 Canned Chicken Chow Mein
6.28.1 Prepare Chicken Dice
6.28.2 Prepare Vegetables
6.28.3 Prepare Sauce
6.28.4 Fill into Cans
6.28.5 Suggested Process
6.29 Canned Curried Chicken
6.29.1 Prepare Chicken Meat
6.29.2 Prepare Gravy
6.29.3 Suggested Process
6.30 Canned Chicken in Barbecue Sauce
6.30.1 Procedure
6.30.2 Suggested Process
6.31 Canned Hungrian-Style Chicken Paprika
6.31.1 Prepare Chicken
6.31.2 Prepare Gravy
6.31.3 Fill and Close Cans
6.31.4 Suggested Process
6.32 Canned Chicken Liver Pate
6.32.1 Procedure
6.33 Canned Potted Chicken (Sandwich Spread)
6.33.1 Procedure
6.33.2 Uses for Broth
6.34 Canned Savory Chicken or Turkey Spread
6.34.1 Procedure
6.34.2 Suggested Process
6.35 Canned Giblet Spread
6.35.1 Procedure
6.35.2 Suggested Process
6.36 Frozen Chicken Products
6.36.1 Frozen Baked Dressing
6.36.2 Procedure
6.36.3 Frozen Giblet Dressing
6.37 Frozen Chicken Pot Pie Filing
6.37.1 Procedure
6.37.2 To Use Frozen Product
6.38 Frozen Chicken or Turkey Pot Pies
6.38.1 Procedure
6.38.1 Make Emulsions
6.38.1 Make Gravy and Assemble
6.39 Frozen Chicken or Turkey Croquettes
6.39.1 Procedure
6.40 Frozen Chicken or Turkey Patties
6.40.1 Procedure
6.41 Frozen Breaded Chicken Sticks
6.41.1 Prepare Chicken Sticks
6.41.2 For Batter Coating
6.41.3 For Breading
6.42 Package and Freeze
6.43 Frozen Chicken a La King
6.43.1 Prepare Sauce
6.44 Frozen Chicken a La King
6.44.1 Procedure
6.45 Frozen Creamed Chicken Patty Filling
6.45.1 Procedure
6.46 Frozen Chicken in Port Wine
6.46.1 Procedure
6.47 Frozen Chicken Curry
6.47.1 Procedure
6.48 Frozen Chicken Tahiti
6.48.1 Procedure
6.49 Frozen Chicken Paprika
6.49.1 Procedure
6.50 Frozen Chicken Cacciatore
6.50.1 Procedure
6.51 Frozen Cornish Game Hen with Peaches
6.51.1 Procedure
6.52 Frozen French-Fried Chicken
6.53 Boil-in-Bag Frozen Smoked Chicken in Barbecue Sauce
6.53.1 Prepare Chicken and Smoke
6.53.2 Prepare Sauce
6.53.3 Pack and Freeze
6.54 Bag-in-Box Frozen Smoked Chicken in Barbecue Sauce
6.54.1 Prepare Chicken and Smoke
6.54.2 Prepare Sauce
6.54.3 Package and Freeze
6.55 Frozen Chicken Burgers
6.56 Frozen Turkey Burgers
6.57 Frozen Chicken Giblet Con Carne with Beans
6.57.1 Prepare Meats
6.57.2 Prepare Beans
6.57.3 Assemble Ingredients
6.58 Turkey Products
6.58.1 Frozen Turkey Rolls (Emulsion Type)
6.58.2 Procedure for Making Rolls
6.59 Canned Turkey Noodle Dinner in Jars
6.59.1 Procedure
6.60 Canned Turkey a La King
6.60.1 Prepare a la King Ingredients
6.60.2 Prepare Sauce
6.60.3 Suggested Process
6.60.4 Label Requirement
6.61 Frozen Comminuted Turkey “Steaks”
6.61.1 Procedure To Make Skin Emulsion Assemble Ingredients Stuff, Cook, and Chill Slice, Coat, and Freeze
6.62 Smoked Turkey
6.62.1 Procedure
6.63 Turkey Loaf
6.63.1 Procedure
6.64 Turkey Loaf
6.64.1 Procedure
6.65 Turkey Loaf in Chubs
6.65.1 Procedure To Make Skin Emulsion Assemble Ingredients Stuff, Cook, and Chill
6.66 Turkey Loaves in 6-Lb Oblong Cans
6.66.1 Stuffing, Cooking, Chilling for Oblong Cans
6.67 Turkey Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
6.67.1 Procedure
6.68 Frozen Turkey Sticks
6.68.1 Stuffing, Cooking, Preparing Sticks
6.69 Turkey Liverwurst (Pate) in Chubs
6.69.1 Procedure
6.70 Turkey Spread in Chubs
6.70.1 Procedure
6.71 Turkey Bologna
6.71.1 Procedure Stuff and Smoke
6.72 Canned Turkey Chili Con Carne
6.72.1 Procedure
6.72.2 Suggested Process
6.73 Canned Turkey Chili Con Carne with Beans
6.73.1 Procedure
6.73.2 Suggested Process
6.73.3 Chill
6.74 Miscellaneous Poultry Products
6.74.1 Cooked Boneless Poultry Rolls and Roasts
6.74.2 Procedure
6.75 Breaded Poultry Patties with 15% Meat Replacement
6.75.1 Procedure
6.76 Chicken Loaf with Textured Vegetable Protein
6.76.1 Procedure
6.77 Jellied Chicken Loaf
6.77.1 Procedure
6.78 Chicken Sandwich Spread
6.78.1 Procedure
6.79 Chicken-Flavoured Sandwich Spread with Textured Vegetable Protein Dice
6.79.1 Procedure
6.80 Chicken Salad with Textured Vegetable Protein
6.80.1 Procedure Variations.—Tuna Salad Turkey Salad
6.81 Chicken Pie with Textured Vegetable Protein
6.81.1 Procedure
6.82 A La King using Textured Vegetable Protein Dice with Chicken-Like Flavour
6.82.1 Procedure
6.83 Chicken a La King with Textured Soy Protein
6.83.1 Procedure
6.84 Chicken Liver Pate in Chubs
6.84.1 Procedure
6.85 Base Mix for Chicken Croquettes
6.85.1 Procedure Directions for Sample Evaluation
6.86 Dry Mix Chicken Stew with Vegetables
6.86.1 Procedure
6.87 Chicken Chop Suey with Textured Soy Protein
6.87.1 Procedure
6.88 Chow Mein with Chicken-Flavoured Textured
Vegetable Protein Dice
6.88.1 Procedure
6.89 Smoked Chicken
6.89.1 Procedure
6.90 Poultry Sausage
6.91 Chicken Frankfurters
6.91.1 Procedure
7.1 Research and Analysis
7.2 Decision Making
7.3 Implementation of Your Decision
7.4 Marketing Tips for Maximize Profit
7.4.1 Marketing Tips 1- Bypass the Middlemen
7.4.2 Get Your Business and Customer Online
7.4.3 Become A Supplier to Restaurants and Hotels
7.4.4 Employ A Number of Marketers
7.4.5 Offer Attractive Packages and Home Delivery Services
8.1 Receiving Area
8.2 Stunning and Slaughtering
8.3 Scalding and Plucking
8.4 Evisceration and Inspection
8.5 Further Processing
8.6 Cooking and Freezing
8.7 Packaging
8.8 Cold Storage
8.9 Dispatch Area
8.10 Waste Management Area
8.11 Ancillary Areas
8.12 Safety and Hygiene
9.1 Introduction
9.2 New FDA Ban on Premixed Commercial Seasoning Containing Sodium Nitrite
9.3 General Instruction for Processing Canned Items
Under Steam or Under the Combination of Steam and Water Pressure
9.4 Processing Steps
9.4.1 Exceptions to the Above Rules
9.5 Canned Luncheon Meats
9.5.1 Finest Quality Spiced Pork Luncheon Meat Procedure for All Can Sizes Procedure for 12-Oz Oblong Cans Procedure for 3- and 6-Lb Oblong Cans
9.6 Commercial Quality Spiced Pork Luncheon Meat in
3- and 6-LB Cans
9.6.1 Procedure Can Filling and Closing Suggested Process
9.7 Chopped Ham in 12-OZ Oblong Cans
9.7.1 Procedure Can Filling and Closing
9.8 Finest Quality Pork or Pork-Beef Luncheon Meat
9.8.1 Procedure for All-Pork Product Grinding Method
9.8.2 Grinding-Chopping Method Remix and Stuff Cook and Chill
9.8.3 Procedure for Pork-Beef Product
9.9 Spiced Beef Luncheon Meat In 12 Ozoblong Cans (Commercially Sterile)
9.9.1 Procedure Suggested Process Chilling
9.10 New England Pressed Ham in 3- or 6-LB Oblong Cans (Perishable)
9.10.1 Procedure Remix and Stuff Cook and Chill
9.11 New England Pressed Ham using Non-Fat Dry Milk
9.11.1 Procedure
9.12 Commercial Grade Minced Ham in 3- or 6-LB Oblong
Cans (Perishable)
9.12.1 Procedure Remix and Stuff Suggested Process
9.13 Minced Ham using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.13.1 Procedure
9.14 Cured Beef Tongues in Glass Jars
9.14.1 Preparation of Beef Tongues
9.14.2 Cure
9.14.3 Cook
9.14.4 Skin and Trim
9.14.5 Fill Jars
9.14.6 Process
9.14.7 Suggested Process
9.15 Pickled Pig’s Feet or Pork Hocks in Vinegar
9.15.1 Filling Vinegar Solution to Fill Jars Fill Jars to Capacity
9.16 Meat Loaves
9.16.1 Use of Gelatin and Non-fat Dry Milk in Meat
9.17 Pickle and Pimiento Loaf
9.17.1 Procedure Precaution Grind, Chop, and Mix Stuff and Cook Chill
9.18 Pickle and Pimiento Loaf Using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.18.1 Procedure
9.19 Baked Veal Loaf
9.19.1 Procedure Precaution Grind, Chop, and Mix Pan and Bake
9.20 Veal, Pork, and Liver Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.20.1 Procedure
9.21 Canned Veal Loaf in 12-OZ Oblong Cans (Commercially Sterile)
9.21.1 Procedure
9.21.2 Pack and Process
9.22 Luxury Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.22.1 Procedure
9.23 Utility Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.23.1 Procedure
9.24 Meat and Cheese Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.24.1 Procedure
9.25 Macaroni, Meat, and Cheese Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.25.1 Procedure To Bake To Cook
9.26 Baked Pepper Loaf
9.26.1 Procedure Grind, Chop, and Mix Cure and Remix Pan and Bake
9.27 Baked Dutch Loaf
9.27.1 Procedure Grind, Chop, and Mix Pan and Bake Chill
9.28 Dutch Loaf Using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.28.1 Procedure
9.29 Liver Loaf (Perishable)
9.29.1 Preparation of Product Grind and Chop
9.29.2 Packing and Processing Suggested Process
9.30 Liver Loaf
9.30.1 Procedure Grind and Chop Stuff Cook Chill Packaging
9.31 Liver Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.31.1 Procedure
9.31.2 Coating for Meat Loaves
9.32 Deluxe Liver Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.32.1 Procedure
9.33 Head-cheese (Brawn)
9.33.1 If Pork Skins are Used
9.33.2 If Gelatin is Used
9.33.3 Procedure Cooking Cubing and Grinding Mixing Stuffing Cooking Chilling Smoking
9.34 Head Cheese using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.34.1 Procedure
9.35 Head-Cheese Spices
9.36 Souse or Aspic Loaf
9.36.1 How to Prepare Gelatin
9.36.2 Stuffing
9.37 Head-Cheese (Brawn) in 12-OZ Cans (Commercially Sterile)
9.37.1 Procedure
9.37.2 Suggested Process
9.38 Imitation Chicken Loaf in 12-Oz, or 3- Or 6-LB Oblong
9.38.1 Procedure Grind and Mix
9.38.2 Suggested Process
9.38.3 Chilling 12-Oz Cans
9.38.4 Chilling 3- and 6-Lb Cans
9.39 Imitation Chicken Loaf in Hoy Molds or 4 × 4 × 24 Inch Oblong Molds
9.39.1 Procedure Grind and Mix Stuff and Cook Chill and Package
9.40 Imitation Chicken in Aspic in 3- or 6-LB Oblong Cans
9.40.1 Procedure Pack and Process
9.40.2 Suggested Process
9.41 Jellied Imitation Chicken Loaf
9.41.1 Procedure Grind and Mix Stuff and Cook Chill and Package
9.42 Roast Beef Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.42.1 Procedure
9.43 Jellied Roast Beef Loaf
9.43.1 Procedure
9.44 Jellied Corned Beef Loaf
9.44.1 To Cook and Cure the Beef
9.45 Corned Beef Loaf using Non-Fat Dry Milk
9.45.1 Procedure
9.46 Jellied Barbecued Beef Loaf
9.46.1 Procedure Stuff, Chill, and Package
9.47 Barbecue-Style Pork Loaf using Non-fat Dry Milk
9.47.1 Procedure
9.48 Canned Spreads
9.48.1 Deviled Ham Spread (Finest Quality)
9.48.2 Selection and Curing of Hams
9.48.3 Cook Hams
9.48.4 Grind and Mix
9.48.5 Re-Heat and Fill Cans
9.48.6 Suggested Process
9.49 Deviled Ham Spread (Commercial Grade)
9.49.1 Preparation of Meat
9.49.2 Grind and Mix
9.49.3 Re-Heat and Fill Cans
9.49.4 Suggested Process
9.50 Ham and Tongue Spread
9.50.1 Cure and Cook Tongues
9.50.2 Grind and Chop
9.50.3 Re-heat and Fill Cans
9.51 Canned Potted Meat (Buffet Spread)
9.51.1 Prepare Meats and By-Products
9.51.2 Grind and Chop
9.51.3 Re-Heat and Fill Cans
9.51.4 Suggested Process
9.52 Canned Liver Spread
9.52.1 Prepare Meat and By-Products Pretreat Tripe Soak and Leach Livers Snouts, Jowls, and Pork Trimmings
9.52.2 Grind and Chop
9.52.3 Reheat and Fill Cans
9.52.4 Suggested Process
9.53 Canned Mock Chicken Spread
9.53.1 Prepare Meat and By-Products Pretreat Tripe Snouts and Pork
9.53.2 Grind and Chop
9.53.3 Reheat and Fill Cans
9.53.4 Suggested Process
9.54 Mettwurst Sausage Spread
9.54.1 Procedure Grind Cure Regrind Stuff Ripen (Green Room) Smoke
9.54.2 Fast Curing Method
9.55 Teewurst Sausage Spread
9.55.1 Procedure
9.56 Teewurst Sausage Spread (Fast Method)
9.57 Canned Corned Beef Products
9.57.1 Canned Corned Beef
9.57.2 Suggested Process
9.58 Canned Corned Beef Hash
9.58.1 Procedure
9.58.2 Suggested Process
9.59 Corned Beef Hash using Braised Meat
9.59.1 Procedure
9.59.2 Suggested Process
9.60 Corned Beef Hash using South American Canned
Corned Beef
9.60.1 Procedure
9.60.2 Suggested Process
9.61 Deviled Corned Beef (Hot Pack)
9.61.1 Procedure Deviling Procedure
9.61.2 Suggested Process
9.62 Creamed Corned Beef (Hot Pack)
9.62.1 Procedure
9.62.2 Suggested Process
10.1 Create a Perfect Business Plan
10.2 Manage Finances
10.3 How Can I Contact the Clients?
10.4 Space Required to Begin Meat Processing
10.5 Registration and Licence
10.6 List of Raw Materials for Meat Processing
10.7 Processing of Meat
10.8 List of the Machinery Needed for Meat Plant
10.9 Transportation
10.10 Packaging
10.11 Conclusion
11.1 Types of Sausage
11.2 Sausage Production Processing
11.2.1 Selecting Ingredients
11.2.2 Grinding Meat Ingredients
11.2.3 Blending the Meat and Non-Meat Ingredients
11.2.4 Stuffing and Filling
11.2.5 Smoking
11.2.6 Packaging and Storage
12.1 Reception and Storage Area
12.2 Meat Preparation Area
12.3 Meat Grinding Area
12.4 Mixing Area
12.5 Emulsification Area
12.6 Stuffing Area
12.7 Linking and Hanging Area
12.8 Cooking/Smoking Area
12.9 Cooling Area
12.10 Packaging Area
12.11 Storage and Dispatch Area
12.12 Quality Control Lab
12.13 Waste Management Area
12.14 Utility and Support Areas
13.1 General Instruction to be Observed for Processing
Canned Items under Steam or under the Combination
of Steam and Water Pressure
13.1.1 General Instructions
13.1.2 Retort Procedure During Cooking and Chilling
Operations Exceptions to the Above Rules
13.2 Brown Gravy (Retort Type)
13.2.1 Procedure
13.3 Brown Gravy
13.3.1 Procedure
13.3.2 Suggested Process
13.3.3 Suggested Uses
13.4 Brown Gravy with Sliced Beef (Semi-cold Pack)
13.4.1 Prepare Beef Slices
13.4.2 Prepare Gravy
13.4.3 Suggested Process
13.5 Bee and Gravy (Cold Pack) (70% Beef, 30% Gravy)
13.5.1 Procedure
13.5.2 Suggested Process
13.6 Beef and Gravy (Cold Pack)
13.6.1 Procedure
13.6.2 Suggested Process
13.7 Sliced Beef in Gravy (for 100-Gallon Batch)
13.7.1 Procedure
13.8 Swiss Steak in Gravy
13.8.1 Prepare Meat
13.8.2 Prepare Gravy
13.8.3 Fill and Close
13.8.4 Suggested Process
13.9 Beef Stew Canned with Pre-cooked Gravy or Cold
13.9.1 Pre-Cooked Gravy Procedure Pack and Process
13.9.2 Cold Gravy Procedure To Make Cold Gravy Mix and Process
13.9.3 Suggested Process for Either Type of Gravy
13.10 Beef Stew with Dehydrated Potatoes
13.10.1 Procedure
13.11 Southern-Style Brunswick Stew (Hot Pack)
13.11.1 Procedure
13.11.2 Suggested Process
13.12 Beef Stroganoff (Hot-Pack)
13.12.1 Prepare Meat
13.12.2 Prepare Gravy
13.12.3 Pack
13.12.4 Suggested Process
13.13 Georgia Hash (Hot Pack)
13.13.1 Procedure
13.13.2 Suggested Process
13.14 Georgia Hash (Cold Pack)
13.14.1 Procedure
13.14.2 Process
13.15 Hungarian-Style Beef and Vegetable Dinner
(Cold Pack)
13.15.1 Procedure
13.15.2 Suggested Process
13.15.3 For Pork and Vegetable Dinner
13.16 Hungarian-Style Goulash (Hot Pack)
13.16.1 Prepare Meat
13.16.2 Prepare Gravy
13.16.3 Fill and Close
13.16.4 Suggested Process
13.17 Hungarian Beef Goulash (Cold Pack)
13.17.1 Procedure
13.17.2 Suggested Process
13.18 Pork and Rice Creole Dinner
13.18.1 Procedure
13.18.2 Suggested Process
13.19 Lima Beans with Ham (Hot Pack)
13.19.1 Prepare Hams
13.19.2 Prepare Lima Beans
13.19.3 Make Gravy
13.19.4 Fill and Close
13.19.5 Suggested Process
13.20 Creamed Chipped Beef
13.20.1 Process
13.21 Creamed Chipped Beef (Hot Pack)
13.21.1 Procedure
13.21.2 Suggested Process
13.22 Stuffed Green Peppers in Tomato Sauce
13.22.1 Prepare Filling
13.22.2 Prepare Sauce
13.22.3 Assemble, Fill Cans, and Close
13.22.4 Suggested Process
13.23 Chop Suey with Vegetable and Beef or Pork
13.23.1 Procedure
13.23.2 Suggested Process
13.24 Smoked Ham with Raisin Sauce
13.24.1 Procedure
13.24.2 Suggested Process
13.25 Canned Ham Saled Spread
13.25.1 To Prepare Meat
13.25.2 To Prepare Dressing
13.25.3 Combine, Fill, and Process
13.26 Meat Balls in Tomato Sauce (Institutional Pack in
no. 10 Tins)
13.26.1 Prepare Meat Balls
13.26.2 Prepare Sauce
13.26.3 Fill, Close, and Process
13.26.4 Suggested Process
13.26.5 Chill
13.27 Meat Balls in Brown Gravy (Institutional Pack in
no. 10 Tins)
13.27.1 Prepare Meat Balls
13.27.2 Prepare Gravy
13.27.3 Fill, Close, Process, and Chill
13.28 Meat Balls in Spaghetti Sauce
13.28.1 Prepare Meat Balls
13.28.2 Prepare Sauce
13.28.3 Fill, Close, Process
13.28.4 Suggested Process
13.29 Spaghetti and Meat Balls in Tomato Sauce with Cheese
13.29.1 Prepare Meat Balls
13.29.2 Prepare Sauce
13.29.3 Prepare Spaghetti
13.29.4 Assemble and Pack
13.29.5 Suggested Process
13.30 Spaghetti Meat Sauce (Hot Pack)
13.30.1 Procedure
13.30.2 Suggested Process
13.31 Cocktail Meat Balls (Dry Pack)
13.31.1 Prepare Mixture
13.31.2 Fry or Broil To Fry To Broil
13.31.3 Drain, Pack, and Fill
13.31.4 Suggested Process
13.31.5 Chill
13.32 Beef and Macaroni in Cheese Sauce (Hot Pack)
13.32.1 Prepare Meat
13.32.2 Prepare Cheese Sauce
13.32.3 Prepare Macaroni
13.32.4 Pack
13.32.5 Suggested Process
13.33 Beef and Noodle Dinner
13.33.1 Prepare Meat
13.33.2 Prepare Egg Noodles
13.33.3 Prepare Gravy
13.33.4 Pack
13.33.5 Suggested Process
13.34 Pork and Beans in Tomato Sauce (Hot Pack)
13.34.1 Prepare Pork and Beans
13.34.2 Prepare Sauce
13.34.3 Fill Cans
13.34.4 Suggested Process
13.35 Ranch-Style Beans with Meat Balls
13.35.1 Prepare Beans
13.35.2 Prepare Meat Balls
13.35.3 Prepare Sauce
13.35.4 Pack and Process
13.35.5 Suggested Process
13.36 Chili with Beans with Textured Soy Flour
13.36.1 Procedure
13.37 Chili Con Carne with or without Beans
13.37.1 Procedure Processing and Cooling
13.38 Plain Chili Con Carne (Hot Pack)
13.38.1 Procedure
13.38.2 Suggested Process
13.39 Chili Con Carne with Beans (Hot Pack)
13.39.1 Procedure
13.39.2 Suggested Process
13.40 Chili Con Carne with Beans (Cold Pack)
13.40.1 Procedure
13.40.2 Suggested Process
13.41 Chili Mak (Cold Pack)
13.41.1 Procedure
13.41.2 Suggested Process
13.42 Hot Dog Chili Sauce with Meat (Hot Pack)
13.42.1 Procedure
13.42.2 Suggested Process
13.43 Pizza Filler with Beef (Hot Pack)
13.43.1 Procedure
13.43.2 Suggested Process
13.44 Sloppy Joe with Textured Soy Flour
13.44.1 Procedure
13.45 Sloppy Joe (Cold Pack)
13.45.1 Procedure
13.45.2 Suggested Process
13.46 Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)
13.46.1 Cook Meat
13.46.2 Make Sauce
13.46.3 Fill
13.46.4 Suggested Process
13.47 Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Semicold Pack)
13.47.1 Procedure
13.47.2 Suggested Process
13.48 Sliced Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)
13.48.1 Prepare Meat
13.48.2 Prepare Sauce
13.48.3 Fill Cans
13.48.4 Suggested Process
13.49 Sliced Pork in Barbecue Sauce
13.49.1 To Prepare Meat
13.49.2 To Prepare Sauce
13.49.3 To Process
13.50 Barbecued Beef in Sauce (Hot Pack)
13.50.1 Barbecue the Beef
13.50.2 Prepare Sauce
13.50.3 Fill Cans and Close
13.50.4 Suggested Process
13.51 Barbecue Party Dip
13.51.1 Procedure
13.51.2 Suggested Process
13.52 Corn Meal Mush with Bacon
13.52.1 Procedure
13.52.2 Suggested Process
13.53 Philadelphia Scrapple
13.53.1 Procedure
13.53.2 Suggested Process
13.54 Mince Meat Pie Filling
13.54.1 Procedure
13.54.2 Fill and Process
13.55 Rum Flavouring for Mince Meat
13.56 Brandy Flavoring for Mince Meat
13.57 English-Style Pork Kidneys in Lemon Sauce
13.57.1 Procedure
13.57.2 Suggested Process
13.58 Canned Rabbit Meat
13.58.1 To Can the Meat
13.58.2 To Can Pieces
13.58.3 Process
13.59 Canned Frog Legs
13.60 Canned Ham and Eggs
13.60.1 Procedure
13.60.2 Suggested Process
13.61 Canned Brains with Gravy
13.61.1 Procedure
13.62 Canned Beef Tripe
13.62.1 Selection of Tripe
13.62.2 Treatment Prior to Canning
13.62.3 Fill Cans
13.62.4 Suggested Process
14.1 Total Viable Counts
14.2 Coliforms
14.3 Enterococci
14.4 Other Indicators
14.5 Standards in Meat Industry
14.6 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System
14.7 ISO-9000 Standards
15.1 Reception Area
15.2 Slaughter Area
15.3 Primary Processing Area
15.4 Secondary Processing Area
15.5 Further Processing Area
15.6 Packaging Area
15.7 Cold Storage
15.8 Dispatch and Loading Area
15.9 By-Product Processing Area
15.10 Waste Treatment Area
15.11 Quality Control and Laboratory
15.12 Ancillary Areas
16.1 Making Stocks, Extract, and Mixes
16.2 Beef Soup Stock
16.2.1 Beef Stock with Vegetables Added
16.3 Chicken Soup Stock
16.4 Beef Extract
16.5 Manufacture of Dry Soups and Gravy Mixes
16.5.1 General Tips
16.5.2 Small-Scale Production
16.5.3 Large-Scale Production
16.6 Soups
16.7 Canned Beef Consomme
16.7.1 Procedure
16.7.2 Fill
16.7.3 Suggested Process
16.8 Canned Jellied Beef Consomme
16.8.1 Suggested Process
16.9 Spanish Bean Soup (Single Strength)
16.9.1 Procedure
16.9.2 Suggested Process
16.10 Frozen Gazpacho
16.10.1 Procedure
16.11 Canned Chicken Broth
16.11.1 Procedure
16.11.2 Suggested Process
16.12 Chicken-Flavoured Soup with Textured Vegetable
16.12.1 Procedure
16.13 Canned Chicken Gumbo Soup
16.13.1 Procedure
16.13.2 Suggested Process
16.14 Condensed Beef Bouillon or Broth
16.14.1 Procedure
16.14.2 Suggested Process
16.15 Condensed Beef Bouillon or Broth with Rice
16.15.1 Suggested Process
16.16 Canned Condensed Chicken Broth
16.16.1 Procedure
16.16.2 Suggested Process
16.17 Canned Condensed Chicken and Noodle Soup
16.17.1 Suggested Process
16.18 Canned Condensed Chicken Broth with Rice
16.18.1 Suggested Process
16.19 Condensed Beef and Noodle Soup
16.19.1 Prepare Beef and Noodles
16.19.2 Prepare Base
16.19.3 Fill
16.19.4 Suggested Process
16.20 Canned Condensed Beef Soup with Vegetables and
16.20.1 Prepare Base
16.21 Prepare Vegetables and Meat
16.21.1 Fill
16.21.2 Suggested Process
16.22 Condensed Cream of Chicken Soup
16.22.1 Procedure
16.22.2 Suggested Process
16.23 Canned Condensed Cream of Chicken Soup
16.23.1 Procedure
16.23.2 Suggested Process
16.24 Canned Condensed Chicken Vegetable Soup
16.24.1 Prepare Meat and Vegetables
16.24.2 Prepare Soup
16.24.3 Fill
16.24.4 Suggested Process
16.25 Condensed Old-Fashioned Vegetable Soup
16.25.1 Prepare Vegetable-Macaroni Mixture
16.25.2 Prepare Soup Base
16.25.3 Fill
16.25.4 Suggested Process
16.26 Canned Condensed Pea Soup
16.26.1 Procedure
16.26.2 Suggested Process
16.27 Canned Condensed Lentil Soup
16.27.1 Suggested Process
16.28 Canned Condensed Cream of Celery Soup
16.28.1 Procedure
16.28.2 Suggested Process
16.29 Canned Condensed Cream of Asparagus Soup
16.29.1 Suggested Process
16.30 Canned Condensed Cream of Spinach Soup
16.30.1 Procedure
16.30.2 Suggested Process
16.31 Canned Condensed Onion Soup
16.31.1 Procedure
16.31.2 Suggested Process
16.32 Canned Condensed Mulligatawny Soup
16.32.1 Procedure
16.32.2 Suggested Process
16.33 Canned Condensed Oxtail Soup
16.33.1 Procedure
16.33.2 Suggested Process
16.34 Canned Condensed Mock Turtle Soup
16.34.1 Procedure
16.34.2 Suggested Process
16.35 Green Turtle Soup
16.35.1 Procedure
16.35.2 Suggested Process
16.36 Snapping Turtle Soup
16.36.1 Procedure
16.36.2 Suggested Process
16.37 Beef-Flavour Soup and Gravy Base Mix
16.37.1 Procedure
16.37.2 To Use
16.38 Beef-Type Broth Mix (Low Sodium)
16.38.1 Procedure
16.38.2 To Use
16.39 Beef Broth Base Mix (Paste from)
16.39.1 Procedure
16.39.2 Recommended Use
16.40 Beef Soup Mix
16.40.1 Procedure
16.40.2 To Reconstitute
16.41 Jellied Beef Consomme Base Mix
16.41.1 Procedure
16.41.2 Recommended Use
16.42 Beef Noodle Soup Base Mix
16.42.1 Procedure
16.42.2 To Use
16.43 Beef Noodle Soup Mix
16.43.1 Procedure
16.43.2 To Use
16.44 Chicken-Type Broth Mix (Low Sodium)
16.44.1 Procedure
16.44.2 To Use
16.45 Clear Chicken Soup Base Mix
16.45.1 Procedure
16.45.2 Recommended Use
16.46 Jellied Chicken Soup Base Mix
16.46.1 Recommended Use
16.47 Soup Dehydrated, Chicken (Type II with Noodles)
16.48 Chicken Noodle Soup Mix
16.48.1 Procedure
16.48.2 To Rehydrate
16.49 Cream of Chicken Soup Base Mix
16.49.1 Procedure
16.49.2 To Use
16.50 Cream of Chicken Soup Mix
16.50.1 Procedure
16.50.2 To Rehydrate
16.51 Chicken Noodle Soup Mix (Dry Style)
16.51.1 Procedure
16.51.2 To Rehydrate
16.52 Chicken Noodle Soup Mix (Paste Style)
16.52.1 Procedure
16.52.2 To Rehydrate
16.53 Chicken-Flavoured Soup Base Mix
16.53.1 Procedure
16.54 Cream of Mushroom Soup Mix
16.54.1 Procedure
16.54.2 To Use
16.55 Instant Onion Soup Mix
16.55.1 Procedure
16.55.2 To Use
16.56 Oxtail Soup Mix
16.56.1 Procedure
16.56.2 To Reconstitute
16.57 Mulligatawny Soup Mix
16.57.1 Procedure
16.57.2 To Reconstitute
16.58 Mock Turtle Soup Mix
16.58.1 Procedure
16.58.2 To Reconstitute
16.59 Beet Soup Mix (Borscht)
16.59.1 Procedure
16.59.2 Recommended Use
16.60 Gravy for Frozen Pot Pies
16.60.1 Chicken Pies
16.60.2 For Turkey Pies
16.60.3 For Tuna Pies
16.61 Frozen Extender for Roast Chicken or Turkey Gravy
16.61.1 Procedure
16.61.2 To Use
16.62 Frozen Giblet Gravy
16.62.1 Prepare Giblets
16.62.2 Prepare Gravy
16.62.3 To Use
16.63 Dry Mix Soup and Gravy Base Beef
16.64 Au Jus Gravy Mix
16.64.1 Procedure
16.64.2 To Use
16.65 Gravy Mix for Keep Pot Roast
16.65.1 Procedure
16.65.2 To Use
16.66 Brown Gravy Mix
16.66.1 Procedure
16.66.2 To Use
16.67 Brown Gravy Mix (Dry)
16.67.1 Procedure
16.67.2 To Use
16.68 Chicken Gravy Mix (Dry)
16.68.1 Procedure
16.68.2 To Use
16.69 Chicken-Flavoured Gravy Mix (Cook-up Type)
16.69.1 Procedure
16.69.2 To Prepare Gravy
16.70 Chicken-Flavored Gravy Mix
16.70.1 Procedure
16.70.2 To Use
16.71 Turkey-Flavored Instant Gravy Mix
16.71.1 Procedure
16.71.2 To Use
16.72 Mushroom Gravy Mix
16.72.1 Procedure
16.72.2 To Use
16.73 Ham-Style Gravy Mix
16.73.1 Procedure
16.73.2 To Use
16.74 Sauces
16.75 Bordelaise Sauce for Freezing
16.75.1 Procedure
16.76 Bottled Meat Sauce
16.76.1 Procedure
16.77 Frozen Sauce a La Barbara with Ham-Like Textured Vegetable Protein Dice
16.77.1 Procedure
16.78 Marinara Sauce Base Mix
16.78.1 Procedure
16.78.2 To Use
16.79 Barbecue Sauce
16.79.1 Procedure
16.80 Barbecue Sauce Mix
16.80.1 Procedure
16.81 Barbecue Sauce Mix
16.81.1 Procedure
16.81.2 To Use
16.82 Oil Spice for Barbecue Sauce
16.83 Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)
16.83.1 Cook Meat
16.83.2 Make Sauce
16.83.3 Fill
16.83.4 Suggested Process
16.84 Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Semicold Pack)
16.84.1 Procedure
16.84.2 Suggested Process
16.85 Barbecue Sauce Prepared with Peanut Flour
16.85.1 Procedure
16.86 Barbecue Sauce
16.86.1 Processing Pointers
16.87 Canned Sweet Barbecue Sauce (Can be Used with
Relish and/or Chutney)
16.87.1 Procedure
16.88 Canned Barbecue Sauce
16.88.1 Procedure
17.1 Importance of Meat Packaging
17.2 Packaging of Fresh Meat
17.2.1 Packaging Requirements
17.2.2 Packaging Materials and Techniques
17.3 Packaging of Frozen Meat
17.3.1 Packaging Requirements
17.3.2 Packaging Materials
17.4 Packaging of Cured Meat
17.4.1 Packaging Requirements
17.4.2 Packaging Materials
17.5 Packaging of Thermo-Processed / Cooked Meat
17.6 Packaging of Dehydrated Meat
17.7 Packaging of Meat Products
17.7.1 Packaging Materials
17.8 Packaging of Poultry
17.8.1 Packaging Materials
17.9 Modern Trends in Meat and Poultry Packaging
17.9.1 Retortable Flexible Pouch
17.9.2 Roast-in-Bags
17.9.3 Microwave Packages
17.9.4 Cryovac Packages
18.1 Meat Spoilage
18.2 Meat Supply Cold Chain Management
18.2.1 Cold Chain in Slaughterhouse Air Chilling Immersion Chilling Spray Chilling Vacuum Chilling
18.2.2 Cold Chain in Meat Distribution
18.2.3 Cold Chain in Meat Retail
18.3 Available Options in Meat Supply Cold Chain Management
18.3.1 Chilled and Frozen Storage Combinations
18.3.2 Superchilling
18.3.3 Ionizing Radiation
18.3.4 Biopreservation
18.3.5 High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP)
18.3.6 Active Packaging Antimicrobial Active Packaging Antioxidant Active Packaging Carbon-Dioxide Emitting/Generating
18.3.7 Wireless Sensors
• Meat Dicer
• Meat Mixer and Grinder
• Brine Injector-Tenderiser
• Frozen Meat Block Cutter
• Table Band Saw
• Meat Ball Forming Machine
• Blast Chiller Refrigerator
• Vacuum Meat Tumbler
• Meat Mincer
• Vacuum Meat Bowl Cutter for Sausage or Can Food
• Meat Tenderizer
• Vacuum Filler
• Sausage Peeler
• Meat Mixer
• Sausage Cooking Vat
• Double Chamber Vacuum Packaging Machine
• Semi-Automatic Tray Sealer
• Smoke Chamber
• Sausage Clipping Machine
• Automatic Thermoforming Packing Machine
• Sausage Stuffer / Filler
• Automatic Digital Meat Flattening Machine
• Air Chiller
• Can Seamer

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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[h1]Preservation and Maintenance of Eggs[/h1]

[p]A freshly laid egg can be assumed to have a highest quality. Since egg is full of essential nutrients, deteriorative changes soon start taking place which may pose a danger to the excellent sensory attributes of this nourishing and satisfying food item. Cleanliness and soundness of shell is the first step to assure the quality of egg to the consumers. The shell quality deficiencies mostly relate to the production practices adopted at the farm. Proper handling of eggs can delay the decline in the quality. Following precautions should be taken during handling of eggs: [/p]

[li]Eggs should be collected 3 to 4 times per day. This will result in less dirty eggs and fewer breakages.[/li]
[li]After collection, eggs should be shifted to holding room maintained at a temperature of about 15°C and 70 to 80% RH atleast for 12 hours.[/li]
[li]Eggs should be properly packed in filler flats with broad end up. Bulk packing should be done in fibre board cartons.[/li]
[li]Eggs should be rapidly moved through the marketing channel so as to reduce the period between production and consumption.[/li]

[p]All preservation methods for shell eggs have been designed to retard one or more of the following physico-chemical alterations which lower the quality of egg as it ages: [/p]

[li]As the surface of egg dries, the keratin cuticle shrinks and size of shell pores increases rendering it easier for gases and micro-organisms to pass in and out of the shell.[/li]
[li]As the warm egg cools down, the egg contents also contract, resulting in the formation of air cell.[/li]
[li]The breakdown of carbonic acid causing loss of carbon dioxide from the albumen is rapid during the first few hours after an egg is laid. The alkaline pH acts on the mucin fibres to disturb the thick gel of albumen making it thin or watery.[/li]
[li]As the egg ages, water migrates from the albumen to the yolk which may overstretch, weaken or even rupture the vitelline membrane.[/li]

[p]Following preservation methods are employed to maintain the quality of shell eggs:[/p]


[p]Earlier, it was a general practice to dry-clean dirty egg shells by abrasive mounting on a mechanical wheel. This practice has now become obsolete because it weakens the shell. These days washing in warm water containing a detergent sanitizer is an effective way of cleaning the eggs with dirty shells. A temperature difference of 10-15°C between eggs and wash water is ideal, otherwise there may be problem of crack shells. Besides, eggs should not be immersed in warm water for more than 3-4 minutes. After washing, the eggs should be dried promptly. Wash water should be changed after washing every five to six baskets of eggs. It should be emphasised that only dirty eggs are subjected to washing. It not only reduces the microbial load on the egg shell surface but also improves the appearance and consumer appeal.[/p]


[p]Oil coating spray of eggs has become very popular for short term storage of this commodity. Coating oil forms a thin film on the surface of the shell sealing the pores. It should be done as early as possible, preferably within first few hours after laying of eggs because loss of CO2 is more during this period and evaporation of moisture is also more during the first few days. Egg coating oil should be colourless, odourless and conform to food grade. Coating is done by dipping the eggs in the groundnut oil whereas for oil spray, the eggs are arranged in the filler flats with their broad end up. If the eggs need washing, oil coating should be done after washing. It is important to drain out excess oil before packaging. The temperature of oil should be in range of 15 to 30°C for ideal results. Oil treatment safeguards the quality of albumen for atleast 7 days because it effectively seals the shell pores.[/p]


[p]This method of preservation is suitable for long term storage of clean eggs in the main laying season and abundant availability. The temperature of cold store is maintained at 0°C (32°F) and relative humidity between 80 to 85 per cent. An anteroom with intermediate temperature is generally provided to check condensation of water vapour on the eggs during removal. Use of new egg packing trays are advised for cold storage. Like all other animal products, eggs also pick up strong odour, so the same cold store cannot be used for storing onion, garlic or any other commodity with strong odour. The quality of shell eggs can be maintained for about 6 months in a cold storage. Oil coating of eggs prior to cold storage can further enhance their keeping quality. Such eggs could keep well at 14oC and 90% RH for a period ot 8 months.[/p]


[p]This preservation method involves stabilisation of albumen quality by holding the eggs in an oil bath maintained at 55°C for 15 minutes or 58oC for 10 minutes. This process brings about coagulation of thin albumen just below the shell membranes, thereby blocking the passage of air and moisture. In addition, oil coating of shell pores also takes place. Thus keeping quality of eggs is maintained for sometimes and thinning of egg white is retarded. Alternatively, eggs are immersed in hot water at 71°C for 2 to 3 seconds. In this flash heat treatment, bacteria present on the surface of the shell are destroyed and a thin film of albumen just below the shell membrane is coagulated sealing the egg shell from inside.[/p]


[p]Under rural conditions, lime-water or water-glass immersion are most useful. In lime-water treatment, a litre of boiling water is added to 1 kg of quick lime and allowed to cool. Now 5 litres of water and 250 g of table salt are added to it. The solution is strained through a fine cloth when the mixture settles down. Eggs are dipped in the clear fluid overnight and then dried at room temperature. In this process, an additional thin film of calcium carbonate is deposited on the egg shell and seals the pores. Such eggs can be stored for a month at ambient temperature. In water-glass treatment, one part of sodium silicate is mixed in 10 parts of water and eggs are dipped overnight. In this process, a thin precipitate of silica is deposited on the egg shell and partially seals the pores.[/p]

[p]It is clear from the above discussion that eggs should be collected frequently, held initially at low temperature and then a suitable preservation method be employed to maintain its keeping quality for anticipated consumer acceptance.[/p]

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