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Handbook on Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology

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Handbook on Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8178330792
Code: NI101
Pages: 750
Price: Rs. 1,100.00   US$ 29.73

Published: 2003
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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The fishery sector is important from Indian economy view point as it contributes a source of income to a number of fishermen and has huge export potential. The systems and technology used in aquaculture has developed rapidly in the last fifty years. They vary from very simple facilities like family ponds for domestic consumption in tropical countries to high technology systems like intensive closed systems for export production. Much of the technology used in aquaculture is relatively simple, often based on small modifications that improve the growth and survival rates of the target species. Nowadays, the fish and fisheries industry is one of the fastest growing international commodity markets globally. Guaranteeing an adequate supply to this international market requires hundreds of thousands of fishing vessels and fish farms, as well as tens of thousands of fish processing workers, wholesalers and retailers in countries spread all over the world. The fishery sector thus generates employment and income for millions of people and in one of the major fields to venture. A wide range of aspects of fresh water aquaculture such as selection of species of fish and shellfish, construction and preparation of various types of fish ponds, control of aquatic weeds and predators, production of seed fish and their transportation, fish nutrition and fish diseases and their control pertaining to composite fish culture, air breathing fish culture etc. have been dealt with a length for easy adoption.
The major contents of the book are classification of fishes, general characters of fishes, techniques in fish identification, cold water fisheries of India, physical and chemical properties of fishery water, chemical constituents of fish, economic importance of fishes, fish in relation to human health, construction of fish farms, etc.
In this book you can find all the basic information required on the fundamental aspects of the fisheries and aquaculture technology with detailed information of their applications a wide variety of industrial processes etc. The book is very useful for research scholars, technocrats, institutional libraries and entrepreneurs who want to enter into the field of aquaculture technology.

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1. Fish, Fisheries and Ichthyology
History of Ichthyology
2. Classification of Fishes
General Characters of Fishes
Major Groups of Living Fishes
Characterization of Living Fish Groups
Class Agnatha (Lampreys and Hagfishes)
Subclass Cyclostomata
Class Chondrichthycs (Sharks, Rays, Skates,
and Chimaeras).
Subclass Elasmobranchii (Sharks, Rays, Skates)
Subclass Holocephali (Chimaeras).
Class Osteichthyes (Bony Fishes)
Subclass Sarcopterygii (Lungfishes and Lobefins)
Subclass Actinopterygii (Higher Bony Fishes)
Major groups of Extinct Fishes
Class Cephalaspides (Osteostraci)
Class Pteraspides (Heterostraci)
Class Palaeospondyli (Cycliae)
Class Pterichthyes (Antiarchi)
Class Coccostei (Arthrodira)
Class Acanthodii
Division I. TAENIOPEDIA (Ribbon young)
(Ancient watchmen)
Division III. EUTELEOSTEI (Intensive Teleostei)
3. Fish Identification
Techniques in fish identification
Morphometric characters
Meristic characters
Descriptive characters
Key to the Identification of Fishes
Fisheries of India
5. Cold Water Fisheries of India
Mirror carp
The Tench (Tinca tinca)
Golden carp (Carassius carassius)
Glyptothorax pectinopterus
Programme of Fisheries
Development of fish in the Hills of
Uttar Pradesh
Composite culture
New Directions
6. Crustacean Fisheries
Crab Fishery
Lobster Fishery
7. Molluscan Fisheries
Shell-fish Fishery
Chank Fisheries
Pearl Fisheries
8. Physico-Chemical and Biological Conditions of Fishery Water 48-58
Physical and chemical properties
Organisms in fishery water
9. Paddy Cum Fish Culture
Requisites of a paddy field for fish culture
Some of the fishes used in India for fish
culture in paddy field's are
10. By-Products of Fishing Industry
Fish Oils
Preparation of body oils of fish
Composition of fish oil
Fish Oil Industry in India
Extraction of liver oil
Liver-oil industry in India
Shark fins
Isinglass (fish-maws)
11. Chemical Constituents of Fish
Flesh of Fishes contains
Mineral constituents
12. Economic Importance of Fishes
By-products of fishes
Fish Protein
Fish glue
Ising glass
Other uses
Shark fins
Controllers of diseases
As baits
An object of sports and entertainment
13. Fish in Relation to Human Health
Fish in Relation to Human Health
14. Fish Aquarium
TANK Selection
Selection of Plants
Selection of Fish
Maintenance of Aquarium
15. The Diversity of Fishes
Adaptations in fishes
16. Hill Stream Fishes
Changes in external form and size of fish
Scale covering etc.
Paired fins (skeleton and musculature
connected with them)
Caudal fin and its peduncle
Mouth, jaws and barbels
Gill opening etc.
Skin and other modifications
Examples of Indian hill stream fishes
17. Plankton and Fish Productivity
Basis of production :
Special adaptations of animals
planktonic life :
The relationship of zooplanktons to the
18. Zooplankton
Characteristic features of zooplankton
as stated before are
Special adaptations of animals to
planktonic existence
19. Transportation and Marketing
Ice and Cold Storage
Fishing Crafts and Gears
Fishing Vessels
Sea Crafts
West Coast
East Coast
River Crafts
Rafts and dug-outs
Plank-built boats
Large fishing boats
Fishing Gears (Nets)
Inland Fishing Gear
Gear used in estuaries, lagoons and back
Gear used in ponds, jheels, lakes and
Gear used in hill streams
Gear used in rivers
20. Processing and Preserving
Cleaning, Boning and Filleting Fish
Boning Round Fish
Skinning and Boning Flat Fish
Preparing Eels
Skinning Dogfish and Tope etc.
Preparing Lobsters and Crabs
Extracting the Meat
Shrimps and Prawns
Shelling Shrimps and Prawns
Potted Shrimps
Shrimp Waste
Salting Fish
Roll mops
Dried Fish
Bottled or Canned Fish
Smoked Fish
Making the Smoke
Preparing the Fish
Smoked Mussels
Smoked Eels
21. Aquaculture - The Concept
Substrate Systems
Seawater Ponds
Aquaculture in Fresh and Brackish Water
Net Cage Husbandry
Dual-Purpose Use of Water and Land
22. Aquaculture - In Practice
Algae and Seaweeds
Marine Fish
Fresh and Brackish Warm Water Fish
The Carp (Cyprinus carpio)
Herbivorous Cyprinids
Tilapia spp.
Milk Fish (Chanos chanos)
Mullet (Mugil spp.)
EELS (Anguilla spp.)
Other Warm Water Fish
Heterotis niloticus
Nile Perch (Lates niloticus)
Haplochromis spp., Hemichromis spp.,
Serranochromis spp.
Labeo spp.
Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis)
Labyrinth Fish
South America
Pirarucu (Arapaima gigas)
Fish in Colder Waters
23. Culturable Fish and Shellfish
Culturable fishes
Indian Major Carps
Exotic (Chinese) Carps
Minor Carps
Catfishes (Order : Siluriformes)
Murrels or Snakeheads
(Order : Channiformes)
Tilapia (Order : Perciformes)
Sport fishes (Cold-water fishes)
Trouts (Order : Salmoniformes)
Salmo trutta fario (Brown trout)
Salmo gairdneri gairdneri (Rainbow trout)
Mahseers (Order : Cypriniformes)
Culturable Shellfish
24. Construction of Fish Farms
Structures of fish ponds
Construction of pond
Determination of Quantity of Earth for the
Construction of Bund
Bund Formation
Inlet and Outlet
Simple inlet and outlet (monk) made of concrete
and bricks
Types of fish ponds
Nursery Pond
Rearing Pond
Production Pond
Other measures to be considered
during the construction of a fish farm
25. Management of Fish Farms-
Nursery pond
Eradication of Aquatic Weeds and Predators
Liming and Fertilisation
Supplementary Feeding
Harvesting of Fry
Rearing pond
Harvesting of Fingerlings
Production pond
Liming and Fertilisation
Harvesting of Fish
General Considerations
26. Induced Breeding and Seedfish Production in Carps
Induced breeding in Indian major carps
Collection of Pituitary Glands
Acetone-Drying of Pituitary Glands
Preparation of Pituitary Extract
Selection of Breeders
Injection of Pituitary Extract in Indian Major
Induced breeding of Chinese carps
Selection of Breeders
Induced breeding of common carp
Jar Hatchery
27. Transport of Seedfish and Breeders
Techniques of transport
Traditional Method
Transport in Closed Containers
Basis for estimating quantity of seedfish
as a standard
Transport of breeders
28. Composite Fish Culture
Economics of composite fish culture
Culture of Air-breathing Fishes
Culturable areas
Collection and rearing of murrel seed
Collection and rearing of catfish seed
Stocking of fingerlings of murrel and catfish
Growth and production
29. Culture of Trouts
Characteristic features of trouts
Trout seed resources
Culture practices
Collection of eggs
Incubation of trout eggs
Flat trays and troughs
Trout hatching jar
Nursery ponds
Rearing Pond and Raceways
Jar System
30. Culture of Ornamental Fishes
Setting up an Aquarium tank
Biological filter and aeration
Importance of Biological Filter
Qualities of Water for Aquarium Tank
Filling Water
Varieties of goldfish
Descriptions of common species of
ornamental fish
Egg Layers
Introduction of fish in an aquarium tank
Breeding of ornamental fish
Egg ScattereRs
Breeding Goldfish
Egg Depositors
Bubble-nest Builders
Water quality for breeding tanks
Selection and conditioning of fish for
Nursing the Young
Culture of Giant Fresh-water
Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
Characteristic features and distribution of M.
Life cycle of M. rosenbergii
Collection of spedprawn
Transportation of seedprawn
Management of production ponds
Growth and Production
31. Fish Farming with Agriculture and Livestock
Fish farming with agriculture
Rice-fish Culture
Simultaneous culture
Simultaneous Culture Of Fresh-water Prawn
and Rice
Rotational culture of rice and fish
Fish Culture in 'Pokkali' Fields
Banana-fish Culture
Fish farming with livestock
Duck-fish Culture
Chick-fish Culture
Chick-pig-fish Culture
Cattle-fish Culture
32. Sewage-fed Fish Culture
Quality of sewage
Sewage treatment
Description of oxidation ponds
Sewage-fed fish ponds
Sewage water for other crops
Model plans
Water Recirculation System for Fish Cultrue
Indoor water recirculation system
Outdoor water recirculation system
33. Culture of Fish Food Organisms
Culture of Diatoms
Sterilisation of glassware
Preparation of medium
Culture in test tubes or Petri dishes
Culture in carboys
Culture in large cylinders
Batch culture
Laboratory culture of zooplankton
Mass culture of zooplankton
Culture of Rotifers and Cladocerans
Culture of Artemia
34. Fish Diseases and Their Control
Medium for fish diseases
Types of diseases
Parasitic Diseases
Disorders by Biotic Factors
Disorders by Abiotic Factors
Acidosis and alkalosis
Miscellaneous diseases
Gas Bubble Disease
Dietary Diseases
35. The Development of New
Techniques for Aquaculture
Environment Controlled Warm Water
Stock Density
Water Quality
Feed Quality
Feed Quantity
Feeding methods
Mechanical Feeders
The Biology of Reproduction
Breeding Technology
Breeding And Multiplication
The Ahrensburg Closed-Cycle System
Clearing Chamber Volume and Flow Rate
Stock Density
Water Pumps
Slat Water Modification
Tank 1: Tilapia aurea x Tilapia nilotica
Tank 2: Tilapia aurea
36. Economics of Fish Culture
Production Function
Yield rate and pond area
Input rates
Input-output co-efficients
The interesting input-output co-efficients are :
Input costs
Labour costs
Interest cost
Other costs
Total cost
Relative share of cost component in total cost
Production, Sales and Costs
Income from Fish Farming
37. Analysis of the Economics of Fish
Pond Size
Yield and input rates
Costs and returns
Farmer's income
Culture Practice
Yield and input rates
Costs and returns
Farmer's income
Water Availability
Yield and input rates
Costs and returns
Farmer's income
Yield and input rates
Costs and returns
Farmer's income
Lease Duration
Yield and input rates
Costs and returns
Farmer's income
Government Intervention
Yield and input rates
Costs and returns
Farmer's income
38. Fish as a Food Commodity
Biochemical Composition of Raw Fish
Nutritional Value of Raw Fish
Nutritional Value of Preserved and Processed
Fish (Fishery Products)
Fish Decomposition
Post-mortem changes and Rigor mortis
Rigor Mortis
Post-rigor decay and spoilage of fish
Enzymatic spoilage
Microbial spoilage
Bacterial flora of fish and bacterial spoilage
Chemical spoilage
Spoilage due to other factors
Spoilage in marine fish
Spoilage of freshwater fish
Fish Preservation
Principles of preservation
Methods of preservation
Special problems in fish preservation
Food-poisoning, Intoxications, Allergies etc.
from Fish
Food-poisoning from eating a poisonous fish
Food-poisoning of bacterial origin
Utilization of Fish as Products and
Fish liver oil
Methods of extraction of fish liver oil from liver
Prototype of fish liver-oil manufacturing plant
Simple model of fish liver-oil extractor for use in
small scale cottage industry
Fish body oil
Fish meal
Fish Silage
Fish manure and guano
Fish Sausage and ham
Fish Glue
Fish leather
Fish Caviar
Fish Macaroni
Fish Biscuits
Cooking effect on Nutritional value of fish
39. Fish Meal
Making Fish Meal at Home
The Separated Liquids
Fish Oil
The Remaining Solids
What Kind of Fish?
40. Seaweed
Carragheen as a Vegetable Gelatine
Soups, Stews and Jams
Some other Carragheen Recipes
Carragheen Blancmange
Carragheen Chocolate Blancmange
Carragheen Jelly
Carragheen Cough Mixture
Sausage Coverings
Laver (Porphyra umbilicalis)
Laver Mutton Sauce
Dulse (Rhodymenia palmata)
Other uses for Seaweed
41. Fecundity
The individual fecundity is determined
as follows
42. A Fish Farm
The situation of the farm
Water supply
Kind of soil
Overflow spillway
Fish Farm Implements
43. Aquatic Pollution
Kinds of pollution
Industrial waste
Mining waste
Silt from soil erosion
Radioactive pollution
Thermal pollution
How pollutants affect the aquatic
Detection and measurement of pollution
Chemical tests
Physical tests
Biological tests
Where pollution is found?
Pollution Control
44. Development of Indian Fisheries
Bold programme required
Research work needed
State help essential
Problems of fishery research
Fisheries development in Japan
Commercial fisheries of India
Outside India
How to develop Indian fisheries
45. Some Traditional Dried
and Smoke Cured Products
Dried Anchoviella
Traditional Drying
Improved Method of Drying
Anchovy Flakes
Laminated Bombay Duck
Brine-pressed Sardines
Salted Boiled Fish (Pindang)
Pre-process Handling
Processing Conditions and Quality Changes
during Storage
Effect of Salt Content in Brine on Quality
Biochemical Changes during Storage
Microbial Changes
Dehydrated Squid
Raw Material Quality
Drying of Squid
Traditional Processing (Chinese Method)
Improved Method
Southeast Asian Method
Philippine Method
Maldive Fish
Traditional Process
Improved Method
Dehydrated Jellyfish
Seasoned Products (Tsukudani)
46. Products From Whole Fish
Dry Reduction
Wet Reduction
Fish Protein Concentrate
Methods of Production
FPC Type B
Texturised FPC
Types of FPC and Recommended Standards
Properties of FPC
Nutritive Value and Consumer Acceptability
Economics of FPC Production
47. Surimi
Raw Materials
Preparation of Mince
Loss and Recovery of Proteins
Types of Surimi
Role of Additives
Polyphosphate and Sodium Chloride
Method of Production
Surimi from Fatty Fish
Properties of Surimi
Future of Surimi
Surimi-based Products
Fish Sausage
Fish Ham
48. Fermented Fishery Products
Fermentation Processes
Liquid Fermented Products (Sauces)
Factors Controlling Sauce Fermentation
Lipid Content of the Fish and Quality of Sauce
Traditional Methods of Fermentation
Traditional Products
Fish Preserved in Fermented Media
Colombo Curing

Paste Fishery Products
Bagoong (Philippines)
Belacan (Malaysia)
49. By-products
Shark Fin Rays
Fish Maws/isinglass
Pearl Essence
Surgical Sutures from Fish Gut Collagen
& Genetic Approach to Fisheries
Fish Genetic (Germ Plasm) Resources
Application to Fisheries management
Capture fishery management
Fish Culture Management
Cryopreservation of Gametes
(Gene Banking)
Cryopreservation technique for sperms :
a flow chart
Thawing for fertilization
Fertilization with cryopreserved sperms
Monosex Culture
Sex Reversal
Sterile Fish
Diploid Hybrid
Triploid (Polyploid) Hybrid
Hybrid Vigour (Favourable Heterosis)
Transgenic Fish
Triploids (Broiler Fish) : Polyploidy
Inbreeding, Cross-breeding and
Selective Breeding
Gold Fish
51. Methods in Fishery Science
Methods of Fish Preservation
Taxonomic Identification
Procedure for identification of new species
for a region or for the literature
Morphometric and other Analysis
of Fish Body
Length of body
Weight of body
Body ratio H/L of fish
Sex Determination
Sexual maturity of the individual
(state of gonads)
Scale reading for age determination
Methods of Measuring Condition of
Fecundity and Reproduction Analysis
Classification of fishes on the manner of
Types of eggs :
Estimation of number of eggs
Fecundity or Ovarian egg counts :
Counting of laid eggs :
Immature stage
Mature stage
Co-efficient of maturity
Identification of eggs and larvae
Food and Feeding (Food Habit) Analysis
of Fish
Forage ratio
Qualitative and quantitative Analysis of Stomach
Numerical method
Frequency of occurrence method
Volumetric method
Gravimetric method
Rate of digestion
Direct method
X-ray method
Histological check of stomach wall
Visual check of oral cavity and gill
Food Items
Enzyme activity in digestion (amylase,
lipase etc.)
Food Co-efficient
Index of relative importance
Classification of fish based on feeding habits
Pathological Analysis of Fish
Diseases and parasites
Bio-assays of Water
Toxicity analysis of pollutants
Chemical Analysis of water for the natural
Dissolved Oxygen [Alsterberg (Azide) method]
Free Carbon dioxide
Determination of ammonia-nitrogen
(by Nesslerisation method)
Alkalinity due to Calcium Carbonate : (SBV).
Physical Analysis of water for the natural
Use a Tackson turbidimeter
Use of Sacchi disc
American Geological Survey method
Temperature measurement
Plankton Sampling
Sampling procedure :
52. Problems, Prospects and Recommendations
Fish farmers
Fish Farmer Development Agencies (FFDA)
Area and Production
Employment and income
Data base
Classification of districts
Over stocking
Institutional credit
Fish Farmers Development Agencies (FFDAs)
Significance of Fisheries
FreshWater Culture Fishery
Need for the Study

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(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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[p]The rising cost of protein-rich fish food and chemical fertilisers as well as the general concern for energy conservation have created an awareness in the utilisation of rice and other crop fields and livestock wastes for fish culture. Fish culture in combination with agriculture or livestock is a unique and lucrative venture and provides a higher farm income, makes available a cheap source of protein for the rural population, increases productivity on small land-holdings and increases the supply of feeds for the farm livestock.[/p]

[h2]Fish farming with agriculture[/h2]

[p]In this system, fish culture is integrated with agricultural crops such as rice, banana and coconut, thereby producing fish and agricultural crops under one interlinked system.[/p]


[p]Though rice-fish culture is an age-old practice in India, it is not given fillip owing to the use of insecticides in rice fields. In India, though six million hectares are under rice cultivation, only 0.03 per cent of this is now used for rice-fish culture. This type of fish culture has several advantages such as (a) economical utilisation of land, (b) little extra labour, (c) savings on labour cost towards weeding and supplemental feeding, (d) enhanced rice yield, and (e) additional income and diversified harvest such as fish and rice from water, and onion, bean, and sweet potato through cultivation on bunds. Considering these, it is imperative to expand fish culture in the rice fields of our country.[/p]

[img src=/g/c/ni-101/1.jpg]

[h3]Fig. 31.1: Flow chart showing various aspects of integrated farming[/h3]

[p]For the culture of fish in combination with rice, varieties such as ADT 6, ADT 7, Rajarajan and Pattambi 15 and 16 are suitable. These varieties not only possess strong root systems but also are also capable of withstanding flooded conditions. Further, they have a life span of 180 dyas and fish culture is possible for about four to five months after their transplantation.[/p]

[p]Fish culture in rice fields may be attempted in two ways, viz. simultaneous culture and rotation culture. In the former, rice and fish are cultivated together and in the latter; fish and rice are cultivated alternately.[/p]

[img src=/g/c/ni-101/2.jpg]

[h3]Fig. 31.2 : Rice field with trenches for rice-fish culture[/h3]

[h3]Simultaneous culture[/h3]

[p]Description of rice plots for fish culture: For simultaneous culture, rice fields of 0.1 ha area may be economical. Normally four rice plots of 250 m2 (25 x 10 m) each may be formed in such an area. In each plot, a ditch of 0.75 m width and 0.5 m depth is dug. The dikes enclosing the rice plots may be 0.3 m high and 0.3 m wide and are strengthened by embedding straw. The ditches have connections with the main supply or drain canal, on either side of which, the rice plots are located, through inlet-outlet structures of the dikes. The depth and width of the supply or drain canal may be slightly smaller than that of the ditches. Suitable bamboo pipes and screens are placed in the inlet and outlet structures to avoid the entry of predatory fish and the escape of fish under culture. The ditches serve not only as a refuge when the fish are not foraging among rice plants, but also serve as capture channels in which the fish collect when water level goes down. The water depth of the rice plot may vary from 5 to 25 cm depending on the type of rice and size and species of fish to be cultured.[/p]

[p]Culturable species of fish in rice fields: The fish species which could be cultured in rice fields must be capable of tolerating shallow water (15 cm), high temperatures (up to 35ºC), low dissolved oxiygen and high turbidity. Species such as Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala, Cyprinus carpio, Chanos chanos, Oreochromis mossambicus, Anabas testudineus, Mugil spp., Clarias batrachus, C. macrocephalus, Lates calcarifer, Channa striatus and C. marulius have been widely cultured in rice fields.[/P]

[p]Culture procedure : Five days after transplanatation of rice, fish fry (1 cm) are stocked at the rate of 5,000/ha or fingerlings (8-10 cm) at the rate of 2,000/ha. The stocking density can, however, be doubled if supplemental feed is given daily, particularly if plankton is found depleted after 10 days of stocking fish. The plankton production in rice fields could, however, be increased if some amount of fertiliser more than what is required for rice fields is added. To control the menace of insects, the insecticide Furadon (Carbofuran) may be used at the rate of 1 kg/ha. The insecticide is mixed with basal fertilisers and applied once during the final harrowing. It may be stated that fish grown in insecticide-applied rice fields are safe for human consumption.[/p]

[p]After a period of 10 weeks (if stocked with fry) or six weeks (if stocked with fingerlings), the rice fields are slowly drained off and the fish are harvested. The harvesting of fish may be done about a week before the harvest of rice. The growth rate of fish is also moderate in rice fields as the production of plankton, the fish food organisms, is rich. Individual growth of 60 g and a per hectare yield of 500 kg have been reported under the simultaneous culture practice.[/p]


[p]Semi-intensive culture of Macrobrachium rosenbergii could be undertaken in rice fields. Unlike for fish-rice culture, bunds for fish-prawn culture are raised so as to enclose 12 cm of water for four months, the period of rice culture. Further, inlets and outlets should be provided with extended screen, say, 0.3 m above water surface to prevent climbing and escape of prawns. One or two small sump pits (1 x 2 x 0.5 m) should also be constructed near the outlet for trapping prawns when water is drained at the time of harvesting. The stocking of juvenile prawns (2-3 cm size) at the rate of 1,000/ha may be done after the rice seedlings are well rooted. No supplementary feeding of prawns is required in this system.[/p]

[p]The simultaneous culture has the following advantages:[/p]

[li]Fish increases rice yield by 5 to 15 per cent, which is chiefly due to the indirect organic fertilisation through the fish excrement and also the control of unwanted filamentous algae which may otherwise compete for the nutrients.[/li]
[li]Tilapia and common carp control the unwanted aquatic weeds which may otherwise reduce the rice yield up to 50 per cent.[/li]
[li]Insect pests of rice like stem borers are controlled by fish feeding on them like murrels and catfish.[/li]
[li]Fish feed on the aquatic intermediate hosts such as malaria causing mosquito larvae, thereby controlling water-borne diseases of human beings.[/li]
[li]Rice fields may also serve as fish nurseries to grow fry into fingerlings. The fingerlings, if and when produced in large quantities may either be sold or stocked in production ponds for obtaining better fish yield under composite fish culture.[/li]

[p]Limitations in simultaneous culture: The simultaneous fish-rice culture may have some limitations, like (a) use of agrochemicals is often not feasible, (b) maintaining high water level may not be always possible, considering the size and growth of fish, (c) fish like grass carp may feed on rice seedlings, and (d) fish like common carp and tilapia may uproot the rice seedlings. However, these constraints may be overcome through judicious management.[/p]

[h2]Rotational culture of rice and fish[/h2]

[p]Through this practice, fish and rice are cultivated alternately. The rice field is converted into a temporary fishpond after the harvest. This practice is favoured over the simultaneous culture practice as it permits the use of insecticides and herbicides for rice production. Further, a greater water depth (up to 60 cm) could be maintained throughout the fish culture period.[/p]

[p]One or two weeks after rice harvest, the field is prepared for fish culture. C. carpio is found suitable for this practice. The stocking densities of fry (2-3 cm) or fingerlings (5-8 cm) for this pracitce could be 20,000/ha and 6,000/ha, respectively. The fry are harvested after 10 weeks, while the fingerlings after six weeks. The average growth of the individual fish under this system has been reported to be about 100 g and a fish yield of about 2,000 kg/ha is possible. Further, it has also been reported that fish yield could exceed the income from rice in the rotational culture.[/p]


[p]In Kerala, fish and prawn are cultured on rotational basis in Pokkali rice fields. These fields under the influence of Vembanad backwaters which are in turn controlled by tides. As these fields are flooded during southwest monsoon (June-Septemeber) rice is cultivated. Fish and prawns are cultured during other periods. Immediately after the harvest of rice, the fields are leased out for the culture of fish and prawns. The young of fish and prawns enter the fields from nearshore waters alongwith high tides. These young are cultured by suitable management until harvest in May. These fields are rich in plankton owing to the decaying of paddy stumps. A prawn yield of 500-1,200 kg/ha has been obtained from Pokkali fields. After the prawn harvest, the water is drained off. Subsequently, the saline nature of rice fields is nullified because of the monsoon rains and the fields are again made fit for rice culture.[/p]

[p]The fish yields of different countries adopting rice-fish culture are given in the following Table.[/p]


[h3]Fish yields of various countries adopting rice-fish culture[/h3]

[tr][th]Country[/th][th]Area under rice-fish culture[/th][th]Fish yield in rice-fish culture[/th][/tr]
[tr][td]Vietnam[/td][td]1,550[/td][td]250-380 kg/4½m[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Indonesia[/td][td]67,000[/td][td]30-50 kg/40-60 d[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Malaya[/td][td]45,500[/td][td]135 kg/yr[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Japan[/td][td]12,000[/td][td]145 kg/yr (without supplementary feed)[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Japan[/td][td]12,000[/td][td]2,250 kg/yr (with supplementary feed)[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Java[/td][td]_[/td][td]30-50 kg/40-60 d[/td][/tr]


[p]When banana or coconut is cultivated in rows in wetlands, the ditches made between such rows act as supply or drainage canals. These canals serve as fish culture systems owing to their round-the-clock supply of water and rich insect populations. Larvivorous air-breathing fish species such as snakeheads C. marulius and C. striatus and tilapia, O. mossambicus are ideal species for culturing in this system.[/p]

[h2]Fish farming with livestock[/h2]

[p]In this practice, excreta of ducks, chicks, pigs and cattle are either recycled for use by fish or serve as direct food for fish. Hence, the expenditure towards chemical fertilisers and supplementary feeds for fish culture is not only curtailed to the barest minimum but also there is economy of space. Integration of fish culture and livestock farming is in vogue in many countries and the income realised has been found to be more than that of exclusive fish farming in ponds.[/p]


[p]It is highly profitable as it greatly enhances the animal protein production in terms of fish and duck per unit area. Ducks are known as living manuring machines. The duck dropping contain 25 per cent organic and 20 per cent inorganic substances with a number of elements such as carbon, phosphorus, potassium, nitrogen, calcium, etc. Hence, it forms a very good source of fertiliser in fish ponds for the production of fish food organisms. Besides manuring, ducks eradicate the unwanted insects, snails and their larvae which may be the vectors of fish pathogenic organisms and water-borne disease-causing organisms infecting human beings. Further, ducks also help in releasing nutrients from the soil of ponds, particularly when they agitate the shore areas of the pond.[/p]

[p]For duck-fish culture, ducks may be periodically allowed to range freely, or may be put in screened resting places above the water. Floating pens or sheds made of bamboo splits may also be suspended in the pond to allow uniform manuring. The ducks may be stocked in these sheds at the rate of 15 to 20/m2. It is better if the ducks are left in ponds only until they reach marketable size. Depending on the growth rate of ducks, they may be replaced once in two to three months. About 15-20 days old ducklings are generally selected. The number of ducks may be between 100 and 3,000/ha depending on the duration of fish culture and the manure requirements.[/p]

[p]For culturing fish with ducks, it is advisable to release fish fingerlings of more than 10 cm size, otherwise the ducks may feed on the fingerlings. The stocking density of fingerlings also depends on the size of pond and number of ducks released in it. As the nitrogen-rich duck manure enhances both phyto- and zooplankton production, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp and zooplankton-feeding catla and common carp are ideal for duck-fish culture. Under a stocking density of 20,000/ha and culture period of 90 days, a fish production of 2,000 kg/ha has been obtained in duck-fish culture.[/p]

[img src=/g/c/ni-101/3.jpg]

[h3]Fig. 31.3: Model showing duck-fish culture[/h3]


[p]The droppings of chicks rich in nitrogen and phosphorus would fertilise fishponds. Poultry housing, when constructed above the water level using bamboo poles would fertilise fishponds directly. It is reported that by stocking 5,000 giant fresh-water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and 1,500 silver carp in one-hectare area, one can harvest 600 kg of prawns and an equal amount of fish in a four-month culture period. The number of chicks used for this system is about 250/ha.[/p]

[p]However, the stocking density of chicks may be increased in the event of increase in the stocking density of fish fingerlings. It is reported that a fish production of 10 t/ha could be obtained by culturing tilapia, common carp and murrels with a stocking density of 20,000 fingerlings/ha and chick density of 4,000/ha. No chemical fertilisers or supplemental feeds have to be given at any stage.[/p]


[p]As chick droppings form a direct food source for pigs, the chicks may be integrated with pigs in a two-tier system, which finally fertilise the fishpond. Depending on the size of the fishponds and their manure requirements, such a system can either be built on the bund dividing two fishponds or on the dry-side of the bund. As shown in the figure, the upper panel is occupied by chicks and the lower panel by pigs.[/p]

[img src=/g/c/ni-101/4.jpg]

[h3]Fig. 31.4: Model showing poultry-pig-fish culture[/h3]

[p]Pigsties, however, may also be constructed in a nearby place where the urine and dung of pigs are first allowed to the oxidation tanks (digestion chambers) of biogas plants for the production of methane for household use. The liquid manure (slurry) is then discharged into the fishponds through small ditches running through pond bunds. Alternately, the pig manure may be heaped in localised places of fishponds or may be applied in fishponds by dissolving in water.[/p]

[p]Pigdung contains more than 70 per cent digestible feed for fish. It is reported that the feed while passing through the alimentary canal of pig, gets mixed with cetain enzymes which continue to act even after defecation. The undigested solids present in the pigdung also serve as direct food source to tilapia and common carp.[/p]

[p]A density of 60-100 pigs has been found to be enough to fertilise a fish pond of one hectare area. The optimum dose of pig manure per hectare has been estimated as five tonnes for a culture period of one year. Such a quantity may be obtained from 50 well-fed pigs. If the manure is to be applied in a dry form, a dosage of 400 kg/ha/day for 12 times in a year will be required. Fish like grass carp, silver carp and common carp (1:2:1) are suitable for integration with pigs. As in the case of chick-fish culture, there is no application of supplemental feeds and fertilisers. It is reported that a fish production of 3,000 kg/ha could be achieved under a stocking density of 5,000 fish fingerlings/ha in a culture period of six months. In India, through pigfish culture, the fish yield was doubled compared to that of polyculture with intensive feeding.[/p]


[p]Similar to pigsties, cowsheds may also be constructed in the vicinity of fishponds and the slurry from the biogas plants may be discharged into fishponds as in the case of pigfish culture.[/p]

[p]Countries like Hong Kong, Taiwan and Philippines have undertaken the integrated fish farming on a commercial scale and obtained considerable fish yields.[/p]

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