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Entrepreneur’s Start-Up Handbook: Manufacturing of Profitable Household (FMCG) Products with Process & Formulations (2nd Revised Edition)

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Entrepreneur’s Start-Up Handbook: Manufacturing of Profitable Household (FMCG) Products with Process & Formulations (2nd Revised Edition)

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788178331645
Code: NI296
Pages: 368
Price: Rs. 1,675.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2018
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
Usually ships within 5 days



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" ‘Startup India, Stand-up India’



“Can India be a ‘Startup Capital’? Can the youth in the states have the opportunities in the form of start-ups, with innovations, whether it be manufacturing, service sector or agriculture?  

                          --- Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India





Startup India Stand up

Our Prime Minister unveiled a 19-point action plan for start-up enterprises in India. Highlighting the importance of the Standup India Scheme, Hon’ble Prime minister said that the job seeker has to become a job creator. Prime Minister announced that the initiative envisages loans to at least two aspiring entrepreneurs from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Women categories. It was also announced that the loan shall be in the ten lakh to one crore rupee range.

A startup India hub will be created as a single point of contact for the entire startup ecosystem to enable knowledge exchange and access to funding. Startup India campaign is based on an action plan aimed at promoting bank financing for start-up ventures to boost entrepreneurship and encourage startups with jobs creation.

Startup India is a flagship initiative of the Government of India, intended to build a strong ecosystem for nurturing innovation and Startups in the country. This will drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities. The Government, through this initiative aims to empower Startups to grow through innovation and design.



What is Startup India offering to the Entrepreneurs?

Stand up India backed up by Department of Financial Services (DFS) intents to bring up Women and SC/ST entrepreneurs. They have planned to support 2.5 lakh borrowers with Bank loans (with at least 2 borrowers in both the category per branch) which can be returned up to seven years.

PM announced that “There will be no income tax on startups’ profits for three years”

PM plans to reduce the involvement of state government in the startups so that entrepreneurs can enjoy freedom.

No tax would be charged on any startup up to three years from the day of its establishment once it has been approved by Incubator.



India Government is promoting finance for start-up ventures and providing incentives to further boost entrepreneurship, manufacturing and job creation. The correct choice of business is an extremely essential step in the process of ‘being your own boss’. This handbook contains few formulations of cosmetic products, properties and manufacturing process with flow diagrams of various products. After gathering the above information of products, the decision of choosing an appropriate one will no longer be a cumbersome process.



The Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) sector, also called the consumer packaged goods (CPG) sector, is one of the largest industries worldwide. FMCGs are generally cheap products that are purchased by consumers on a regular basis. FMCG sector is the fourth largest sector in the economy and creates employment for more than three million people in downstream activities. The FMCG market is estimated to treble from its current figure in the coming decade.

Fast Moving Consumer Goods Companies have been expanding rapidly. Most of the product categories like jams, toothpaste, skin care, shampoos, etc, have low per capita consumption as well as low penetration level, but the potential for growth is huge. The industry has developed both in the small scale sector and organized sector.

Major contents of the book are banana wafers, biscuits, bread, candy, chocolates, potato chips, rice flakes (poha), corn flakes, baby cereal food, fruit juice, milk powder, paneer, papad, ghee, extruded food (kurkure type), instant noodles, instant tea, jam & jelly, khakhra, soft drinks, spices, sweet scented supari, detergent powder, detergent soap, face freshener tissue, floor cleaner, glass cleaner, henna based hair dye, herbal creams, herbal hair oil, herbal shampoo, incense sticks, lipsticks, liquid detergent, mosquito coils, nail polish, air freshener (odonil type), naphthalene balls, phenyl, shoe polish, tissue paper, toilet cleaner, tooth brush, tooth paste, toothpicks, utensil cleaning bar, packaging.

It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs and food technologists.

"

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Contents

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Contents
1. Introduction
2. Banana Wafers
3. Biscuits
4. Bread
5. Candy
6. Chocolates
7. Potato Chips
8. Rice Flakes (Poha)
9. Corn Flakes
10. Baby Cereal Food
11. Fruit Juice
12. Milk Powder
13. Paneer
14. Papad.
15. Ghee
16. Extruded Food (Kurkure Type)
17. Instant Noodles
18. Instant Tea
19. Jam & Jelly
20. Khakhra
21. Soft Drinks
22. Spices
23. Sweet Scented Supari
24. Detergent Powder
25. Detergent Soap
26. Face Freshener Tissue
27. Floor Cleaner
28. Glass Cleaner
29. Henna Based Hair Dye
30. Herbal Creams
31. Herbal Hair Oil
32. Herbal Shampoo
33. Incense Sticks
34. Lipsticks
35. Liquid Detergent
36. Mosquito Coils
37. Nail Polish
38. Air Freshener (Odonil Type)
39. Naphthalene Balls
40. Phenyl
41. Shoe Polish
42. Tissue Paper
43. Toilet Cleaner
44. Tooth Brush
45. Tooth Paste
46. Toothpicks
47. Utensil Cleaning Bar
48. Packaging
49. Few Formulations of Cosmetic Products
50. Good Manufacturing Practices in Food Industry

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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INTRODUCTION

Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) Industry in India

is one of the fastest developing sectors in the Indian economy.

At present the FMCG Industry is worth US$ 13.1 billion and

it is the 4th largest in the Indian Economy. This is due to

the increase in per capita income among individuals and

also various developments in rural economy. The FMCG sector

has changed its strategies and has opted for a more wellplanned

marketing of the products to penetrate both the rural

and urban markets. These products have very fast turnaround

rate, i.e. the time from production to the revenue

from the sell of the product is very less. In the present

economic scenario, time is regarded as money, so the FMCG

companies have to be very fast in manufacturing and

supplying these goods.

The FMCG sector has attracted a large number of

consumers in both the urban and rural sectors in India the

past few decades through better penetration and low-priced

products. Various manufacturers of FMCG products are

concentrating on increasing the sales volume due to the

rising demand of the consumers. Creativity and innovation

are the major attributes required for success in the sector.

Large-scale FMCG companies have won the hearts of

consumers by delivering high-end and innovative products

at affordable range.

Different Components of the FMCG Market

Household care

Household care products include bath soaps and

detergents. The market size for soaps is estimated at Rs. 83

billion, comprising the premium, economy and popular. The

penetration level of soaps is 92 per cent. They are available

in 5 million retail stores, of which 75 per cent are in the rural

areas. Hindustan Unilever Limited (HUL) is the leader with

a market share of 53 per cent; Godrej occupies second

position with a market share of 10 per cent. With increase

in disposable incomes, rural demand is expected to increase

because consumers are moving up towards premium

products.

Detergents

The size of the detergent market is estimated at Rs. 120

billion. Small unorganised players account for a major share

of the detergent market. In washing powders, HUL is the

leading company with 38per cent of the market share. Other

major players are Nirma, Henkel, and Proctor & Gamble.

 

BANANA WAFERS

Banana Wafers are a popular snack eaten world over.

It is high in saturated fat content. They are a tropical snack.

These are hot, salty, crunchy fried plantain wafers. It is

served as part of a traditional meal in South India. It is very

popular in many countries in the tropical belt. It is an

alternative to potato and corn wafer. Banana (Musa sp.) is

the second most important fruit crop in India next to mango.

Its year round availability, affordability, varietal range, taste,

nutritive and medicinal value makes it the favorite fruit

among all classes of people.

Banana is one of the richest iron source green vegetable.

It can be preserved for 3 months or more by reducing

moisture in it. This may be done by drying procedure or

frying procedure. This is preserving art of green vegetable

for long time.

Bananas can also be dried whole or in long strips until

they are leathery and chewy. They have higher sugar

content and are not crispy like the dried wafers. They are

sometimes referred to as banana figs.

Bananas can also be dried whole or in long strips until

they are leathery and chewy. They have higher sugar

content and are not crispy like the dried wafers. They are

sometimes referred to as banana figs.

There are two different methods for making banana

wafers. One of these is to deep fry thin slices of banana in

hot oil, in the same way as potato wafers or crisps. The other

is to dry slices of banana, either in the sun or using a solar

or artificial dryer.

Composition of Fried Banana :

MOISTURE                             9.3%

SUGAR                                    7.2%

STARCH                                  68.8%

PROTEIN                                                5.0%

ETHER EXTRACT                  0.4%

CRUDE FIBRE                        1.5%

PECTIN                                   2.5%

ACIDITY                                 2.2%

ASH                                         3.1%

TOTAL                                    100.00

CANDY

Confectionery products are universally popular among

the young and the older generations alike. With increased

access to better machinery, openness among customers to

newer tastes and flavors and affordability of required raw

materials, the confectionery industry is thriving like never

before. Candy or Sweet is the most popular type of confectionery

over the world, and there is certainly something

about this unique product that holds many mysterious

qualities. Generally candies are available in fruit based

flavors or Milk based flavor and sometimes with centre

filling also. While we often think about candy as a food for

children, we all know that adults love this delicious food

as well.

There are different types of candies that are produced

today in the world. the range of candies available in today’s

market include such treats as soft and tender golden

caramels, elegant truffles and fudges, chewy licorice,

sumptuous chocolates, mouthwatering toffee and hard

candy, as well as nougats, rolls, jelly beans and gum drops.

A natural milk candy, composed mainly of milk powder,

and rich calcium and other nutrients. The milk candy

represents a great in-between meal dietary snack. It can be

flavored with chocolate, coffee and other natural flavors.

Uses of Candy

• Candy is usually liked by all age groups of people as a

confectionery

• Candies are used after meal, dinners as smooth

refresher. It drives away bad smell from mouth and

refreshes the breath. Some times it causes good

sensation while chewing.

Properties of High-Boiled Candy

Sugar has the property of forming a type of

noncrystalline “glass” that forms the basis of hard candy

products. Sugar and water are boiled until the

concentration of the solution reaches a high level, and

supersaturation persists upon cooling.

RICE FLAKES (POHA)

Poha industry comprises an important segment of

Industrial activity in food processing industry in the

country. It provides nutritious breakfast and food to a large

number of households in cities, towns and even villages of

India. Bread, poha and biscuits consumption is increasing

every day and these are being increasingly used for various

feeding programmes for children managed by voluntary

agencies and state Departments of Health, Education and

Tribe Welfare.

Poha industry has also an important role in popularizing

wheat in traditionally nonwheat consuming regions of

the country. Poha consumed by people of all ages and all

times. With tea and coffee, Poha make tasty and nutritious

snack. There is a definite need for the poha industry to make

in roads in the rural areas.

Manufacturing of poha products have substantial scope

for development in smaller towns, village and backward

areas and can provide a good number of employment

opportunities at different levels.

Uses & Applications

It is a vegetable food, all the men and women eating

the poha in the breakfast. Children like it. It has light in

weight so it cannot be harmful in any stage. The urgency

for the development of nutritionally balanced protein foods,

which would be within the reach of a substantial portion

of the population in a country like India, can hardly be overemphasized.

MILK POWDER

Dairy products are the major source of calcium as well

as other important nutrients, in human diet and are highly

perishable. Converting milk into milk powder increases its

shelf life and enables it to be stored for extended period

(about 1 year) without substantial loss of quality, even at

ambient temperatures. The dairy-based powders are not

only used for recombination or reconstitution, but they can

be exploited for their intrinsic functional properties for

application as a food ingredient in several “value-added

foods” such as confectionery, bakery, and meat products.

Milk also provides other essential nutrients such as

riboflavin, phosphorus, protein, potassium, vitamin A,

vitamin B 12 and niacin. The calcium from dairy products

is readily bio-available. Milk Powder is the milk that has

been dried or desiccated. This is usually done by heating the

milk. The final product contains less than three percent

water. Milk powder can be prepared from whole milk. Milk

from which fat has been partially removed, or from skim

milk.

Powdered milk or dried milk is a manufactured dairy

product made by dehydrating liquid milk through several

drying processes until it is a powder. One purpose of drying

milk is to preserve it; milk powder has a far longer shelf life

than liquid milk and does not need to be refrigerated.

Property of Milk Powder

The most of important practical property of milk which

can be reconstituted into solution or colloidal suspension in

water, Spray powder usually gives figures of about 99

percent, while roller powders give figures of about 90

percent. It should be noted, however, that the solubility of

a powder may be increase considerably neutralization of

the milk, since the excess sodium irons bring more protein

and phosphate into solution.

GHEE

The word ghee is evolved from Sanskrit word ghrita.

Ghee, the most famous traditional dairy product in India

and many countries in Middle East. It is made from milk,

cream, or butter of several animal species. Ghee is a common

Indian name for clarified butter fat that originated in India

and is commonly used in South Asian (Indian, Bangladeshi,

Nepali, Sri Lankan, and Pakistani) cuisine. Ghee is also

lactose-free and contains no salt. Ghee or pure butterfat,

looks like liquid gold and is the most soothing and delicious

ingredient imaginable. Milk from different animal species

affected on ghee quality. It is made from cow’s or buffalo

milk.

Ghee has rich, sweet and deliciously nutty flavour. A

little amount of ghee adds a lot of flavor to the food. Golden

colored ghee is prepared by melting and simmering

unsalted butter until all the water evaporates and the milk

solids settle at the bottom. The remaining butter oil is very

stable giving it a high smoke point which makes it an

excellent choice for cooking. It can be stored without

refrigeration for several months. Ghee is a dairy product and

as such it is gluten free. Ghee is said to be made of saturated

fatty acids but of short chain fatty acids. This makes them

easy to digest. It has a long shelf life if it is stored in a cool

place, using airtight, lightproof and moisture-proof

containers to slow down the development of rancidity.

Nutritional benefits of Ghee

• Ghee is said to be made of saturated fatty acids

but of short chain fatty acids. This makes them easy

to digest unlike the saturated fats found in animal

meats which are difficult to digest.

• It contains fat soluble vitamins such as A, D, E and

hence can benefit vegetarian.

• Ghee is said to be great for the lactose intolerant as the

lactose sugar is broken down on clarification. Hence

they can benefit the vitamins.

• Due to its fat contents, it also absorbs the vitamins from

the food it is added to, hence making the vitamins available to the body.                                                          

JAM & JELLY

 

Jams and jellies are made from a variety of fruits, either

singly or in combination. Most of the fruits are harvested in

the fall. The level of ripeness varies. Pears, peaches, apricots,

strawberries, and raspberries gel best if picked slightly

underripe. Plums and cherries are best if picked when just

ripe. Most jam and jelly producers develop close relationships

with their growers in order to ensure quality.

Jam is a product containing both soluble and insoluble

fruit constituents Jam and jelly are made from fruits and

they are being made since long in different forms. Jam &

jelly are made from fruits, fruit pulps or extracts. Jam is

boiled fruit pulp with sugar and preservatives and is thick.

Jelly is also made by boiling but is clear, sparkling and

transparent. These products are applied to some snacks or

bread. They are also used in making certain desserts. Jam

& jelly are used in homes as well as restaurants and other

eateries. They enjoy substantial shelf life and thus can be

made available round the year. These products can be

produced in many states of the country.

Jellies are made by cooking fruit juice with sugar. Jelly

is made from fruit juice and the end product is clear and

firm enough to hold its shape when removed from the

container. When cut, jelly should be tender yet retain the

angle of the cut. Jelly should taste fresh and fruity.

Essential Ingredients

Pectin is a natural plant substance that causes fruit to

gel. Fruits such as apples, crabapples, currants, grapes and

some plums contain enough natural pectin to form a gel;

others require added pectin. Follow the manufacturer’s

directions or tested recipes for each type of pectin.

Acid is needed for gel formation and flavor. The

amount of acid in fruits also varies with the fruit and degree

of ripeness. When using low-acid fruits in recipes without

commercial pectin, add 1 tablespoon lemon juice or 1/8

teaspoon citric acid for each cup of fruit.

SWEET SCENTED SUPARI

Supari is the dehydrated betel nut sliced for direct

consumption. It is used as mouth fresher after food. It is a

typical Indian product popular with both young and old.

Sweet scented supari is used to remove bad odour of mouth

& for refresh feeling. Betel nuts are abundantly found in the

North Eastern Region and are extensively used. Conversion

of betel nut to supari confers substantial value addition to

the extent of 80% of the cost. Scented Supari is available in

many forms, but the various constituents or the main

ingredients remain nearly the same. Scented Supari may be

mixed in tobacco, Pan Masala etc. Due to its flavouring taste

children used it very enthusiastically.

Betel nuts are consumed in large quantities across the

country. The betel (Piper betel) is the leaf of a vine belonging

to the Piperaceae family, which includes pepper and kava.

It is valued both as a mild stimulant and for its medicinal

properties. It is a typical Indian habit and they are eaten by

many purely as an addiction whereas some

Uses and Applications

1. It is used to refresh the mouth.

2. It freshens up mouth and breathes with its flavour.

3. It is chewed by all age group people.

4. It is served to guests after lunch and dinner to keep

mouth fresh.

5. It helps in digestion of food after meals

6. It is served in marriages, parties or any other special

occasions.

INCENSE STICKS

Agarbatties” also known as “incense sticks” are made

from aromatic plants and essential oils extracted from plants

sources. When lightened, they release fragrant smoke, which

is used in religious activities, prayers, therapeutic and aesthetic

purposes. These have been used since times immemorial as

an integral part of Hindu deity worship in India. Agarbatti

production is a labour-intensive activity, offering high

employment opportunities for rural communities. Growth

in production is directly proportional to the number of people

involved in production.

Incense stick or agarbatti has been with mankind since

the beginning of time. It is a part of Indian heritage. In almost

all the religions of the world, there is a special place and

importance for agarbatti. These natural materials besides

purifying the air before important religious rituals also had

disinfectant and fungicidal properties. It symbolizes purity,

holiness and divinity. It creates a divine atmosphere. Its

distinctive fragrance, when gushes in the air, entices,

relaxes, soothes, refreshes and just creates this scintillating

magic. The sweet fragrance of scent keeps one fresh & cool

throughout. The agarbatti is used by almost every family in

India on a daily basis. Agarbatti or incense sticks are used

at all homes, shops and religious places.

Uses and Application

• Agarbatti is used by almost all homes in the country

and by all communities, not only in the Hindu

community, it is also largely consumed by Mohamdun

Community.

• It has been the tradition of people to burn agarbatti

while opening of shop, office and other commercial

establishments. Apart from this agarbatties are highly

consumed on the festivals and religious places.

TISSUE PAPER

Tissue paper products are made from light weight, dry

creped and some non-creped paper. Typical products are

tissue paper, kitchen towels, handkerchiefs, facials, napkins,

hand towels, and wipes. Some tissue paper products, in

particular kitchen towels and napkins, are sometimes put

in contact with food by end users. These products exhibit

the typical characteristics of tissue paper, such as softness,

high absorption capacity and limited structural strength.

These products can be made of one or several plies, each

ply of one or several layers, prepared as sheets or rolls, folded

or unfolded, embossed or unembossed, with or without

lamination, printed or unprinted and possibly finished by

post treatment, e.g. lotion application.

Tissue can be made both from virgin and recycled paper

pulp. Tissue and Airmail papers are required for very

specific purposes. Tissue paper kitchen towels and napkins

(hereafter, kitchen towels and napkins) are multifunctional

products. Their main use is for hygiene and cleaning

purposes, and they are not specifically intended for contact

with foodstuffs. Food contact use remains limited and

occasional.

Uses and Applications

Tissue paper is used in a wide variety of arts and crafts.

It is used in college, mosaics, stamping, gift-wrapping,

papier-mâché, ornaments, garlands, paper flowers, paper

sculpture. Some tissue paper is guaranteed not to bleed, and

some is designed to bleed so that water can be applied and

the color used to create artistic effects.

Tissue paper is often used for direct inside part

wrapping as in the jewellery, liquor, fruit and florist trades,

various other tissue papers are used for specific purposes.

Napkins are manufactured from Tissues. Paper Napkin

age becoming popular with catering Industry due to its

manifold uses. These are absorbent, hygienic light and can

be had with attractive printing. The following brief utility

of paper napkins obtained from Tissue paper may be

enumerated.

Properties and Characteristics

• Tissue paper products have a number of important

properties, Kitchen towelling, for example, has a wet

strength agent added, and there is much less focus on

softness, but more on strength and absorbency. In toilet

tissue, surface feel and softness are more important

quality attributes, and if wet strength additives are

used, then these are only at low levels.

• The purpose of most tissue products is to be wetted. A

sufficient wet strength is therefore required to prevent

the paper from falling apart when it is moist or soaked.

TOOTH BRUSH

 

 

Tooth brush occupies a prominent and very important

place among the dentrifice available today.Tooth brushing

has become a universally accepted first line of defense

against illness. Due to the increasing awareness and

importance of dental hygiene in the upkeeping of human

health, the use of tooth paste was confined to the upper and

upper middle classes of urban society, but with increasing

awareness the use of tooth brush has become well

established in even rural house hold. Tooth brush being

consumer product and its market being quite competitive

and also acceptable. For keeping good health, care of teeth

is one of the essential step.Toothbrushes should be replaced

when bristles show signs of wear. Brushing is more effective

with multi-tufted, small-headed toothbrushes with soft to

medium nylon filaments and a comfortable handle.

A toothbrush is a dental instrument used for cleaning

teeth, ideally in conjunction with toothpaste or mouthwash.

The toothbrush consists of a plastic handle and nylon bristles

attached to the head of the brush. Contemporary designs

offer a variety of styles and shapes in a market.There are

variety of tooth brushes available in market, depending

upon the size and quality and material used. There is a wide

demand created in the country for this item. Good quality

items in this category can be manufactured with latest

technical know-how available.

Uses & Applications

Tooth brushes are widely used and vastly known to a

common man, because every morning and perhaps after

every dinner his/her hands reaches for it as a general. It

has now become the common man need for brushing the

mouth so that he/her may feels fresheness and keep him/

her self away from foul smell and dental diseases.

TOOTHPICKS

Tooth picks are very convenient for tooth picking. The

consumerism in India is increasing and the eating out habits

of the people is increasing day by day with the launching

of chin shops modern restaurants etc in India. The tooth

picks are largely consumed in all the restaurants.

A toothpick is a small stick of wood, plastic, bamboo,

metal, bone or other substance used to remove detritus from

the teeth, usually after a meal. A toothpick usually has one

or two sharp ends to insert between teeth. They can also be

used for picking up small appetizers (like cheese cubes or

olives) or as a cocktail stick.

An entrepreneur interested in this line of business will

produce at optimal capacity, and in no distant time, realise

the initial invested funds. Moreover, survey carried out

indicated that the market for toothpicks exists, is expanding,

as well as sustainable. Daily, people use toothpicks in

hotels, restaurants, homes, public gatherings, and other

institutions.

Uses of Toothpick

Wooden toothpicks for tooth are used for cleaning of

teeth. Daily, people use toothpicks in hotels, restaurants,

homes, public gatherings, and other institutions.

They are also used for creating sculpture to decorate

interior of houses.

They can also be used for picking up small appetizers

(like cheese cubes or olives) or as a cocktail stick.

 

HENNA BASED HAIR DYE

Hair dye is one of the oldest known beauty preparations,

and was used by ancient cultures in many parts of the world.

Lots of people occasionally have the urge to change or enhance

their hair color, but are unwilling to use the harsh and, in

some cases, potentially harmful hair dying chemicals found

in most commercial dyes and color rinses. A need was felt

to formulate a dye containing only plant products which is

safe for use and does not have the problems of staining skin

during use and hypersensitive reactions. A dye can generally

be described as a colored substance that has an affinity to

the fiber, fur or hair.

Henna’s leaves have a red-orange dye molecule,

Lawson, visible in young leaves in the center vein of the leaf.

Henna leaves are abundantly used for making different

types of colours. Henna leaves have very high commercial

value. Henna leaves may be used fresh, though they are

more often harvested, dried, and powdered. It has natural

properties to produce colours and that characteristic is used

in the cosmetic industries. Henna leaves have property to

react with different chemicals and form different variety of

colours. Henna powder is a fully herbal product. Henna

leaves produce variety of alka oxide, which forms color by

aerial oxidation

Henna is a natural dye extracted from the dried and

powdered leaves, petioles and young shoots of the

mignonette tree, or henna shrub (Lawsoniainermis). The

natural dye is traditionally found in India, Pakistan, Middle

East, and Northern Africa. When ground the dried leaves

become a greenish powder, but the dye is reddish to dark

brown. Strong tea or coffee, lemon juice (or other acidic

liquid) and essential oils (such as tea tree, eucalyptus, clove

and lavender) can be used to release the dye from the

powder.

The dye can be mixed with water to make a paste with

mud-like consistency that will adhere well to the hair. The

paste should be allowed to oxidize for a couple of hours

before use. After the paste has been applied to the hair, it

should stay on the hair as long as possible (usually for about

1-3 hours).

Properties of Hair Dyes

1. It should be non-toxic to the Hair and skin.

2. It should not be irritant to the skin.

HERBAL CREAMS

Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance

or odor of the human body. Cosmetics include skin-care

creams, lotions, powders, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail and

toe nail polish, eye and facial makeup, permanent waves,

colored contact lenses, hair colors, hair sprays and gels,

deodorants, baby products, bath oils, bubble baths, bath salts,

butters and many other types of products. Creams are as

popular with males as with females. Herbal cosmetics have

growing demand in the world market and are an invaluable

gift of nature. There are a wide range of herbal cosmetic

products to satisfy beauty regime. Herbal cosmetics are in

high demand due to the increasing interest of mankind

towards them because they are more effective with nil or

less side effects, easily available ingredients etc.

Cleaning cream, face cream and moisturizer and other

lotions are used to clean the skin or face and throat. Before

and after washing face and skin with water we use it to cure

the skin. Generally it is very effective the oily skin. Oily skin

causes the skin rough and creates pimples on the face. It also

gives moisturisation to the skin and also it is antiseptic.

Properties of Herbal Cream

• The appearance of the cream is judged by its color,

pearl essence and roughness and graded.

• After the application of the cream, the type of film or

smear formed on the skin is checked.

HERBAL HAIR OIL

Herbal hair oil not only moisturizes scalp but also

reverses dry scalp and dry hair condition. It provides

numerous essential nutrients required to maintain normal

functions of sebaceous gland and promote natural hair

growth. Herbal hair oil is more preferred and is used in many

ailments of hair. They promote hair growth, improve

elegance of hair and prevent hair fall. Hair oil not only

promotes hair growth they also provide necessary moisture

to the scalp rendering in beautiful hair.

Hair oils are the hair care preparations used for the

prevention and treatment of baldness or other ailments,

aggression of hair. They also promote the luxurious growth

of hairs. Hair oil containing herbal drugs are used as hair

tonic. Hair care products are categorized into two main

category, hair tonics and hair grooming aids.

These are basically the extracts of medicinal plants in

an oil base. A few of these herbs are amla, henna, neem,

methi, lemon, tulsi, brahmi, shikakai, reetha, liquorice root,

musk root, mahabhringraj, jatamasi, chitraka, marigold,

hibiscus, nutmeg, parsley, rosemary, thyme.

 

HERBAL SHAMPOO

Herbal cosmetics have growing demand in the world

market and are an invaluable gift of nature. There are a wide

range of herbal cosmetic products to satisfy beauty regime.

Adding herbs in cosmetics is very safe for our skin. Herbal

cosmetics are in high demand due to the increasing interest

of mankind towards them because they are more effective

with nil or less side effects, easily available ingredients etc.

Shampoos are probably the most widely used cosmetic

products for cleansing hairs and scalp in our daily life. A

shampoo is basically a solution of a detergent containing

suitable additives for other benefits such as hair-conditioning

enhancement, lubrication, medication etc. Now-a-days

many synthetic, herbal, medicated and nonmedicated

shampoos are available in the market but popularity of

herbal shampoo among consumers is on rise because of their

belief that these products being of natural origin are safe and

free from side effects. Synthetic surfactants are added to

shampoo primarily for the foaming and cleansing action but

their regular use leads to dryness of hairs, hair loss, irritation

to scalp and eyes.

A good shampoo used to remove surface grease, dirt

and skin diseases from the hair and scalp without affecting

hair adversely. A good shampoo should cleanse hair and

scalp through without stoning or irritation and should not

remove too much of natural oil from the scalp. The success

of shampoo is replacing a cake of soap lies in the fact that

the shampoo is not only a detergent but a cosmetic as well

as that it must import luster beauty and manageability.

Properties

• Triethanolamine lauryl sulphate is a brown transparent

viscous liquid and is the most widely accepted

cleaning agent used in shampoos. Sodium lauryl

sulphate is a powder highly soluble in water and is a

good emulsifier, it may also be obtained as a paste.

Mono ethanolamine lauryl sulphate is similar to

triethanolamine lauryl sulphate and its viscosity can

be increased by adding sodium chloride.

INCENSE STICKS

Agarbatties” also known as “incense sticks” are made

from aromatic plants and essential oils extracted from plants

sources. When lightened, they release fragrant smoke, which

is used in religious activities, prayers, therapeutic and aesthetic

purposes. These have been used since times immemorial as

an integral part of Hindu deity worship in India. Agarbatti

production is a labour-intensive activity, offering high

employment opportunities for rural communities. Growth

in production is directly proportional to the number of people

involved in production.

Incense stick or agarbatti has been with mankind since

the beginning of time. It is a part of Indian heritage. In almost

all the religions of the world, there is a special place and

importance for agarbatti. These natural materials besides

purifying the air before important religious rituals also had

disinfectant and fungicidal properties. It symbolizes purity,

holiness and divinity. It creates a divine atmosphere. Its

distinctive fragrance, when gushes in the air, entices,

relaxes, soothes, refreshes and just creates this scintillating

magic. The sweet fragrance of scent keeps one fresh & cool

throughout. The agarbatti is used by almost every family in

India on a daily basis.

Uses and Application

• Agarbatti is used by almost all homes in the country

and by all communities, not only in the Hindu

community, it is also largely consumed by Mohamdun

Community.

• It has been the tradition of people to burn agarbatti

while opening of shop, office and other commercial

establishments. Apart from this agarbatties are highly

consumed on the festivals and religious places.

Different Raw Materials for Aggarbatti

Halmaddi

The botanical name is Ailanthus Malabarica. An

Ornamental, deciduous large tree growing naturally in the

Western Ghats of India, Konkan southwards. When a

moderately deep incision is made on the bark of standing

trees, a fragrant resin called “Halmaddi” (Kannada name)

oozes out, which is used in the manufacturer of

Aggarbatties. After collection, it is distilled & then used in

Dhoop & Aggarbatties (Incense). Many popular handrolled

Indian Incense sticks are made from the perfumed

resins of Halmaddi tree.

LIQUID DETERGENT

A liquid detergent is a surfactant or a mixture of

surfactants with “cleaning properties in dilute solutions.”

Liquid detergents are convenience products. Compared with

powdered detergent dissolve more rapidly, particularly in

cold water, they generate less dust, and they dose. It is not

surprising, therefore, those liquid forms of household cleaning

product developed by manufacturers.

In India, liquid detergents are under development

stage, except that is used in large quantities in textile mills

for wet processing for textile goods. In certain parts of the

world, pastes which are purely sodium dodecyl benzene

sulphonate in a fairly concentrative form are used for dish

washing. Previously, powder detergents were widely used

but the trend is now towards liquid detergents.

Uses of Liquid Detergent

1. House hold washing liquid mainly for dish, utensils

etc., washing.

2. Light duty laundering for synthetic and woollen

fabrics.

3. For scouring mineral oiled goods of woollen or worsted

piece fabrics.

 

 

 

 


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