Cereal, also called grain, any grass yielding starchy seeds suitable for food. The cereals most commonly cultivated are wheat, rice, rye, oats, barley, corn (maize), and sorghum. As human food, cereals are usually marketed in their raw grain form (some are frozen or canned) or as ingredients of various food products; as animal feed, they are consumed mainly by livestock and poultry, which are eventually rendered as meat, dairy, and poultry products for human consumption; and they are used industrially in the production of a wide range of substances, such as glucose, adhesives, oils, and alcohols. Real processing, treatment of cereals and other plants is to prepare their starch for human food, animal feed, or industrial use. Cereals are used for both human and animal food and as an industrial raw material. Although milled white flour is largely used for bread production, especially in industrialized countries, the grain may be converted to food in other ways. The relatively minor use of cereals in nonfood products includes the cellulose in the straw of cereals by the paper industry, flour for manufacturing sticking pastes and industrial alcohol, and wheat gluten for core binders in the casting of metal. Rice chaff is often used as fuel in Asia.
Assuming a 50 percent increase in fertilizer use and that 41.5 percent of the cropped area is irrigated; projected 2020 food production would increase by 7.2 percent - from 251.0 million tons to 269.1 million tons. Future increases in the production of cereals and non-cereal agricultural commodities will have to be essentially achieved through increases in productivity, as the possibilities of expansion of area and livestock population are minimal. To meet the projected demand in the year 2020, country must attain a per hectare yield of 2.7 tons 2 for rice, 3.1 tons for wheat, 2.1 tons for maize, 1.3 tons for coarse cereals, 2.4 tons for cereal, 1.3 tons for pulses, 22.3 tons for potato, 25.7 for vegetables, and 24.1 tons for fruits.
The content of the book includes information about cereal food technology. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like rice milling, rice products, rice flake (poha) and utilities of storage and preservation techniques of food grains, flour milling, wheat and flour products, maize processing, the dry milling of corn, rice starch, corn products, white oat processing, nutrition labeling, requirements of plant and machinery and address of plant and machinery suppliers.
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.
1. CEREAL PROCESSING
Uses of Cereals, Human Food, Animal Food, Industrial Uses, Cereal Processing and Utilization, Wheat, Wheat Flour, Milling. Composition and Grade, Protein Content, Rice, Cultivation, Milling, Nutritive Value, Barley, Corn, Sorghum, Oats, Millet, Commercial Starches, Corn Starch, Rice Starch, Starch Composition, Processing, Breakfast Cereals, Types of Breakfast Cereal, Flaked Cereals, Shredded Cereals, Granular Cereals, Puffed Cereals, Enrichment of Breakfast Cereals, Sweeteners
2. RICE MILLING
Introduction of Rice Milling, Parts of Paddy Grain, Typical Parboiling Plant in the Far East, Figure of Traditional Parboiling Methods (Tip Over Steamy Tank and Inset) Drum Type Parboiling Container, Studies and Research, Properties of Paddy, Empty Glumes, Awn and a Hairy Caryopsis, Husk Colour or Pigmentation, Shelled Grains, Fungus Infestation, Grain Injuries Caused by the Insect or Threshing, Chalky, Green or Red Grains, Operation Required for Raw Paddy, Paddy Cleaning & Grading, Steeping, The Graphs Time of Soaking Hours, Water Absorption by a Variety of Indian Paddy in Relation to Temperature of Steeping Water, Steeping Time in Hours, Loss of Whiteness by Parboiled Rice in Relation to Steeping Water at 70 C Temperature, Amylase Activity Loss of Whiteness by Parboiled Rice in Relation of Amylase Activity, pH of Steeping Water Vs Whiteness, Percentage of Sodium Metabisulphite Vs Whiteness, Steam Treatment on Paddy, The Purpose of Applying Steam, Practical Economic Disadvantage, Graph Between Steaming Temperature Vs Expanded Volume, Drying and Tempering, Colour Sorting by Automatic Machine, Figures of Electronic Colour Sorting Machine & Simple Colour Sorting Machine, Modern Parboiling Processes, Germany, Federal Republic, Schule Process, India Improved System Developed by the Central Food Technological Research Institute Mysore, Shows the Plant, India Jadavpur University Process, Italy Avorio Process, United States Malek Process, United States Rice Growers Association of California Parboiling Process, Flow Diagram of Above Six Process, Parboiling and Milling Flow Charts, Modern Rice Mills, Modern Precleaner and Destoner, Potential Ancillaries from a Rice Mill, Statwise Processing Capacity in India for Oil Cake & Rice Barn, Manufactures Rubbers Rolls, Figures of Huller Cum Sheller, Rubber Roll Shellers, Rice Husk Separator, Polishers Pearling Cones, Graders Rotary Flat Sieves, Circular Purifiers, All India Estimated of Food Grains Products, Project Profile of Rice Milling Industry (Cost Estimation)
3. RICE PRODUCTS
Expanded Rice, Gelatinization of Grains, Precooked Rice Flour, Special Rice Process, Artificial Aging of Rice, Methods for Coating Rice, Puffed and Toasted Rice, Process for Quick Cooking Rice, Example of Quick Cooking Rice, Enrichment of Rice, Export of Rice and Rice Based Products (Prospects and Problems), Traditional and Engineering Indices of Grading Rice Quality, Rice Sources and Preferred Quality Feature of Various Rice, Physicochemical Characteristics of Rice Samples from Some of the International Markets, Preferred Amylose Rice Types in Major Growing Countries, Non-Basmati Rice Potential and Strategies for Expanded Export, Processed Products, Measures to Develop and Sustain Export Avenues, Cost Estimation of Rice Products.
4. RICE FLAKE (POHA)
Uses & Applications, Per Capita Daily Food Supplies, Composition of Rice, Raw Materials Details, Manufacturing Process, Project Profile of Rice Flake (POHA)
5. UTILITY OF STORAGE AND PRESERVATION TECHNIQUE OF FOOD GRAINS
Production of Food Grains in India, Food Grains Storage Problems, Total Food Grains Capacity, Specifications for Conventional Godown Like Foundation, Plinth, Height of Walls, Thickness of Walls, Roofing, Flooring, Finishing, Doors, Ventilators, Types of Storage, Types of Godown, Storage Technique, Principle of Storage, Inspection of Grains, Nature of Treatment, Prophylactic Treatment, Curative Treatment, Cover Fumigation, Prophylactic Measurement with Different Chemicals Dosage, Frequency and mode of Application etc., Curative Measures with Different Fumigants Details of Dosages, Period of Exposure etc., Antiodote, Name of the Major and Minor Pests and Damage by Pests, Cap Storage, Silo Storage, Figure of Cap Storage Covered by polythene Cover, Figure of the Stack, Figure of the Stacks Pattern in the Floor in the Godown.
6. FLOUR MILLING
Introduction of Wheat Milling, The Composition of Cereal Seeds, Turbo Milling, The Principles of the Turbomillilng, Figure of the Hard Wheat Flour, Figure of the Soft Wheat Flour, Properties of the Flour Mill. Reception and Storage of Wheat, The Cleaning House, Tempering (Conditioning), The Grinding Wheat, Flow Diagram of Wheat Milling System, Main Groups of Machine, The Break Rolls, The Break Sifting System, The Reduction Rolls, The Reduction Sifting System, The Scarth System, The Conveying System, The Storage and Packaging of Flour, The Milling of Durum, Self Raising Flour, Flour Improvers and Bleaching Agents, Like Chlorine, Benzoyl Peroxide, Nitrogen Trichloride, Chloride Dioxide, Ascorbic Acid, Batter Process, Bread Making Process i.e., Straight Doughs Process, Physical Characteristics of Indian and Americal Wheats, Extraction of Different Commercially Milled Products from Indian and American Wheats, Chemical Characteristics of Indian and American wheat Flours, Farinograph Characteristics of Indian & American Wheat Flours, Extensograph Characteristics of Indian & American Wheat Flours, Amylograph Characteristics of Indian & Americal Wheat Flours, Bread Making Quality of Indian & American Wheat Flours, Bun Making Quality of Indian & American Wheat Flours, Roll Making Quality of Indian & American Wheat Flours, Cake Making Quality of Indian & American Wheat Flours, Quality Characteristics of Biscuits Prepared from Indian & American Wheat Flours, Quality Characteristics of Cookies Prepared from Indian & American Wheat Flours, Estimated Output of Products of Roller Flour Mills & Wheat Requirements, Estimated of Value of Output in Roller Flour Mills by Zones, Estimated of Value of Output of Products Roller Flour Mills by Zones upto 2001 A.D., Estimates of Capital Investment in Roller Flour Mill by Zones 1989 to 2001 A.D., Estimates of Employees in Roller Flour Mills by Zones, Estimated Output and Employment in Flour Mill in the Unorganised Sector, Project Profile of Flour Milling.
7. WHEAT AND FLOUR PRODUCTS
Introduction of Wheat and Flour Products, Terminology for Flour Milling, Bread Flours, Specifications for Bread Flour, Cookie Flours, Specifications for Cookies Flours, Introduction of Cereal Flour, Tests for Cereal Flours like Moisture, Protein, Ash, Colour, Determination of Fiber, Particle Size, Fat, Special Tests for Wheat Products viz., Gluten Quality, Starch Quality, Hydrogenion Concentration, Baking Test i.e. Flour Enrichment, Farina, Continuous Manufacturing Methods for Soda Crackers.
SWEET GOODS :- Process for Preparing Danish Pasty, Typical Principle of Danish Pastries, Formulation of Danish Pastries, Stabilized Active Dry Yeast, Chemically Leavened Products Cakes, Process for Restoring Freshness of Rich Cakes, Formulation for Cake, Emulsifier-Liquid Oil Preblend, Air Leavended Products i.e., Pound Cake Manufacturing Process with Formulation by Blending Method, Cream Puffs Manufacturing Process with Formulations, Production of Instant Type Cream Puffs, Miscellaneous Products, Heat Stable Whippable Wheat Protein, Raised Dough by Air Injection, Figure of D-Automatic Mixer, Emulsifiers Based on Monoglycerides, Ethoxylated Monoglycerides, Use of Alkoxylated Monoglycerides, Succinylated Monoglycerides, Hydrated Monoglycerides, Canned Wheat Bulgar, Protein Portified Bulgar, Preparation of Starting Material i.e. Soaking, Tempering, Cooking, Lye Treatment, Peeling, Acid Treatment, Drying, Project Profile of Wheat and Flour Products.
8. MAIZE PROCESSING
Uses & Applications, Raw Materials, Manufacturing Process of Starch, Fibre, Germ and Protein from Maize by Wet Milling Process, Project Profile of Maize Processing
9. THE DRY MILLING OF CORN
Introduction of the Dry Milling of Corn, The Past of the Dry Milling of Corn Industry, The Present Situation Warehousing, Container Freight Station, The Future, Address of the Warehousing Corporation i.e. Head Office & Regional Offices, Different Types of Kirlosker Diesel Engines, Agrico Hand Operated Maize Shellor, Agrico 2A Corn Grinding Mill, Agrico Maize Sheller (Power Operated), Custard Powder Manufacturing Process with Formulation, Corn Chips with Detailed Manufacturing Process, Equipment Technology Dextrin industrial Application of Dextrin, Figure of Agrico Diesel Engine, Figure of Agrico Hand Operated Maize Sheller, Figure of Corn Grinding Mill, Figure of Agrico Maize Sheller (Power Operated), Figure of Kirloskar Slow Speed Diesel Engine, Figure of Agrico Maize Husker Sheller, Project Profile of Dry Milling of Corn.
10. RICE STARCH
Structure of the Rice Grains, Chemical Composition of Broken Rice, Rice Starch Manufacturing by Americal Process, Physical Properties of Starch, Uses of Rice Starch, Starch Manufacture by Modern Methods of Tapioca, Characteristics of Starch, Acid Factor, Uses of Tapioca Starch, Enzyme Starch Conversion Process, Refining and Crystallization, Uses of Dextrose, Specifications for Corn Products, Classified of Corn Products by Size, Soft Corn Flour, Specifications for Soft Corn Flour, Sharp Corn Flour, Specifications For Sharp Corn Flour, Cones, Specifications for Cones, Corn Meals, Specifications for Corn Meals, Corn Grits, Pearl Hominy, Specifications for Pearl Hominy, Hominy Feed, Specifications for Hominy Feed, Extrusion Process for Flaking, Project Profile of Starch.
11. CORN PRODUCTS
Introduction of Corn Products, Corn Flakes with Formulations, Corn Flake by Puffing Process with Formulations, Treatment Prior to Puffing, Process for Uniform Shape and Quality, Manufacturing Flow Diagram of Uniform Shape and Quality, Flow Diagram of Kikoman Continuous Puffing Process, Puffing Process, Indicates Rating Drum, General Mills Continuous Puffing Process, Increased Production from Puffing Guns, Processes for Whole Cereal Grains, Special Process for Oats and Other Cereal Grains, General Mills Continuous Mixing, Cooking and Extrusion Process, Hreschak Process, Oats Groahs for Stable Ready-to-Eat Cereal, Cereal Shaping Processes, Apparatus for Star and Concave Shaped Cereals, Figure of Benson Apparatus, Details of Benson Apparatus, Macaroni, Effects of Growing Conditions on Raw Material, Effects of Blight Damage, Sprout Damages, Macaroon Products, Extruded Solid Macaroni Products, Extruded Hollow Goods, Rolled and Cut Macaroni Products, Rolled and Stamped Macaroni Products, Ravivoli, Characteristics of Good Macaroni Products, Essential Conditions for the Production of Good Macaroni Products, Semolina, Farina, Storing and Packing of Macaroni Products, Short Macaroni Products, Quality Control by Ash Content, Moisture Content, Cooking Test, Granulation Test, Speek Test, Grit Test, Colour Test, Method of Colouring, Macaroni Production Process, Controlling Feeding and Mixing, Factor Effect the above Mechanism, Drying Rates, Driers and Drying Methods i.e. Checking, Wheat Based Extruded Products, Extruders, Extruded Feeds, Wheat Happens When we Extrude Soyabeans, Wheat Happens when we Extrude Cereals, Extrusion Cooking, Low Cost Extruders in the Manufacture of Conventional Animal Feeds, The ’Plus’ of Experience, Extruders with a Wide Variation of Specification, Inotex 50, Inotex 100, Inotex 125, The Installation, Anxillary Machinery, Inotec International, Perfecting the Products, Getting into Markets, Education and Follow-Up, Scenario i.e. Estimated Demand for Noodles by Household (Based on Median Consumption), Summary of Estimated Demand of Vernicelli and Noodles by Household, Distribution of Households by Type of Cereal Taken, Distribution of Sample Household by Food Habit in Various Zones, Project Profile of Corn Products.
12. WHITE OAT PROCESSING
Structure and Composition of White Oats, Nutritional Properties of Oats and Oat Products, Carbohydrates, Nitrogenous Substances, Lipids, Enzymes, Gums, Vitamins and Minerals, Uses, Manufacturing Process, Process, Project Profile of White Oat Processing
13. NUTRITION LABELING
U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances, Guidelines for Labeling, Other Label Data, List of Various Material Densities, Specific Gravity, Specific Gravity Formula.
Biscuits – Problem & Causes, Muffins – Problem & Causes, Sponge Type Cakes – Causes & Remedy, Cookies – Problem & Causes, Leavening Acid Applications, Usage Levels for Leavening Acid Combinations, Technological Functions of Salt, List of Additives & Function, Usage Levels –Additive & level limit, Some Applications & Properties of the Agro Based Products, Typical Fatty Acid Compositions of Selected Edible – Fats and Oils, Number and Percentage of Sample Households Consuming Wheat Products at Meal Time
14. REQUIREMENTS OF PLANT AND MACHINERY
Processing of Paddy (Rice Milling), The Production of Rice Based Products, Storage of Food Grains, The Flour Milling, Wheat & Flour Products i.e. Puffed Wheat, Biscuit
15. ADDRESS OF PLANT AND MACHINERY SUPPLIERS
Complete Address of the Plant & Machineries Suppliers with Tel. No. and Fax no.
WHEAT AND FLOUR PRODUCTS
There are two general classes of products from a wheat mill. These are the flour and the millfed. While percentages vary some wheat they have around 70% flour and 30% millfed. In turn, these two general classes are subdivided into products depending upon the degree of pan desired. A list of these subclasses follows.
70% straight flour.
Patent Flour (less than 70% of wheat)
Clean flour (Residue left when a patent flour is removed from straight flour)
14% bran (seed coat material left after milling flour)
2% germ (Wheatseed embryos)
14% shorts (everything left after the bran and germ have been removed form millfed.)
The terminology for flour is confusing to the milling noviec names such as short patent and first patent or first clear and 2ndclear are commonly used. One needs only to remember that all of flour coming from a mill is called straight flour. If it is further purified, it is separated into two fractions a patent flour and clear flour. The better of the two flours is the patent flour. The other flour after the removal of a patent from a straight flour a clear flour.
This terminology applies to all type of flours where may used in cake, pastry, cookie, biscuit, or bread.
The best measure of the degree of refinement of a flour is either ash content or colour. These are measurement based upon sound considerations. The most refined flours comes from the centre of the wheat berry and the least refined next to the bran.
As one approach the bran coat during milling, bran speaks begin to appear, causing a discolouration of the white flour hence, the validity of flour colour measurement as an indication of quality. Also as one approaches the bran coat, the innermost bran layer, the aleurone layer is scarped away. Since the aleurone layer contains about 60%, of the ash of wheat, the ash of the resulting flour rises very sharply. Thus low-grade flours comming from near the bran are high in ash and ash becomes a measure of flour quality.
Although it might be natural so assume that flours of the same degree of milling purity would have the same use for baking, this is not necessarily true. Some wheat flours are better for bread and some are better for cakes. Intermediate stages lie between these two extremes. Most importantly, these flours differ in protein content. In bread one wants lots of tough elastic gluten since gluten is the structural component of the bread loaf. In cakes, this type of gluten is not wanted. Less gluten and gluten having a soft characteristics in the objective here.
Here bread flour is specified in terms of six constants. These are moisture, protein, ash, starch quality, protein quality, and particle size.
Specifications for bread flour
|Type of Measurement||Test used|| Values ||Unit of measurement|
|Moisture||Airoven||14.5 maximum|| Percent|
|Protein||Kjeldhol||11.5 maximum ||Percent|
|Ash||-||0.50 maximum||Percent |
|Starch Quality||Maltose||450 maximum ||Mg. maltose/10gm. Flour|
|Protein Quality||Farinograph||7C Dimention Minimum||Brabender units|
|Particle size||Fisher||20 minimum ||Fisher units|
In Europe biscuit flour means cookie flour where as in North America biscuit flour refers to flour for chemically leavend bread. This specifications refering to cookies,therefore, also refers to production. Strong gluten prevent good cookie spread and hampt the molding of cookies to a specific shape.
Specifications for Cookies Flours
|Type of Measurement||Test used|| Values ||Unit of measurement|
|Moisture||Air oven ||14.5 max. ||Percent.|
|Protein||Kjeldhal||9.5 max.|| Percent.|
|Ash || - ||0.44 max.||Percent. |
|Starch Quality || Maltose ||200 max. ||Mg.Maltose/10gm.flour|
|Protein Quality||Macichael||50 max. ||Mac Michael units.|
|Particle Size||Fisher ||12-18 max. ||Fisher units|
GENERAL TESTS FOR CEREAL FLOURS
Each class of cereal flour has its own peculiar yet important specifications. Yet, on the other hand, there are certain specifications are common to all. These more general tests are moisture, protein, ash, colour, fiber and particle size.
Air ovens are commonly used to determine moisture in flour. Holding the sample at 266oF for one hour using constant air movement are the usual conditions.
In recent years, a number of semi-automatic ovens have been developed using a variety of heat sources. The Caster Simons moisture tester and the Brabender moisture testerare two of this type.
There is only one method of importance for measuring the protein content of cereal products. This is the time tested Kjeldhal technique. In this method, the product is digested by the application of heat and strong sulfuric acid. The nitrogen is converted to NH3 which form a salt with the sulfuric acid. After the solution has cooled, the NH3 is released by adding a strong base the free NH3 distilled into standard acid solution and the excess acid determined by back titration.
In this way, the amount of Nitrogen in cereal is determined. By using a factor, the percent Nitrogen is translated into per cent protein.
The importance of ash determination will be discussed in the flour specifications part of this chapter. The higher the Ash, the more impure the flour. These, ash is used as an indication of flour grade.
The principle of this test is to burn the cereal flour until all the organic material is converted to gasses. These are driven off along with water. The residual material are metallic oxides. After cooling, this are weighed and the per cent of ash is determined.
Normally, this determination is made in muffle oven at temperatures between 425oF-600oF. The holding time varies from a minimum of two hours to overnight.
There are two ways to measure the color of cereal flour. One is a visual examination and the other is the use of an electronic machine which does the job automatically.
One visual method is called the Pekar Color test. Surface of the flour are placed side by side on a flat glass or metal plate. The surface of the flour is smoothed using spatula. The slicks are then immersed in water and air or oven dried (wheat, rye or corn flour) examined unwetted. (durum).
The wet Pekar Process intensifies the dark colour of the off grade flours. Bran speaks are easily seen flours are graded visually in comparision to standard sample.
The kent-Jones and matrin colour grader is automatic instrument widely used to day.
The flour is made into water flour paste of a yellow wave length is allowed to impinge on this paste degree of reflectance is measured. The whiter the flour higher the reflectance value.
Determination of Fiber
To determine fiber, it is necessary to examine with ether and then digest the sample first with dilute H2SO4 and then with dilute NaOH. After each digestion thesoluble carbohydrates and proteins are removed by filtration and washing.
The residue is fibre and mineral. It is placed in a tared crucible and in cinerated. The loss in weight is equal to the crude fiber.
There are four general methods of measuring particle size. These are sieve analysis, microscopic measurement, sedimentation technique and air permeation technique.
Sieve analysis depends upon the passage of usual products through standard mesh sizes of graduated size and under standard conditions. The percent of material on each sieve is determined. A machine called Rob-top is widely used, which through mechanized agitation assures standardized test condition for the sieving. This type of analysis is used for usual grains and for some cereal product.
The fat content of cereal products is estimated by solvent extraction procedure. A sample of well-dried material is extracted with anhydrous ether for from 4-16 hours. Next the ether is driven from the fat by heat and the ether free fat sample weighed. The percentage of fat in the original material is calculated.
Special Tests for wheat products
Specific tests are applied by the wheat miller, these are protein quality, starch quality, hydrogen ion concentrations, and baking test.
Flour millers must take into the account the quality of the protein. The quality is refered to as strength and is related to the fact that strong gluten is a dough resist extension and that the gluten dough strands break before the extension is very great. Such gluten is wanted for bread. Weak glutens are easily extended and can stretch long distances. This glutens are better for cookies, pastries and cakes. Biscuits flours are intermediate.
In Europe, the determination of gluten quantity and gluten quality is done at the same time. This is by washing the gluten from the flour using an automatic device and weighing the resulting gluten dough ball. Since water is present, the weight of the dough ball is greater than for the calculated Kjeldhol protein. The dough ball gluten results when divided by three roughly approximate kjeldhol protein values.
The gluten is suspended in a lactic acid solution and shaken. The weaker the gluten, the more goes into colloidal solution and the greater the solution cloudiness. Turbidity measurements are made on this lactic acid gluten suspension. The values obtained are related to gluten strength.
In bread flours, a starch damaged is desirable. If too much starch damage occurs, the baking quality of the flour particularly in cakes, cookies, and biscuits is harmed. Consequently test of starch damage are particularly important.
One such test determined the amount of material free from starch during the milling process. In this test, the area of reducing sugar increased. The flour is buffered and held 86oF for one hour. The amount of reducing sugar is determine with thiosulphate and the results expressed as mg of material in term gm of flour. Results may vary from 100 to beyond 500.
Hydrogen ion Concentration
Some soft wheat flours, particularly cake flours, are treated with gasseous Cl2 to weaken the gluten. In this reaction, HCl is formed. Therefore, the pH of a flour suspension can be used as a measure of Cl2 treatment.
Flour can be enriched by mixing the following ingredients per pound of flour,(Blending uniformly).
2.25 mg. of Vit. B1
1.2-1.5 mg. of Vit. B2
16-20 mg. of Niacin.
13-16.5 mg. of Fe.
250-1000 (U S.P.) vit. D
500-625 mg. of Ca.
Wheat germ 5% tobe added.
In relation to protein, there should be proper balance between these, otherwise there will be ill effects. Increased amount of one factor influence the absorption of other nutrients. For this reason higher limits are also specified.
In addition to requirements for minimum and maximum levels of thiamin, riboflavin and Niacin, the standards require the addition of iron to those products lebelled as enriched, calcium and Vitamin D were lifted as optional enrichment ingredients and they may be added at the discreation of the manufacture.
Which consists of coarsely ground uniform size particles of the endosperm of wheat, is used mainly as the breakfast cereal. The standards for enriched farina are listed in table.
Standards for Enriched Farina:
Thiamin : 2-2.5 mg/lb.
Riboflavin :1.2-1.5 mg/lb.
Niacin: 16.0-20 mg/lb
Iron :13.0 mg/lb.
Calcium : 500 mg/lb.
Vitamin D :250 mg/lb.
Yeast Leavened Products
Continuous Manufacturing Methods
Soda crackers are made by a method used by practically every baker in the baking industry. In accordance with this method, a dough trough about 7' long by 30" deep and about 40" inches wide at the top and mounted on casters is charged with 600 lbs of flour and approximately the following amounts of other ingredients, 40 gallon of water, one lb of yeast, 10 lb of salt, 100 lb of shortening and in some instances a small amount of dry milk powder. The trough is wheeled under the spindles of a large commercial mixing device where the ingredients of the dough or sponge are mixed for about 3 minutes. The trough is then transfered to a proof room having carefully controlled temperature and humidity where the dough is allowed to about 19 hours. At the end of this time the trough is brought back to the mixing room where 400 lbs of flour are added to and mixed with the remainder of the dough for a period of about 3 minutes. The trough is then returned to the proof room where it is proofed for another five hours. At the end of this time, the dough is removed from the trough and is sheeted, cut incrackers and finally baked.
An ordinary baking oven operating 24 hours a day will require at least 60 troughs of dough per day so that the labour costs for mixing and handling the dough run into very large amounts. Moreover, expensive equipment including and temperature controls is required to enable the production of a suitable product. The manufacture of soda cracker is further made complicated by certain factors that are difficult to control inaccordance with the above described method.
When the sheets are laminated they contain about eight layers so that when the laminated sheet is further reduce in cross section to about 0.025" to form the cracker sheet, the lamination will be reduced to about 0.003" in thickness.
Process for Preparing Danish Pastry
Although the ingredients used in making Danish pastry are very important, the principle characteristics of the baked product are a result of processing which provides alternating layers of fat (pastry butter) and dough. The effect of Danish is due to separation and number of layers and it thus readily apparent that the pastry butter should not be absorbed into the dough. If the fat does permiate into dough, shortening occurs and the Danish effect is destroyed. For this reason, the pastry butter employed must be selected with some care. In the early part of this century, Danish butter was reputed to be of the best quality for this purpose because it was extra plastic and waxy. Today, however, there are many margarines and fats available in the United States having this properties.
The principle ingredients of typical Danish pastris are as follows
Rich, light moist type Danish - 11% bread flour (10-20% gluten), 89% pastry flour, 25% roll in fat.
Medium Flake Danish - 75%, bread flour, 25% pastry flour (7-8% gluter) 30% roll in fat.
Full flake Danish - 66.2/3% bread flour, 33 1/3% Pastry flour, 33 1/3% roll in fat.
Fairly representative over all formula are as follows: -
|% Dough wt.|
|Fat (including 20% monotype softener)||1520 |
|Eggs (8-10% Yolks or it whole)||13-20%|
|Flavouring (Vanilla, nut mag, lemon on Cordmon etc.) ||Â½-1% |
|Roll in fat||15-33 1/3.|
The dough is mixed at either low speed for relatively short duration to form a dough with very little development or at higher speeds beyond clean up for highly developed Danish. The dough is then permitted to ferment at room temperature for about one hour. The dough is then sealed into convenient size pieces (12-15 are then placed in a refrigerator at a temperature of about 34-38oF for at least one hour to permit the dough to relax. The chilled dough is rolled out into a sheet and pastry butter applied to two thirds of one side of the sheet. One third of the sheet (with no margarine) is then folded over the center third of the sheet and the removing third is folded on top. In this manner three layers of dough and two of fat are formed. This is called a three fold roll and is the most customary roll-in procedure in Damish pastry making although four-fold and two-fold rolls are known. The folded dough is then returned to the retarder for at least an hour. The dough is then rolled into a sheet and again folded, but without the use of pastry butter. If three fold roll in it is employed on this second roll in, two dough surfaces come into direct contact to form a single dough layer during the first fold.
The net result of two three-fold rolls, therefore is 7 layers of dough and six layers of fat. At least two more chilling shutting and rolling procedures are necessary to produce good Danish. After four three-fold rolls, a product of 109 layers (55 dough, 54 fat) will be formed. Some Danish pastries are known, however, to have as many as 300 and more layers (55 dough, 54 fat) will be formed. Some Danish pastries are known, however to have as many as 300 and more layers. It is readily apparent from the above, that the production of Danish pastry is detailed and costly processing requiring a great deal of hard labour and time.
Stabilized Active Dry Yeast
Another form in which yeast is sold commercially is known as "active dry yeast" (ADY). This yeast is prepared in a dry granular form by drying extruded compressed yeast under carefully controlled conditions to a moisture content of about 7.5-8.5%. Although it does not require refrigeration to maintain its activity. ADY must be packaged in the absence of oxygen, i,e. in the absence of air. It has been the experience of those working in the yeast field that this is best accomplished by packaging the active dry yeast in hermetically sealed containers under an atmosphere of nitrogen or under vacuum. Active dry yeast of this type likewise cannot be successfully incorporated into a premix composition since the resulting product has poor storage stability when in contact with air over the periods which such products are likely to remain on the shelf during distribution through sales channels to the retail, commercial or institutional trade.
According to Cooper and Chen, a yeast leavened bakery product premix composition containing flour having a moisture content of up to about 10% and a stabilized active dry yeast the said premix having an aggregate moisture content up to 10%. The stabilize active dry yeast used in the present compositions is describe in Chem and Copper as containing a compound selected from the group consisting of butylated hydroxy anisole, butylated hydroxy toluene and propylgallate, and having a moisture content of up to about 6%. The stabilize active dry yeast is preferably used in amount of from Â½-4Â½% by weight. For premix compositions which may be formed into bakery products by a single rise process from 1Â½-4Â½% stabilized active dry yeast is preferred. For use in process which involve fermentation or flour time prior to farming, from Â½-1Â½% stabilized active dry yeast preferred.
CHEMICALLY LEAVENED PRODUCTS
Process for Restoring Freshness of Rich Cakes
Cakes, Pies biscuit, crackers, cookies and pretzels are at their peak of palatability immediately after removing them from the oven and cooling them sufficiently to be eaten. When these products remain at room temperature for any substantial period of time thereafter, they become stale in few days.
The dry old baked products represent a loss they may sometimes be sold at lower than usual price, but otherwise must be converted to bread crumbs and the like. Consequently, there is a need for baked products in which the problems associated with the staling process are avoided.
Investigation has shown that bread not only become stale at room temperature but also under normal refrigeration (32o-45oF), that bread may be kept fresh immediate freezing at temperature of -10o to +10oF after the bread is baked and cooled to room temperature and that it also can be kept fresh in air tight containers at 165oF or more.
By only partially baking the bread dough it is possible to retain 25-50% of the moisture normally list in baking. The partially baked bread is wrapped in moisture proof film and sold at consumer and will keep at room temperature for 3 or 4 days. By doing brown the crust and changes the starch from the "stale" state to the "fresh" state. He also removes the excess moisture which remained after the partial prebaking and reduces the moisture content to that normal for baked breads.
The same process cannot be used for cake. Cakes do not become rigid and hold their shape of only partially baked, but collapse to a dough mass. Hence, the problem of providing the consumer with fresh cake has remained. The difference between the behavior of bread and cakes is in past the consequence of the difference in composition between bread and cakes. The difference are illustrated in following table in which parts are given by weight. The proportions are given for layer cakes. Pound cake and angel food cake are more acid and have a pH of 5.0-6.0.
| Bread||Lea cake||Rich Cake |
|Sugar||5-10||100-110 ||120-140 |
|pH||5.0-5.5||6.8-7.4 ||6.5 or above |
The larger proportion of shortening gives the cakes a softer and lighter texture, but precludes the possibility of "partial baking".
The cake is initially baked substantially to completion, i,e. to at least about 95%. Completion at an oven temperature of 300-400oF. Preferably 325o-340oF for 20-35 minutes, more preferably 340oF for 30 minutes. The baking takes place within the butter in a pan liner. The pan liner is an essential elements and should be impervious to moisture and also quite flexible, as the cake is baked, the liner clings to the sides of the cake, and it remains in contact with the cake if it shrinks during baking or subsequently cooling. When the cake is removed from the oven after this first baking, it is allowed to cool. When the cake is cooled to room temperature., it is placed in a moisture proof container. This may be a paperboard box wrapped, while still in the pan liner, in a plastic film such as polyethylene. The cake is then ready for sale.
The storekeeper and the purchaser can keep the cake for at least a week. It may become slightly stale during that time; but can be restored to oven freshness. When the purchaser is ready to serve the cake, he removes the wrapping but not the liner and then he heats the cake in an oven preheated to 300oF to 400oF for 5-15 minutes, preferably 350o for seven minute. The cake is invested, allowed to cool thoroughly and then the liner is removed. Freezing is applied and the cake is ready to serve.
Improved shortening composition for cake mixes Powdered shortening composition:
|Ingredients||Parts by wt.|
|Hydrogenated cotton seed oil 130oC, congeal point ||36|
|Propylene glycol monostearate||13|
|Hydroxylated soyalecithin ||1|
|Nonfat milk Solids||25|
In preparing a powdered fat from these ingredients the hydrogenated cottonseed oil, propylene glycol mono stearate and lecithin are melted together and mixed at temperature of 160oF. At the same time, the sucrose and nonfat milk solids are dissolved in 100 parts by weight of water and heated to 140oF. The two mixtures are combined with simple mixing and homogenized in a Manton-Gaulin homogenizer at 500lb./square inch. The emulsion after homogenization is cooled to below 100oF and then feed directly to a spray drier operating at an inlet temperature of 380o-390oF and an outlet temperature of about 250oF.
The spray drier is of a conventional design and comprises a cylindrical tower 10' in diameter and 30' in height. The drier is of the concurrent type where warmed drying air is introduced at the top of the drier and removed at the bottom. The drier has a spray drying nozzle located in the center of the drier, approximately 2.5' from its top and adopted to direct the atomized solution downwardly in a conical spray pattern. An air-sweeping device within the drier is preferably employed to maintain the drier walls free from the dried material. The emulsion is feed to the nozzle at a pressure of approximately 500-lb/sq inch (gauge). The resulting particulate free flowing powder is preferably cooled immediately to 35oF and thereafter stored at room temperature.
Example 2 : Cake mixes
|% by Wt.||% by Wt.||% by Wt.|
|Flour, Patent Wheat ||35.5 ||35.0 ||31.0|
|NaCl||.7 ||.7 ||.7|
|Na-Acid Pyrophosphate ||1 ||1||.6 |
|Powdered fat Composition ||26.0||26.0 ||26.0|
In preparing the above cake mixes, the ingredients are thoroughly mixed together by any of the usual means employed in intimately mixing dry powders. In preparing a case butter from these mixers, 20 ounce of the mix is added to one cup of water and eggs. In case of the yellow and devil's food mixes, two whole eggs are employed for each 20 ounce of the mix, while in the white cakes only two egg white are employed.
The development of butter here is extremely simple. After the mixed ingredients have been thoroughly wetted with the aquous ingredients, which usually takes about 30 seconds, on additional one minute of simple stirring by hand with a spoon is sufficient to fully develop a cake butter. The mixing can also, of course, be carried out with the usual house hold mixer, butter development again requiring only approximately 2 minutes. The butter is then divide between two 8" layer cake tims and baked at 375oF for 20-30 minutes. Where the butter is prepared by hand, the resulting layers have on a extremely good volume ranging on the average from 1200 cc in a white cake to 1300 cc in the yellow cake and 1350 cc in the devils cake. The butters prepared by machine mixing result in cakes having a volume average 50 cc greater. In general, the amounts to an increase of from 50-100 cc in volume over cakes made form conventional mixes. Further more, these are of an exceptionally high grade based on their shape, colour, texture grain and eating quality.
An additional important advantage of these mixes is found after storage of the mixes for several months. The mixes here described retain their free flowing characteristics over long periods of storage and remain as easy to prepare as they were originally.
Emulsifier-liquid Oil Preblend
R.M. Swiss, J.M. Sinner and W.F. Block discovered that if they mixed only a portion of a liquid oil with the emulsifying agent and then placed the balance of the liquid oil in a separate pouch they then had a cake premix package which had the necessary shelf life stability. By orienting the emulsifier in only a protein of the liquid oil must be added with the emulsifier to form an a mixture, which admixture is added to the dry mix portion when forming the cake premix package. Thus they were able to prepare a cake premix package which could be used to make a cake in which the shortening was primarily liquid oil and at the same time have a package which had the necessary self life stability.
In some instances they have used hydrogenated shortening to admix in the emulsifier oil concentrate, then blended this admixture with the dry protein they then included an oil pouch containing liquid oil as the balance of the shortening, from which the cake could be made. However, it is their preferred form to use liquid oil for the purpose of orienting the emulsifier in the dry portion, as well as liquid oil in the pouch, this obtaining a cake with 100% liquid oil as the shortening. Liquid oil which they have found satisfactory are the usual vegetable oils including corn oil,cotton seed oil, peanut oil and the like.
A white liquid oil cake was made utilizing a prepared cake mix package containing the following ingredients.
|Ingredients||Ounce or parts by weight ||Grains|
|3. ||Non fat dry milk Solids||0.40 ||11.37|
|6.||Na-Acid Phosphate ||0.14||3.97 |
|7.||Anhydrous Monocalcium phosphate||0.02 ||0.55|
|8.||Dried egg white||0.15 ||4.25 |
|9.||Dried lecithin||0.12 ||3.42 |
|10.||Carboxymethyl Cellulose||0.04 ||1.16|
|11.||Vanila ||0.06 ||1.70|
|12.||Oil emulsifier Concentrate||1.14 ||32.29|
|13.||Corn oil ||2.25||64.00 |
|14.||The egg white||3.17 ||90.00 |
|15.||One cup water ||8.32||236.00 |
Air Leavended Products
Although the pound cake test constitute a good general method for evaluating the cake baking quantities of ashortening, it alone is not adequate to predict the performance of shortening in high sugar white cakes. In addition to the usual butter aerating properties it is essential that the shortening used in high sugar white cakes have the capacity to emulsify the relatively larger volumes of water which invariably accompany the higher sugar levels. Because such high sugar white cakes are quite extensively produced, it is essential that to be acceptable commercially a liquid shortening must have the capacity to yield satisfactory white cakes. The following recipe was used to evaluate the liquid shortening of this process. 140% sugar white cake recipe.
|Cake flour ||360 gm.|
|Granulated sugar||504 gm.|
|Skim milk powder||36 gm.|
|Powdered egg white||36 gm.|
|Baking powder||22.5 gm.|
|Water ||576 gm.|
Combine the dry ingredients in a 5 quart hobart mixing bowl and mix for about 2 minute using wire whip. Warm the liquid shortening to a temperature of about 1400F or until the mixture clears and then roughly premix the resulting solution with an equal amount of cold tap water in order to reprecipitate the saturated safety acid monoglycerides in the active crystalline form before adding this portion of the fluids to the dry batter ingredients in the mixing bowl. Shift to medium speed and continue mixing for about 10-12 minutes while gradually adding the remainder of the water. Although the specific gravity of the butter is not critical in this case as it is impound cakes, they found that white cake butters usually run from about 0.625-0.670 in specific gravity. When 8" lagers are scaled at 340 gm and baked for 20-25 minutes at about 350oF we obtain excellent appearing white cakes which run from 100-1050 cc in volume. These cakes are equivalent in every respect to white cakes made with plastic shortening.
(Employing a mixture of gelatinized and non-gelatinized starch in a premix).
A series of dry mix products were prepared with the following formula.
|Gelatinized Starch fraction ||:||30% |
|Non gelatinized starch fraction||:||30% |
These dry mix product were converted into butter by the additions of water and fresh eggs. Cream puffs were then baked from this batter using 31 gm of the batter for each puff. The puffs were then baked and their volume measured by repeseed displacement. The products were also examined for other physical properties including the shape of the void, the colour of the product, and the symmetry of the puff. Based on the volume, the void, the colour, and the symmetry, an overall rating of the puff was made using the following rating code.
For comparative purpose a product was also made in which wheat flour was used for the gelatinized portion and wheat flour containing the usual neutral enzymes was used for the nongelatinized fraction. Another product was prepared in which all of the starch material was gelatinized wheat flour, another in which all the starch material was wheat starch and a further product was made according to the cook book recipe referred to above. In case of these last three products the quantity of water employed was increased because of the increased absorption of the larger quantity of gelatinized starch.
Production of Instant Type Cream Puffs
The conventional cream puffs have poor storability and particularly tend to spoil during warm wheather. Therefore, there is an inconvenience in that the cream puffs cannot be on sale in the market or they must be produced in small quantities at frequent intervals during this period of the year. The process of Y. Nishikiori is designed to overcome the inconvenience mentioned above and make it possible to readily obtain very delicious cream puffs at any time. The process for producing the instant cream puffs comprise the steps of deserving a proper quantity of butter in boiling water adding flours and gluten if necessary, the water and throughly boiling the same while it is mixed with stirring. After removal of heat application eggs are added to the mixture while stirring. Then squeezing out and pointing up a fixed quantity of mixture (referred to as stock). On a heated plate and baking it. The baked stock is forcedly dried by decreasing the surrounding temperature and by using a cold blast as to make it a hard and dried casing, then putting the casing into a moisture proof package for storing. Later it is taken from the package and in to the lasing is poured a proper quantity of cream made by adding water to a custard cream base and by throughly boiling while the cream is still hot. The casting with the cream is placed within a moisture proof and heat insulated atmosphere, whereby the casing will be ripened by hot steam from the custard cream to turn into a properly soft cream puff.
In order to obtain, the cream casin, its stack may be prepared according to the following composition.
Water 0.91 gm.
Butter 120 gm.
Gluten 120 gm.
Flour 120 gm.
Sugar 30 gm.
hens egg 10 gm.
Heat stable whippable wheat protein
50 gm of denaturized wheat gluten were placed in suspension in 200 cc water and 1 gm tartaric acid added (pH 3.7). This suspension was beaten for 20 minutes at room temperature and 1200 cc of a stable froth were obtained.
Raised Dough by Air Injection
12.72 kg of European flour (a weak flour) 2.2kg of common salt,and 7.7 kgs of water at 100oF were premixed in an upright open planetory mixer, the salt being dispersed in the water and the flour added over 5 minutes and mixed for a further 5 minutes to produce a slurry at 37.7oC. The slurry was then pumped to the mixing head of an automatic mixer the rotor of which was driven at 250 rpm. An air pressure of 120 psig was applied, a pressure of 100 psi being maintained in the mixing head, and an air flow meter reading of 60% on the air flow meter having a maximum scale reading of 1.38 standard as cubic feet per minute. The continuous flow of risen dough issuing from the mixer head was separated, placed in baking times and baked 30 minutes at 232oC. The resulting 375 grams loaves had a slightly larger volume per unit wt., and a whiter crumb and appearance than the conventional 400 grams loaf, and a uniform and very fine texture. The external appearance was similar to that of a normal loaf and the aerated structure continued into the crust, which was crisp. Time taken from commencing feeding of ingredients to producing baked product 45 minutes.
Emulsifier based on monoglycerides
In the preparation of baked goods, particularly bread, there is an increased tendency to employ various types of additives to retard staling, to improve texture, and the like. For example monoglycerides are conventionally employed as additives in the manufacture of bread. These monoglycerides are believed to impart seven properties to a finished loaf of bread.
They enhance eating qualities by prlonging flavour freshness.
They give a finer, more uniform grain.
They improve texture.
They improve dough extensibility.
They aid in providing prolonged compressibility.
They increase loaf volume.
They help give a symmetrical loaf.
The use of monoglyceride and other additive in yeast raised baked goods also improves the handling of dough during fermentation and make up. Another reason for employing additives in bread is to compensate, to the extent possible for variations in the quality and for composition of flour.
In bread, these glyceride ethoxylated have been observed to improve grain, texture, softness, colour, and volume of the bread.
Use of Alkoxylated monoglycerides
Use 1-20% on the based of the weight of the shortening. (All the emulsifier) used in the liquid form.
To prepare a monoglyceride emulsion, 100 parts of molecularly distilled monoglyceride prepared from hydrogenated lard and 199 parts of water are carefully heated to 65-66oC in a vessel adopted to provide for uniform application of heat without localized over heating. During the heating stage, the water-monoglyceride mixture is constantly agitated. When the temperature reaches 65oC the heating means are withdrawn and the mixture is permitted to gradually cool. One part of Na-propionate is added during this cooling stage, the mixture being continuously agitated until the temperature reaches 24oC.
Canned Wheat Bulgar
A high quality bulgar product is prepared by the process of M.J. Copley, D.K.Mecham, N.E. Weinstein and R.E.Ferrel. The process comprises partial debraning of grains, sealing of the moisturized grains in a containers, and heat processing the product to sterilize it so that it will keep indefinitly.
In the initial step, the wheat grainsare partially debranned by which is meant that the grains are treated to stripoff at least the outermost bran layer without removing all the bran layers. The resulting grains still retain the innermost bran layer and may in a addition retain one or more of the intermediate bran layers. These physical changes can be readily understood by consideration of the structure of the wheat grain. Thus the wheat grain or berry, after threshing to remove the husk, consist of a starch endosperm and germ, this bran envelopes generally regarded as consisting of six distinct perposed layers or coats. In the partial debranning step. The outer most bran layer is removed and in addition one or more of the intermediate bran layer may be removed this producing agrain with the endosperm and germ infact and retaining the innermost bran layer. The partially debranned grain may also retain one or more of the intermediate bran layers.
The partial debraning step has the significance of providing a grain in such form as to yield a final product of optimum properties from the standpoint of texture and grain seperation. Thus if the bran is completly removed, the individual grains in the final product stick to one another. On the other hand, if none of the bran is removed, the grains in the final product have an undesirable tough texture. However, by employing partial debranning, the final product exhibits non-coherence of individual grains coupled with proper texture for edibility.
The step of partial debranning may be carried out of the conventional ways. These procedures usually involve an application of mechanical forces to a body of the wheat grains to cause a repetations rubbing of the grains against one another and against the surface of the vessel in which they are contained. Regardless of what type of apparatus used precautions should be exercised to minimize breaking or even scanning of the grains. Both of these effects are undesirable as they will expose portions of the endosperm leading to stickiness in final product. Preferably, the agitation of grains is carried out in a body of water.
This has the advantage that the water acts as a lubricant or cushioning medium and reduces injury to grains. Thus the use of water facilitates the desired aim of producing partially debranning grains where in the endosperm and germ are essentiallyinfact and free from scarring. Agitation in a body of water is also beneficial in that it permits seperation of the removed bran by floatation effect. Prior to applying the debraning step, the grains may be soaked in water for a minute or so to facilitate removal of the outer bran coats.
In the next step, the partially debranned grains are moisturized. This step simply involves the grains with water until their moisture content is at certain level. It has been observed that the moisture content of the grains significant effect on the properties of the final products. Thus for eg as the moisture content is increased the time required for preparing the product for the table is decreased. Another if the moisture content is too high the grains tend to split during the moisturized step thereby farming an agglomerated, gummy final product. By moisturing to the extent that the grains assume a moisture content of 40-60%, preferably 50-55%, excellent results are attained in that the final product combines. The desirable properties of rapidity of preparation for the table coupled with freedom from spliting and agglomerations.
In carrying out the moisturing steps, the grains are contacted with water at ordinary or elevated temperatures eg from 20oC-100oC. The grains which retain solely the innermost bran coat will imbibe water faster than those which retain one or more intermediate bran layer in addition to the innermost one. If desired, the moisturised step can be effected by first soaking the grains in wheat at about room temperature then holding them in hot water untill the aforesaid moisture level is reached.
Any desired water-soluble food ingredients or flavouring can be added to the water used for moisturise whereby to incorporate such ingredient by absorption into wheat grains. e.g, to water may be added such food ingredients as salt, monosodium glutamate, meat extract, protein hydrolysate, tomato juice or the like.
After moisturizing, the grains are placed in cans or other suitable containers and sealed at atmospheric pressure or while under vacuum. The latter is preferred as it minimizes the proportions of air in the containing whereby development or rancidity on storage of the canned product is minimized. For similar purpose one may invest the cans with nitrogen, carbondioxide or other harmless inert gas prior to sealing.
The sealed cans are then subjected to a retorting or autoclaving operation to sterilize the contents and the inside of the cans. This operation is carried out in the same manner as is common to all vegetable canning operation and requires that the can be subjected to steam under super atmospheric pressure to ensure destruction of microorganism including spores. e.g. with cans up to 3" in diameter, it is advisable to apply temperature of 115oC for 60 minute. In general, temperature 105oC - 132oC. To prepare the product for serving, the contents of the can are mixed with sufficient water to raise the moisture content of the grains to about 75% and heat is applied for a few minutes to cause the grains to imbibe the added water.
Protein fortified Bulgar
Nutritionist do not regard wheat products as a complete answer to mass feeding programmes because their protein content is only about 10-20%. Thus nutritionists advocate that a single food for mass feeding should contain a higher protein content-on the order of 20% - whereby it may serve as a balanced source of carbohydrate and protein nutrients. Another item is that wheat products are relatively deficient in one of the essential amino acids-lysine. It is further advocated that for proper nutritive value it is desirable to increase the amount of lysine in the wheat products.
A technique proposed by R.P. Graham, M.R. Hart and A.I. Mogan can be used to prepared wheat products which are protein fortified. The production of these protein fortified wheat products can be accomplished in the following steps.
1. The Cereal : Wheat, for instance is first moistured. This is preferably done by soaking it in water until the moisture content of the grain is about 25%. The time required to reach this goal will vary, particularly on the size and condition of the grain. Thus longer time of soaking will be required for grains in a whole condition than those in a cracked condition, also, products with the bran retained will require a longer soak than those with the bran removed. In typical operations with whole raw wheat or gelatinized whole kernel wheat, the soaking time is about 10 minutes, with cracked wheat products the soaking time may be as short as 15-20 seconds. Soaking is done at room temperature (75oF) although the moisturizing is preferably accomplished by soaking, it is evident that other techniques can be used such as spraying the water on the grain as it is tumbled in a drum or otherwise agitated to expose the surfaces thereof to the water spray.
Preparation of starting material
Soaking : Raw wheat was fed at the rate of 114 kg/minute into a trough, U shaped in cross section, provided with a screw, and filled with hot water. Heating jackets were provided to maintain the mixture at 57oC at the feed end, 82oC at the exit end. The time of sojourn of the wheat in the trough was one hour.
Tempering : The soaked wheat was fed through a bin wherein it was held at 80oC. Sojourn time was 30 minutes.
Cooking : The soaked and tempered wheat was passed through a real wherein it was contacted with steam (100oC) for 12 minutes.
Lye Treatment : The cooked wheat, still in the reel was sprayed with hot (about 82oC), 25% aqueous NaOH using an amount of the solution equal to 20% the wt. of the wheat. The lye coated wheat was held in the real 3 minutes while steam was applied to it to keep it hot (about 82oC). The lye treated wheat was then rinsed on a rotating screen with cold water to quench it and remove at least part of the NaOH.
Peeling : The lye treated wheat was slurried with excess water and the slurry was pumped under 40 lbs/sq inch pressure and at a rate 25 gal/min through a hydrocyclone. This device had a diameter of 3" and a length of 24". The discharge tip had a diameter Â¼", the inlet and outlet were standard Â½" pipe. Pressure drop through the device 40 lbs/sq inch. The hulled grain using form the discharge tip was washed throughly with water, using counter flow through a trough equipped with a screw conveyor.
Acid Treatment : The washed, peeled grain was passed through another trough equipped with a screw conveyor wherein it was contacted with it. Aqueous acid at 49oC for 5 minutes. In running this step about 453 grams of acid per 46 kgs grain was metered into the through to make up for the acid neutralized by the alkali in the grain. The acid treated grain was then washed with water on a screen.
Drying : The grain, which at this point contained about 50% water was dried. Drying in a belt trough drier where in gently mixing bed of the grain was contacted with a stream of warm air. Other types of driers such as rotary kilns, tunnel dryers etc. be used. The drying is continued until grain contain 10-14% moisture yield the product, which has been named WURLD Wheat.
|Colored bran content||percent||0|
|Cooking time||min ||15|
|Thiamine||mg per 100 gm.||0.12|
|Riboflavin ||mg per100 gm.||0.10|
In any event, after application of water the grain is drained and while still wet is subjected to the next step of the procedure. This moisturing step also provides a convenient time at which to absorb water-soluble supplements into the grain. Thus one may add to the moisturing water such substances as water-soluble vitamins (Thiamin, riboflavin, ascorbic acid etc.) and/or mineral salts, thereby these substances will be absorbed by the grain and the product will be thus enriched in these factors.
2. The moistured wheat is coated by tumbling it with the proteins additive, this latter being in a powder form. The tumbling is readily achieve by placing the moistured wheat and protein powder in a drum and rotating the drum to cause the powder to uniformly coat the grain. The wet condition of the grain is important as enabling the powder to sticks to the grains. The relative proportions of grain and protein powder may be varied depending on what degree of protein fortification is deserved for the final product and depending on the protein content of the powder to applied it may range from about 5 to about 50 parts of protein powder per 100 parts of grains protein may be soyabean flour.
3. Stabilize the coating : In this step coated grains is subjected to steaming. This is conventionally done in an ordinary food blacher. The coated grain is placed on metal screen and passed through the device where it is exposed to live steam (at about 210oF). This steaming is continued about 2-5 minutes depend is on the depth of the grain of the screen.
Steaming has the effect of decrcating the flavour of the added protein. Where the protein is soyabean flour which naturally has a rather undesirable being flavour so that it does not detract from the desired taste of the grain itself.
Steaming has the effect of deoderizing the flavour of the added protein where the protein is soyabean flour which naturally has a rather undesirable flavour so that it does not detruct from the desired taste of the grain itself.
Steaming destroys substances such as anti-trypsin or other enzyme inhibitors. Which may naturally product in the added protein and which substances interfere with digestions of the protein. It is thus steaming accomplishing a valuable results.
4. Stabilizing the coating in cooking condition: The toasting can be readily accomplished in a device which includes a treating chamber provides with a top and bottom-both of screening or perforated metal. Also provided is a duct for directing a draft of hot air upwardly through the chamber. In operation, the coated grain, still moist from the previous steaming, is placed in the chamber wherein it is fumbled about and suspended in the steam of hot air (about 149-204oC) preferably 176.6oC passing through the chamber, usually, the exposure to the hot air a current is continued for about 1-2 minutes depending on the size of the grain. Time of treatment should not extended such that producer will be brown. The toasting operation be discontinue when grains assume a light color.
Toasting operation has desirable result to protect the contains when the product is cooked.
Toasting further eliminates the benny flavour of protein and gives the product a very desirable meaty flavour.
5. (Optional) If the product after toasting is not dry enough for keeping it is subjected to a conventional drying step, e.g. by contacting it with warm air (about 65.5oC) untill its moisture content is about 10-20%.
This product constitutes a valuable food as it contains the carbohydrates, proteins, and vitamins of cereal plus the added protein of the coating.