Epoxy Resins Technology Handbook (Manufacturing Process, Synthesis, Epoxy Resin Adhesives and Epoxy Coatings)

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Epoxy Resins Technology Handbook (Manufacturing Process, Synthesis, Epoxy Resin Adhesives and Epoxy Coatings)

Author: Dr. H. Panda
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788178331744
Code: NI305
Pages: 560
Price: Rs. 1,695.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2016
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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Epoxy is a term used to denote both the basic components and the cured end products of epoxy resins, as well as a colloquial name for the epoxide functional group. Epoxy resin are a class of thermoset materials used extensively in structural and specialty composite applications because they offer a unique combination of properties that are unattainable with other thermoset resins.

Epoxies are monomers or prepolymers that further reacts with curing agents to yield high performance thermosetting plastics. They have gained wide acceptance in protecting coatings, electrical and structural applications because of their exceptional combination of properties such as toughness, adhesion, chemical resistance and superior electrical properties. Epoxy resins are characterized by the presence of a three membered cycle ether group commonly referred to as an epoxy group 1,2-epoxide, or oxirane. The most widely used epoxy resins are diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol-A derived from bisphenol-A and epichlorohydrin.

The market of epoxy resins are growing day by day. Today the total business of this product is more than 100 crores. Epoxy resins are used for about 75% of wind blades currently produced worldwide, while polyester resins account for the remaining 25%. A standard 1.5-MW (megawatt) wind turbine has approximately 10 tonnes of epoxy in its blades. Traditionally, the markets for epoxy resins have been driven by demand generated primarily in areas of adhesives, building and civil construction, electrical insulation, printed circuit boards, and protective coatings for consumer durables, amongst others.

The major contents of the book are synthesis and characteristics of epoxy resin, manufacture of epoxy resins, epoxide curing reactions, the dynamic mechanical properties of epoxy resins, physical and chemical properties of epoxy resins, epoxy resin adhesives, epoxy resin coatings, epoxy coating give into water, electrical and electronic applications, analysis of epoxides and epoxy resins and the toxicology of epoxy resins.



It will be a standard reference book for professionals and entrepreneurs. Those who are interested in this field can find the complete information from manufacture to final uses of epoxy resin. This presentation will be very helpful to new entrepreneurs, technocrats, research scholars, libraries and existing units.

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Contents

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1. Synthesis and Characteristics of Epoxy Resin              

    Introduction

    Structure of Epoxides

    Epoxipation of Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Catalytic Oxidation of Ethylene and Higher Olefins

    Epoxidation by Peroxy Acids and Their Esters

    Preparation of Peroxy Acids

    In Situ Epoxidation

    The Epoxidation Mechanism

    Unsaturated Materials

    Epoxidation by Inorganic Peroxy Acids

    Epoxidation with Aliphatic and Aromatic Hydrocarbon Hydroperoxides

    Epoxidation with Chromic Acid and Chromyl Compounds

    Biological Epoxidation

    Dehydrohalogenation of Substituted Hydroxyl Compounds

    The Epoxidation Mechanism

    Halohydrin Formation

    Epoxides from Epichlorohydrin

    Glycidyl Ethers

    Glycidyl Esters

    Nitrogen-Containing Epoxides

    Thioglycidyl Epoxides

    Silicon-Containing Epoxides

    Organophosphorus Epoxides

    Halogen-Containing Epoxides

    Epoxides from Hydroxy Sulfonates or Halogenated Acetates

    Epoxides from Glycols

    Epoxidation by Condensation

    Darzens Glycidic Ester Condensations

    Epoxides from Ylids

    Epoxides from Halogenated Ketones and Nickel Carbonyl

    Epoxides from the Reaction of Diazomethane with Aldehydes or Ketones

    Epoxides Containing Unsaturation

    Conclusions



2. Manufacture of Epoxy Resins                            

    Raw Materials

    Manufacture

    Plant Location

    Machinery Needed

    Profit



3. Epoxide-Curing Reactions                              

    The Effect of Epoxide Structure on Reactivity with Curing Agents

    The Mechanism of the Curing Reaction

    Polyaddition Reactions

    Polyamines

    Polyamides

    Polyureas

    Polyurethanes

    Polyisocyanates

    Polymercaptans

    Polyhydric Alcohols

    Polyphenols

    Polycarboxylic Acids

    Polybasic Acid Anhydrides

    Silanes and Silanols

    Others

    Polymerization

    Anionic Catalysts

    Cationic Catalysts



4. The Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resins                                            

    Basic Parameters

    The Glassy Transition and Dynamic Mechanical Dispersion

    Temperature and Frequency Interdependence

    Experimental

    Results and Discussion

    Standard Measurements

    Dynamic Measurements

    Comparison of Results

    Treatment by Reduced Variables

    Conclusions



5. Physical and Chemical Properties of Epoxy Resins                                            

    Solubility and Surface Properties

    Network Structure and Physical Properties

    Aging and Chemorheology

    Bisphenol a Epoxy Homopolymers and Copolymers

    Thermal Transition Effects

    Dynamic Mechanical Response

    Relaxation and Fracture Properties

    Properties Compared with Elastomers and Thermoplastics



6. Epoxy Resin Adhesives                                  

    Introduction

    Theories of Adhesion and Aohesive-joint Strength

    Wetting and Spreading Phenomena

    Boundary-Layer Theory

    Surface-Attachment Theory of Adhesive-Joint Strengths

    Stress Distribution in Adhesive Joints

    Rheological Aspects of Adhesives

    Unified Interpretation of Adhesive-Joint Strengths

    Physical and Mechanical Aspects of Epoxy-Resin Adhesives

    Dynamic Mechanical Techniques

    Mechanical Behavior of Epoxy Adhesives During Joint Formation

    Strength of Adhesive Materials

    Chemical Aspects of Epoxy-based Adhesives

    Curing Agents for Bisphenol A Epoxy Adhesives

    Modifiers for Bisphenol A Epoxy Adhesives

    Adhesives Based on Other Epoxy Materials

    Technological Properties of Epoxy-adhesive Systems

    Cure and Thermal Softening Behavior of Epoxy Adhesives

    Stress and Environmental Durability of Adhesive Joints

    Applications of Epoxy Adhesives

    Future Prospects



7. Epoxy Resin Coatings                                  

    Classification of Epoxy-Resin Coatings

    Epoxy Resins Commonly Used in Coatings

    Epoxy-Resin Esters

    Esters Produced from Solid Epoxy Resins

    General Remarks

    Formulation Latitude

    Esters Produced from Liquid Epoxy Resins

    Precatalyzed Liquid Epoxy Resin for the Production of Solid Epoxy Resins and Epoxy-Resin Esters

    Cooking Procedure

    “Two-Step” Liquid-Epoxy-Resin Route to Epoxy-Resin Esters

    Cooking Procedure

    Solid-Epoxy-Resin Solution Coatings

    Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Systems

    Polyamine Curing Agents

    Polyamine-Adduct Curing Agents

    Polyamide-Resin Curing Agents

    Polyamide-Adduct Curing Agents

    Tertiary Amine Curing Agents

    Industrial Maintenance Coatings Based on Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Systems

    High-Film-Build Cold-Cured Epoxy-Resin Coatings

    Application Instructions

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Epoxy Baking Finishes

    Epoxy-Phenolic Coating Systems

    Epoxy-Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Coating Systems

    Epoxy-Thermosetting Acrylic Coating Systems

    Liquid Epoxy Resins in Solventless and Super-High-Solids Systems

    Special Application Equipment and Formulation for Solventless Systems

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Application

    Ketimine Curing Agents

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Application

    Curing Characteristics

    Powder Coatings

    Application Equipment

    Epoxy-Resin Powder-Coating Formulations

    Fusion-Produced Epoxy-Resin Powders

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Applications Instructions

    Dry-blended Epoxy-Resin Powders

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Application Instructions

    Properties and Applications

    Thermoplastic Epoxy Resins

    Zinc-Rich and General Purpose Shop Primers

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Application Instructions

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Application Instructions

    Thermoplastic-Epoxy-Resin Crosslinked Systems

    Water-Reducible Epoxy Resin Coatings

    Water-Reducible Epoxy-Ester Baking Finishes

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Application Instructions

    Water-Reducible Polyamide-Cured Epoxy-Resin Coatings

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Manufacturing Instructions

    Water-Reducible Epoxy-Resin Coatings for Electrodeposition

    General Remarks

    Maleinization Step After Complete Esterification of the Epoxy Resin with Organic Acids

    Cooking Procedure

    Application Instructions



8. Epoxy Coating Give into Water                          



9. Electrical and Electronic Applications : Sealants and Foams                                    

    Electronic and Electrical Applications

    Introduction

    Casting

    Potting

    Encapsulation

    Coatings

    Sealing

    Molding

    Formulation of the Resin System

    Internal Stresses

    Rapid Cures

    Flexibilizing Epoxy Resins

    Fillers

    Reactive Diluents

    Cycloaliphatic Epoxides

    High-Temperature Epoxy-Resin Systems

    Flame-Retardant Epoxy Resins

    Colorless Epoxy Resins

    Epoxy Formulations

    Molding

    Molding Compounds

    Molding Technology

    Liquid-Injection Molding

    Pellets and Preforms

    Epoxy Sealants

    Epoxy Foams

    Gas-Blown Foams

    Syntactic Foams

    One-Package Foams

    Epoxy-Foam Applications

    Epoxy Strippers

    Handling of Epoxy Casting Systems



10. Analysis of Epoxides and Epoxy Resins                

    Uncured Epoxy Resins

    Qualitative Tests

    Detection of Free Epoxy Groups

    Determination of Epoxy Group—Lithium-Chloride Test

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Determination of Epoxy Group—Periodic Acid Test

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Determination of Epoxy Group—Pyrolysis Test

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Determination of Epoxy Group—Lepidine Test

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Detection of the Bisphenol A Skeleton

    Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins—Mercuric Oxide and Nitric Acid Tests

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins in Coatings—Nitric Acid Test Reagents

    Reagent

    Procedure

    Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins—Filter-Paper Test

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resin—Formaldehyde Test

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Determination of Bisphenol A Epoxy Resins—Phenylenediamine Test

    Reagent

    Procedure

    Detection of Epoxy Resins Based on 4,4-’-Diamino-diphenylmethane

    Determination of Epoxy Resins Based on 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Detection of Other Epoxy Resins

    Quantitative Tests of the Epoxy Group

    Hydrohalogenation Methods

    Estimation of Epoxy Group—Hydrochloric Acid in Dioxane, Methyl Ethyl Ketone, or Dimethylformamide

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Calculations

    Estimation of the Epoxy Group—Pyridinium Chloride in Pyridine

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Hydrohalogenation by Direct Titration

    Estimation of Epoxy Group

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Calculations

    Other Chemical Methods

    Estimation of Other Functional Groups

    Hydroxyl Group

    a-Glycol Group

    Estimation of a-Glycol Group

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Calculation

    Chlorine

    Esterification Equivalent Weight

    Estimation of Esterification Equivalent Weight

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Calculation

    Infrared Spectroscopy

    Technique

    Epoxide Absorption Bands

    Epoxy Resins

    Quantitative Estimation

    Following the Degree of Cure

    Other Physical Methods

    Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    Electron Spin and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Methods

    Gas Chromatography

    Paper Chromatography

    Thin-Layer and Gel-Permeation Chromatography

    Handling Properties

    Molecular Weight

    Softening Point

    Viscosity

    Color

    Blends and Compounds

    Hardeners and Accelerators

    Organic Acid Anhydrides

    Determination of Acid and Anhydride Content

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Calculations

    Amines

    Determination of Amine Number

    Reagents

    Procedure

    Calculation

    The Curing Process

    Curing Characteristics of Epoxy Resin-Hardener Systems

    Determining the Degree of Cure

    Analysis of Cured Epoxy Resins



11. The Toxicology of Epoxy Resins                        

    Introduction

    Experimental Method

    Materials

    Acute Toxicity

    Chronic Toxicity

    Irritation

    Sensitization

    Results

    Acute Toxicity

    Chronic Toxicity

    Irritation

    Sensitization

    Medical Experience with Epoxy Resins

    Comment

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