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Soaps, Detergents and Disinfectants Technology Handbook (3rd Revised Edition)


Soaps, Detergents and Disinfectants Technology Handbook (3rd Revised Edition)

Author: Ajay Kumar Gupta
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788194737964
Code: NI198
Pages: 472
Price: Rs. 1,595.00   US$ 42.95

Published: 2021
Usually ships within 5 days

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Soaps, Detergents and Disinfectants Technology Handbook (3rd Revised Edition)
(Washing Soap, Laundry Soap, Handmade Soap, Detergent Soap, Liquid Soap , Hand Wash, Liquid Detergent, Detergent Powder , Bar, Phenyl, Floor Cleaner, Toilet Cleaner, Mosquito Coils, Naphthalene Balls, Air Freshener, Hand Sanitizer and Aerosols Insecticide)

Soaps are cleaning agents that are usually made by reacting alkali (e.g., sodium hydroxide) with naturally occurring fat or fatty acids. A soap is a salt of a compound known as a fatty acid. A soap molecule consists of a long hydrocarbon chain (composed of carbons and hydrogens) with a carboxylic acid group on one end which is ionic bonded to a metalion, usually a sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and is soluble in nonpolar substances (such as fats and oils), and the ionic end (the salt of a carboxylic acid) is soluble in water. Soap is made by combining tallow (or other hard animal fat) or vegetable or fish oil with an alkaline solution. The two most important alkalis in use are caustic soda and caustic potash.
A detergent is an effective cleaning product because it contains one or more surfactants. Because of their chemical makeup, the surfactants used in detergents can be engineered to perform well under a variety of conditions. Such surfactants are less sensitive than soap to the hardness minerals in water and most will not form a film.
Disinfectants are chemical agents applied to non-living objects in order to destroy bacteria, viruses, fungi, mold or mildews living on the objects. Disinfectants are chemical substances used to destroy viruses and microbes (germs), such as bacteria and fungi, as opposed to an antiseptic which can prevent the growth and reproduction of various microorganisms, but does not destroy them. The ideal disinfectant would offer complete sterilization, without harming other forms of life, be inexpensive, and non-corrosive.
The global soap and detergent market is expected to reach USD 207.56 billion by 2025. The industrial soaps & detergents are extensively used by the commercial laundries, hotels, restaurants, and healthcare providers. Increasing demand from healthcare and food industries will continue to drive the market. Aerosol and liquid products are the common disinfectants used in hospitals, although growing number of healthcare facilities are implementing ultraviolet disinfection systems as further measure. Increasing demand for disinfectants from water treatment and healthcare industries is fuelling growth of the global disinfectants market.
The major contents of the book are Liquid Soaps and Hand Wash, Liquid Soap and Detergents, Washing Soap: Laundry Soap Formulation, Antiseptic and Germicidal Liquid Soap, Manufacturing Process And Formulations Of Various Soaps, Handmade Soap, Detergent Soap, Liquid Detergent, Detergent Powder, Application and Formulae Of Detergents, Detergent Bar, Detergents Of Various Types, Formulating Liquid Detergents, Phenyl, Floor Cleaner, Toilet Cleaner, Mosquito Coils, Naphthalene Balls, Air Freshener (Odonil Type), Liquid Hand Wash and Soaps, Hand Sanitizer, Aerosols–Water and Oil Based Insecticide (Flies, Mosquitoes Insect and Cockroach Killer Spray), Ecomark Criteria for Soaps & Detergents, Plant Layout, Process Flow Chart and Diagram, Raw Material Suppliers List and Photographs of Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details.
This book will be a mile stone for its readers who are new to this sector, will also find useful for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area.

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Method of Manufacture
Raw Material Required

Product Introduction
Method of Manufacture
Liquid Detergents
Weight Equivalents of DDBSA
Molecular Weights
Special Procedures for Compounding

Manufacture of Laundry Neat Soap from Oil, Blend
Harding of RBD
Acid Wash for RBHT
Salt Wash for Neem Oil
Neem Soap Manufacture
Manufacture of Laundry Soap
Step 1: Mixing of Sodium Silicate, China Clay and Salt
Step 2: Cratcher Mixing Operation
Step 3: Spray Drying
Step 4: Cutting
Step 5: Stamping
Step 6: Wrapping
Step 7: Packing
Process and Raw Material
Product Profile
Washing Soaps
Brand Name

Hexachlorophene Soaps
Control of Clarity
Bottling and Packaging

(A) Washing Soaps
1. Washing Soap with Soap Stone (by Cold Process)
2. Washing Soap with Soda Silicate (by Cold Process)
3. Washing Soap
4. Sunlight Type Washing Soap
5. Sunlight Type Washing Soap (Other Formula)
6. Washing Soap Made of Groundnut Oil Residue
7. Washing Soap (from Linseed Oil)
8. Washing Soap (made of Cottonseed Oil)
Nerol Shop
Process of Manufacturing
9. Other Selected Formulas of Washing Soaps
(B) Nerol Washing Soap
Process of Manufacturing
(C) Toilet Soaps
Selected Formulas for Toilet Soaps
For Toilet Soap Perfumes
(D) Carbolic Soaps
2. +-Lifeboy Type Soap
3. Transparent Soap (Pears Types)
Transparent Soap (Another Formula)
(E) Shaving Soaps
(F) Special Soaps
1. Borax Soap (For Pimples)
2. Borax Soft Soap
3. Soft Soap (Other Formula)
4. Rug Cleaning Soap
5. Dry-Cleaning Soap (Liquid)
6. Soap used in the Bleaching of Jute
7. Built Soaps for Cottons and Linens
8. Sandle Soap
(G) Vaseline Soap
(H) Liquid Soap
(I) Girt Soaps
2. Hand Soap Paste with Mineral Abrasive
3. Powdered Hand Soap with Vegetable Abrasive and Lanolin
(J) Depilatory Soaps
(K) Metallic Soaps in protective coating industry
Method of Precipitation
(L) Liquid Dental Soap
(M) Medicated Soap
Neem Soap

Benefits of Handmade Soap
Types of Handmade Soap
Cold Process Soap
Hot Process Soap
Liquid Soap
Transparent Soap
Glycerin Soap
Ready-Made Soap Bases
Basic Ingredients in Handmade Soap
Tools and Equipments
Temperature Chart
Handmade Soap Formulae
Lavender Soap
Sweet Almond Oil Soap
Seagrass Soap
Cocoa and Shea Butter Soap
Column Swirl Soap
Spoon Swirl Handmade Soap
Cocoa Butter Soap
Coffee Soap
Creamy Coconut Milk Soap
Rose Milk Soap
Sweet Citrus Honey
White Camellia Oil Soap
Basic Soap-Making Processes
Cold Process
Hot Processes
Purification and Finishing

Uses & Applications
Detergent Cake Formulation
Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram

Soap Packaging Benefits
Factors to Consider
Types of Soap Packaging
Soap Packaging Machines

Uses of Liquid Detergent
Liquid Detergent Formulations
1. Heavy Duty Liquid Detergent
2. Light Duty Liquid Detergent
Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram

Properties of Detergent Powder
Uses & Application
Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram

Household Cleaning
Heavy-Duty Laundering
Formula 9
Spray-dried Heavy-duty Household Hand-washing Powder
Foam Control
Formula 10
Heavy-duty Fully Automatic Washing Machine Powder
Formula 11
Low-foaming Machine Powder for Soft-water Areas
Formula 12
Low-foaming Machine Powder for Soft-water Areas Using
Formulae 13-14
Spray- dried Household Low-foaming Laundry Powders
Formulae 15, 16, 17, 18
Heavy-duty Liquid Detergents
Formula 19
Heavy-duty Liquid Detergent with ‘Controlled Foam’
Formula 20
Heavy-duty Liquid Detergent and Bleach
Formula 21
Light-duty Household Liquid Detergent
Formula 22
Lotion-type Light-duty Liquid Detergent
Formulae 23-27
Light-duty Liquid Detergents
Formula 28
Household Fine-wash Spray-dried Powder
Formula 29
40 per cent Detergent Paste
Formula 30
Spray-dried General-purpose Powder
Formula 31
General-purpose Powder
Formula 32
General-purpose Powder
Choice of Non-Ionic
Concentrated Powders
Mix Together
Cold Water Washing
Hard-Surface Cleaners
Formula 33
Hard-surface Cleaner
Formula 34
Hard-surface Cleaner
Formula 35
Aerosol Oven Cleaner
Machine Dishwashing
Formula 36
Machine Dish-washing Powder for Soft-water Areas
Formula 37
Machine Dish-washing Powder for Moderately Hard-water Areas
Formula 38
Machine Dish-washing Powder for Hard-Water Areas
Abrasive-Type Cleaners
Formula 39
Household Scouring Powder
Formula 40
Formula 41
Household Scouring Liquid
Miscellaneous Household Cleaners
Formula 42
Household Window-cleaning Liquid
Formula 43
Floor Cleaner
Commercial Laundering
Formula 44
Spray-dried Industrial Laundry Powder
Formula 45
Industrial Laundry Powder not Spray-dried
Solvent Detergents
Formula 46
Detergent-solvent Combination
Formula 47
Detergent-solvent Combination
Formula 48
Kerosene Water Solution
Formula 49
Solvent detergent Combination
Formula 50
Solvent-detergents based on 100 per cent ABS (So3 produced)
Formula 51
Dry-cleaning Detergent
Carpet and Upholstery Cleaners
Textile Dressing
Formula 52
Textile Scouring Paste
Formula 53
Textile Degumming Detergent Paste
Food and Dairy Industries
Formulae 54-56
Food and Dairy Alkaline Detergent Cleaner
Formula 57
Bottle-washing Compound
Detergent Sanitizers
Formula 58 and Formula 59
Metal Cleaners
Formula 60
Acid Cleaner for Water-cooling Systems
Miscellaneous Cleaners
Lavatory Cleaner
Hand Cleaners
Formula 75
Hand Cleanser
Formula 76
Detergent Hand Cleanser
Formula 77
Hand Cleanser in Powder Form
Waterless Hand Cleansers
Formula 78
Waterless Hand Cleanser
Formula 79
Waterless Hand Cleanser
Formula 80
Waterless Hand Cleanser

Sequence of Additions
Type of Defects
Manufacturing Process of Detergent Bar

(A) Detergent Powder
Other Formulaes
List of Plant and Machinery
Raw Materials Used per day
Dairy Equipment Cleaners
Bottle Cleaners
Preparation of Caustic Gluconate Solution
Dairy Equipment Cleaners
Dish Washing Detergents
(a) For China Dishes by Soft Water
(b) In Soft as well as Moderately Hard Water
(c) For China Dishes by Hard Water
(d) For Plasticware/Chinaware
Other Dish-Washing Compounds (Vim Type Cleaning-Powder)
1. For Aluminium Ware
2. For Glass, China and Siverware
3. Washing Powder (For Cottons)
4. Washing compounds (For Woollens)
5. Washing Compound (For Wool)
6. Rug Cleaners
7. Floor Cleaners (Building Surface)
8. Wall Cleaner
9. Floor Cleaner (Light Duty Powder)
10. Heavy Duty Cleaner
11. Various Head Cleaning Compounds
12. Cleaner for Artificial Teak
13. Stoneware Glaze
14. Paint Brush Cleaner
15. Auto Polish
Direction for Use
Direction for Use
Direction for Use
Scouring Powders
Floor Cleaners
1. Common Wall Cleaner
2. Light Duty Cleaner (Powder)
3. Heavy Duty Cleaner
4. Cleaner for Building Surface
Sanitary Cleaner
List of Plants and Machinery
Raw Material
Metal cleaners
Aluminium Cleaner
Steel Cleaner
Cleaner for Iron Applied Prior to Galvanishing
Liquid Pine Scrub Soap for General Floor Scrubbing
Wax Removing Cleaner (Liquid)
Sweeping Compound (Oil Base)
Painted Surface Cleaner (Powder)
(B) Liquid Detergents
All Purpose Liquid Cleaners
Dish Washing Liquid Detergents
Formulations for Mechanical Dishwasher
Hand Washing Liquid Detergent
Miscellaneous Cleaners
Textile Scouring Paste
Degumming Paste for Wool
Liquid Cleaners for Hard Surface
Window Panes Cleaning Liquid
Dry Cleaning Detergent
(C) Detergent (Nirma Type)
Formulations for the Nirma Type Detergent Powder
List of Plant and Machinery
Raw Materials Required/Month
(D) Detergent Cake
Manufacturing Process for Detergent Cake Basis 1 TPD
1. Sulfonation of Alkyl Benzene
2. Separation Step
3. Neutralization Stop
4. Mixing of Ingredients
5. Concentration of Slurry
6. Making of Cake
7. Packing
8. Despatching
List of Plant and Machinery
Raw Materials Required per day

Requisites of Surfactants for Formulating Liquid Detergents
Surfactants Most Commonly Used
Viscosity Controllers
Other Ingredients
Household Liquid Detergents For Laundering
Heavy Duty
Typical Formulations
Light Duty : (for Silk, Wool etc.)
Rug Cleaning Liquid Detergent Formulations
A Recommended Formulation
Manufacturing Process

Composition of Floor Cleaner
Uses of Floor Cleaner
Raw Material Required for Floor Cleaner
Manufacturing Process of Floor Cleaner
Process Flow Diagram of Floor Cleaner

Formulations of Toilet Cleaner
Manufacturing Process of Toilet Cleaner
Process Flow Diagram of Toilet Cleaner

Uses and Application
Basic Raw Material
Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram

Uses & Application
Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram

Uses and Applications
Formulation for Preparing Odonil Type Solid Deodorant Cake
Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram

Method of Manufacture
Raw Material Required

Physical and Chemical Properties
Formulation of Herbal Hand Sanitizer
Manufacturing Process

INSECTICIDE (Flies, Mosquitoes Insect and Cockroach Killer Spray)
Aerosol Container
Formulation of Insecticide Aerosols
Oil-Based Aerosol (OBA)
Water-Based Aerosols (WBA)
Alcohol-Based Aerosol
Filling Process of Oil-based Insecticide Aerosols (U-t-C)
The Production Process of Oil-Based Insecticide Aerosol
The Preparation of Concentrate
The Preparation of Diluent Solution
Filling Process of Water-Based Insecticide Aerosols (T-t-V method)
Filling Process of Water-Based Insecticide Aerosols (U-t-C)
Instruction of Process
A. Procedures of Water-Based Aerosols
B. Procedures of Oil-Based Aerosols
C. Aerosol Production Line
Water-Based Aerosol Insecticide Formulation
The Biological Efficacy of Typical Formulation
FE Insecticide Aerosols
A. Features
B. Composition and the Physical Feature
C. Comparison of Efficacy to Insects Between FE and Other Knock Down Agent
Insecticide Aerosols for Special Uses

A. Toilet Soaps
1. General Requirements
2. Product Specific Requirements
B. Detergents
1. General Requirements
2. Product Specific Requirements
3. General Requirements




Liquid Soap Making Machine
Three Roll Mill
Heat Exchanger
Flash Tank
Water Strainer
Cyclone Separator
Vaccum Pump
Hammer Mill
Jacketed Kettle
Storage Tank
Steam Heater
Soap Packing Machine
Transfer Pump
Spray Dryer
Pulverizer Machine
Washing Powder Making Machinery
Bath Soap Making Machine
Soaps Wrapping Machine
Detergent Cake Making MAchine
Manual Soap Cutter
Soap Extruders
Soap Mixer
Soap Presses
Soap Crutcher
Soap Flaker
Detergent Making Machine
Hand Wash Liquid Soap Making Machine
Ribbon Blender
Cage Mill
Automatic Production Line for High Laundry Detergent Filling and Capping
Soap Finishing Line
Canned Fresh Air Filling Machine Assembly Line 2800E
Air Filling Machine 1600D1
Aerosol Filling Machines Automatic Single Platform 2800A
Aerosol Filling Machines
Aerosol Contract Filling Machine
Aerosol Filling Plant
Aerosol Filling Equipment With 5 in 1 Function 1600C
Toilet Soap Line
Laundry Soap Making Process Chart
Soap Production Line Machine
Soap Production Line Plant
Soap Making Line Machinery Soap Production Line

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Soaps are cleaning agents that are usually made by

reacting alkali (e.g., sodium hydroxide) with naturally

occurring fat or fatty acids. The reaction produces sodium

salts of these fatty acids, which improve the cleaning process

by making water better able to lift away greasy stains from

skin, hair, clothes, and just about anything else. As a

substance that has helped clean bodies as well as

possessions, soap has been remarkably useful.

The basic structure of all soaps is essentially the same,

consisting of a long hydrophobic (water-fearing) hydrocarbon

“tail” and a hydrophilic (waterloving) anionic “head”: The

length of the hydrocarbon chain (“n”) varies with the type of

fat or oil but is usually quite long. The anionic charge on the

carboxylate head is usually balanced by either a positively

charged potassium (K + ) or sodium (Na + ) cation. In making

soap, triglycerides in fat or oils are heated in the presence of

a strong alkali base such as sodium hydroxide, producing

three molecules of soap for every molecule of glycerol. This

process is called saponification.

A soap is a salt of a compound known as a fatty acid. A

soap molecule consists of a long hydrocarbon chain

(composed of carbons and hydrogens) with a carboxylic acid

group on one end which is ionic bonded to a metal ion, usually

a sodium or potassium. The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and

is soluble in nonpolar substances (such as fats and oils), and

the ionic end (the salt of a carboxylic acid) is soluble in water.

Soap is one of the oldest chemical produced over two

thousand years ago by saponification animal fats with the

ashes from plants. Although soap are mainly used as

surfactant for washing, bathing cleaning, but they are also

being used in textile spinning and as important constituent

of lubricating grease. Now soap and detergent have become

integral part of our society. There has been continuous

development Soap making technology starting with batch

kettle making process in cottage industry and to present

continuous modern soap making process using either fat

saponification or by fatty acid neutralization utilizing a wide

variety of natural and synthetic feed. Soaps are also key

components of most lubricating grease which are usually

emulsion of, calcium, sodium, lithium soaps and mineral


With detergents spreading in usage, it is imperative that

we understand what they are and how they affect our

environment. Detergents are household chemical cleaning

compounds used for laundering and dishwashing. They

contain wetting agents and emulsifiers based on non-soap

synthetic surfactants. Synthetic detergent powders are made

up of surface-active agents, builders and fillers. In addition,

they contain additives such as anti re-deposition agents,

optical fibre brighteners (whitening agents), bluing agents,

bleaching agents, foam regulators, organic sequestering

agents, enzymes, perfumers, and substances that regulate

density and assure the crispness of the material they are used


A disinfectant is a chemical agent, which destroys or

inhibits growth of pathogenic microorganisms in the nonsporing

or vegetative state. Disinfectants do not necessarily

kill all organisms but reduce them to a level, which does not

harm health or the quality perishable goods. Disinfectants

are applied to inanimate objects and materials such as

instruments and surfaces to control and prevent infection.

They may also be used to disinfect skin and other tissues prior

to surgery (see also Antiseptics, above). Disinfection means

the freeing of an article from some or all of its burden of live

pathogenic microorganisms which might cause infection

during its use. The term is a relative one and disinfection may

be described as being partially or highly effective according

to the proportion of pathogenic organisms killed or removed.

Disinfection needs to be used rather than sterilization.

The market is witnessing globalization in the sector, as

more and more global vendors are branching out in the

market to increase their market share. With rising

globalization, vendors of the market are facing new challenges

to sustain their growth and compliant as per the laws and

regulations directed by various government agencies. The

potential opportunities in the developing economies are

expected to provide ample of demand for the product over the

forecast period.



When soap is mentioned, the cake or bar form usually

comes to mind. However, it has definite basic

disadvantages for use in public or semi-public wash rooms.

For one thing, it does not “stayput”. A piece of cake soap

on a public wash basin will disappear with alarming a

clarity. Even if the cake is not stolen, it has the habit of

slipping to the floor or soaking away in the basin or else

degenerating into soggy, slimy, dirty and Uniointing looking


To obviate the shortcomings of cake or bar soap, liquid

soaps are utilized. Liquid soaps are most popular for normal

use of soap in public wash rooms. These are used widely in

public buildings, schools, hotels and institutions. Besides

providing better rinsing than cake or powdered soaps, liquid

soap is more economical. It is manufactured in large batches

and sold in bulk, and does not have to go through crutching,

drying, milling, grinding, wrapping, packing etc. all of which

cost money.

The main different between liquid soap and hard soap is

that the former is saponified with caustic potash and the

latter with caustic soda. When suitable oils are used, caustic

potash produces a soap that will give a rich lather in low



For small manufacturers, the best advice on making

liquid detergents is to purchase from primary producers an

intermediate dodecyl benzene sulphuric acid (DDBSA) better

known as Acid Slurry. They, themselves, can neutralize the

dodecyl compound in a variety of ways. They may use

ammonia amines, soda, or potash to yield liquid detergents.


In this class those may be included which are marketed

under designations such as: Surgical Liquid soap, Hospital

Liquid Soap, Medicated Liquid Soap and those under trade

names utilizing a descriptive word which intimates germ

killing properties.

It is common knowledge that soap removes some surface

germs from the skin due to its mechanical action of washing.

When used correctly for cleaning the hands or for washing

eating utensils, soaps are undoubtedly potent factors in

preventing the spread of diseases due to certain organisms.

The action of soaps as germicides is however limited.

Coconut oil soaps, on account of their high laurate

content are more strongly germicidal than other soaps. It

would appear that although by a liberal interpretation, the

word “Antiseptic” is sometimes applied to soap, the fact

remains that ordinary soap has no effect against the pus or

staphylococus germ, which is the most commonly found on

the skin.



The need for soap with effective antiseptic action is

fulfilled by a relatively new compound known commonly as

hexachlorophene. Recent medical literature contains

numerous published studies which demonstrate the

bactericidal and antiseptic action of this compound in

combination with soaps. The compound may be used in either

bar, powdered, or liquid products. Bar soaps incorporating

two percent hexachlorophene are usually designed for general

toilet use, and if used regularly, will reduce and maintain the

bacterial flora of the skin to about five percent of the usual

number. A liquid soap containing hexacholorophene produces

better results than a bar soap incorporating the compound.

Chemically, hexachlorophene is defined as bis (3, 5, 6 –

trichloro —2 —hydroxyphenyl) methane. It is a white

crystalline powder, insoluble in water soluble in acetone,

alcohol and dilute alkalies has a melting point of 164-180°C,

and exhibits antiseptic and germicidal, action against microorganisms.

It is prepared by the condensation of two

molecules of 2, 4, 5 trichlorophenol with one molecule of

formaldehyde in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid.


Control of Clarity

Coconut oil is considered the best for making clear liquid

soap. However after saponification, the higher titre fractions,

such as stearates, and palmitates precipitate out of solution,

and cause a turbidity which is encouraged further by low

temperatures. The oil also contains unsaponifiables, which

cause clouding.

Commercial caustic potash contains a small amount of

soda impurities which form soda soaps, such as Sodium

Stearate, palmitate, or lamatic. These are less soluble than

the potash soaps and therefore, precipitate out of solution.

Chemically pure caustic potash is preferred, but its cost

makes it commercially uneconomical.

Allowing liquid soap to remain in a storage tank permits

a certain percentage of clouding ingredients to settle out. Cold

hastens the precipitation. However, if the liquid soap is too

neutral or super fatted, cloudiness will be excessive in cold

weather, clear up as the temperature rises, and reappear

when it drops.


Bottling and Packaging

After the soap passes through the filter press, it is stored

in tanks and later transported to the bottles. For this purpose

steel drums makes the best packing, as they do not affect

clarity where soap is packed in bottles, it may in some cases

develop turbidity even if the soap has been manufactured

correctly and treated as described. This may be due to the

quality or a glassware Bottle manufacturers use different

formulations and it has been found that some glass acts

unfavourably by slowly liberating an excess of lime and

magnesia salts used in making the glassware, thereby

forming insoluble soaps which cause clouding. The best may

to ascertain which bottles are suitable is to put liquid soap

into different make bottles and observe the effect on clarity.



Soap is integral to our society today, and we find it hard

to imagine a time when people were kept sweet-smelling

by the action of perfume rather than soap. However, the

current widespread use of soap is only a very recent

occurrence, despite the fact that it has been made for more

than 2500 years. The first recorded manufacture of soap was

in 600 BC, when Pliny the Elder described its manufacture

by the Phonecians from goats tallow and ash, and it was

known among the British Celts and throughout the Roman

Empire. However, these people used their soap medicinally,

and it was not until the second century AD that it was used

for cleaning, and not until the nineteenth century that it

began to be commonly used in the Western world.

Handmade soaps are manufactured locally in small

batches with the personal oversight and care of the soap

maker. Handmade soap makers use high-quality ingredients

and are able to add specialty oils and additives to personalize

their formulations. Also known as “homemade soap” or

“handcrafted soap”, handcrafted soap is a blend of both

science and art. By combining the scientific knowledge of the

last 150 years and the artistic creativity of the soap maker,

each bar is safe, luxurious and unique. Handcrafted soap is

soap in its true and most pure form. Handcrafted soap can

be made from scratch by the cold or hot process methods or

by utilizing a pre-made soap base. The Handcrafted Soap

makers Guild recognizes any soap made by these methods

to be handcrafted so long as at least 50% of the process is

done by hand.

 True soaps are the result of a chemical reaction between

vegetable or animal fats, water and lye. When combined, they

transform into soap and glycerin with no lye remaining in

the soap. This reaction is called “saponification”, which

literally means “the making of soap”. Handcrafted soap

makers generally pride themselves on the unique recipes that

create their signature soaps. Most handcrafted soap makers

use food-quality, natural ingredients, starting with a variety

of vegetable oils such as olive, coconut, or palm, or they may

use purified tallow or lard. To these might be added

specialized oils, nut butters or seed extracts to bring the

desired qualities to the finished bar.

Fragrance oils or plant-based essential oils are added for

scent. For color or texture, soap makers often use cosmeticgrade

pigments or dyes, botanicals, herbs, spices or other

natural ingredients. For those with sensitivities, many soap

makers also make “simple soap” with no additives or scent.

Besides all the wonderful ingredients that may be in

handcrafted soap, perhaps the biggest advantage of

handcrafted soap is in the soap makers themselves, each of

whom invests their care and attention to detail into every

batch and bar. When you use a bar of handcrafted soap, you

know it was made with the personal touch of a local soap




Handmade soaps are made with natural ingredients

instead of cheap imitations which may cause irritation.

Coconut, olive, and palm oils are carefully blended to create

a skin smoothing concoction that cleanses the skin without

drying it out. A variety of natural fragrance oils can also be

added to the handmade soap for additional moisture locking

effects. An example of the types of fragrance oils used include:

orange, vanilla rose petals, almond, avocado, jojoba,

cottonseed, etc. Most importantly, handmade soaps are

respectful of nature by not testing their products on animals.



While the chemical reaction that creates soap is always

the same, different types of soaps can be made by different

methods, all still relying upon that basic chemical reaction

that occurs.

Cold Process Soap

Cold process soap making is the method most often used

by soap makers who make soap from scratch. It’s called “cold”

process because no additional heat is added during the soap

making process; however the process itself does generate

heat. Often cold process soaps are insulated in the mould

until they are completely cooled.

Soaps produced via the cold process method are opaque

and usually have a creamy feel to the bar. Without any

additives that change the color, the soap ranges from whitewhite

to creamy-tan, depending on the oils that are used in

making the soap. The feel of the lather varies, also dependent

upon the oils used to make the soap. The lather can range

from tiny, very slippery, long-lasting bubbles (as with pure

olive oil soap), to big, fluffy, short-lived bubbles (as with pure

coconut oil soap).



Understanding the materials that go into handmade soap

can help a soap maker predict how materials and additives

will affect the final outcome of a batch of soap. Using the right

materials, a soap maker can adjust a soap to ensure it has

the desired texture, color, scent and chemical properties.

Preparing soap with the proper handmade soap materials and

tools can help produce a quality batch of soap while allowing

the soap maker to stay safe during the soap making process.

Oil: Almost oil can be made to be soap. Just looking for

easy materials such as: Coconut Oil, Palm Oil, Olive Oil,

Corn Oil and Soybean Oil etc.

Sodium/Potassium Hydroxide is used to change oil to


Water: It is used as a catalyst/solvent. Choose distilled

or bottled water. Plumbing water is not good because

containing of many minerals.



A detergent is a formulated product which is specially

designed to promote the cleaning action. Each individual

component in the formulation has its own specific functions

in the washing process but it can also produce synergistic

effect with other components.

The term detergent originated from the latin word

detergine (i.e. wipe off), is now-a-days applied to all synthetic

washing compounds. Soaps, detergents, cleaning fluids and

many emergency stain removers are effective cleaners

because they can dissolve and emulsify (break up and

suspend) the oil and grease that holds dirt in place. Synthetic

detergent is an effective substitute of washing soap have

become now very popular replacing the soap. All soaps and

detergents contain a surfactant as their active ingredient.

However detergent has better cleaning properties than soap

because good detergency and has increasingly popular.

Detergent cake largely used in the domestic houses,

commercial sectors, hotel industries, garment industries and

in many other sections of the society. There is much more

utilization of enzymes, by using enzyme activity of detergent

cake and bar increases. But enzymatic process of detergent

manufacturing is not economically viable to produce low

priced detergent. Formulation of cake is different from that

of cake in powder form. To give grit to the cake and firmness

of solids, clay and starch-like fillers are added and sodium

sulphate content is reduced. The production of detergent bar




Detergent Cake

1. It should be handy enough and it should not be melted

at room temperature.

2. It should not be corrosive in hand.

3. It should have good appearance.

4. It should not loss its property within one year.

5. It should be soluble in water and solution is slightly


6. It should produce good foam in the water and it should

clean the garments and other articles.



8. These are used in the domestic houses and in the

industrial for cleaning of clothes, garments etc.

9. Hand Soaps and Shampoo.

10. Cleaning and degreasing of metals.

11. Cleaning of glass and containers.

12. Cleaning of painted surfaces.

13. Cleaning of painted walls, roofs etc.

14. Household washing.

15. Washing and cleaning of clothes, fabrics etc.

16. Industrial equipment cleanings etc.


The most easily produced type of solvent-detergent is a

combination of non-ionic detergent with solvents. Very often

a simple mixing of solvents with detergents is sufficient to

obtain a clear, stable product, which generally forms milky

emulsions in water. However, not all non-ionics are soluble

in any proportion in any solvent. Very often they are only

slightly soluble in non-polar solvents of the aliphatic type.

Here it is necessary to use so-called ‘co-solvents’, together

with the non-polar aliphatic solvent, to give the desired


The subject of solvency is of the greatest importance in

working out effective products. By giving concrete examples,

it will be made clear how important this type of solvent is in

formulating high-grade products.

Carpet and Upholstery Cleaners

Fabric cleaners of this type differ in their operation from

other detergent materials in that it is usually very difficult

to rinse the material being cleaned. To overcome this,

methods of cleaning have been developed where a solution

of the detergent is applied to the carpet by ‘shampooing’ to

form copious foam, or a foam is formed first and the carpet

sponged with this foam,. In either instance the combination

of the detergency of the cleaner and the mechanical energy

applied lifts and holds the dirt in the foam.

The foam, having very thin walls and enormous surface

area dries relatively quickly into brittle particles of dust and

this dust is either vacuum cleaned or brushed away.

Initial formulations for these carpet shampoos were

normal light-duty detergents with the addition of tetrasodium

pyrophosphate, its function being both to increase detergency

and to make the dried residue more brittle. A suitable

detergent material which is also in itself fairly brittle when

dehydrated is the sodium or magnesium salt, or one of the

fatty alcohol sulphates. Some formulae also called for the

incorporation of a solvent but with the newer fabrics and

rubberized bases being used, the solvent should be chosen

with care of left out.

These formulation were not, however, the complete

answer to the problem. A portion of the active matter became

absorbed into the fibre and when dried this left a deposit

which tended to attract dirt. Carpets cleaned in this manner

became soiled very quickly.




Here are below mentioned some of the formulae for

preparation of detergent powders for different purposes.

The methods of preparation and compounding of the

constituents with their merits and demerits have already been

discussed in the preceeding chapters. The same method is

applied in the preparation of these. The main technique being

either mixing up of the constituents in powdered from in

mixers and then sifting and sieving the product to get powder

of uniform gravity, or preparing an acid slurry and converting

it into powder from by spray drying as already mentioned.

However, the brief notes, if any, follow the formulation.


The cleaning of metals is necessary for removal of rust,

other corrosion products, dissolving scale, grease, oil paint,

foreign matter and preliminary treatment for acid treatment.

For removal of rust, corrosion products, and dissolution of

the scale 'acid treatment' is conducted while the other

purposes alkaline treatment suffices. The preliminary

treatment of metals with alkaline substances prior to acid

treatment is sometimes necessitated to avoid uneven finish

due to action of the acid on the metallic surfaces. Metals are

sometimes treated with strongly alkaline solutions to remove

grease oil and foreign matter prior to plating, enamelling and

other protective treatments employed now-a-days. As the

metals are affected differently by these treatments, therefore,

here are given some of the formulations for metal cleaners.



Liquid detergents are gaining mometum in the market in

the market and are, by and by replacing the powder

detergents. These are generally used for washing costly

clothes. Liquid hand cleaners, shampooes, liquid dish and

hardware cleaners occupy a major portion of the shelves of

the modern general stores in the big cities and metropolies.

Some of the trade names of such products are 'Genteel' and

'Homacole' etc. Liquid detergents are used for fine wash of

silk and synthetic fabrics at h ome and used in commercial

quantities in textile mills for wet processing of textile goods.

Due to greater foam volume and stability, liquid

detergents form an emulsion with the greasy foods which form

a thin film of the oily matter which is easily removed by

rinsing it with water.

A liquid detergent formulation generally comprises of a

basic anionic alkyl aryl surface active agent and a non-ionic

additive. The additive arrests the foaming power so that the

foam is completely exhausted with the end point of its

detergency. While making choice for the formulations it must

be ensured that the product obtained is biodegradable, a term

which has already been explained in detail.

The additives are rapidly dispersed into liquids at a

temperature of about 120F, therefore, these are incorporated

into liquid detergents very easily at this temperature. It is

better to take the required quantity of water at 500C and

added the required quantity of the non-ionic additive with

stirring so that the complete dissolution is achieved resulting

in a homogenous solution.

It is economical for the formulators of liquid detergents

to buy the active detergent material like dodecyl benzene

sulphonic acid or lined alkyl sulphonic acids from their

manufacturer rather manufacturing it themselves, which is

very cumbersome and technically unsound for ordinary


Taking the pros and cons of different materials, here are

some of the formulations for liquid detergents to achieve the

maximum output and the best results. To achieve the best

results a good liquid detergent must contain alkali,

sequestering agent and the soil-suspending agent. Instead

the variation in percentage composition of different

constituents of the formulas do affect the detergency of the

product. Some of the formulations are:



This detergent occupied large place of detergent powder

in the market. Widely used in India in the homes for washing

of clothes. In the technical aspect its manufacture process

is the same but ingredients used are particular for it.

In a small, cottage scale production there is no need of

heavy machineries. Detergent is manufactured by the simple

mixing of all the ingredients with the active orgainc

component i.e. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (Sodium

salt of acid slurry). In a big unit the process starts with the

sulphonation of dodecyl benzene and hence the process and

technology are complicated.

The required quanity of sodium dodecyl benzene

sulphonate and sodium LABS (Linear aryl benzene

sulphonate) mixture are taken in a simple mixer with agitator

(i.e. Ribbon Blender). Then required quantity of sodium

tripolyphosphate, trisodium phosphate, soda ash and CMC

are introduced into the mixer. During the addition of the

ingredients,. blending of the mass is accomplished by

continuous agitation. Then other ingredients except optical

whitener and colour are added and mixing is continued. At

last colour and optical whitener and small amount of water

are added. Addition of water is to ease homogenity.



Phenyl type disinfectants fall in the category of black oil

disinfectants and are extensively used for sanitation

purposes, for drains, floor, stables etc. and are prepared from

coal tar distillates containing high boiling tar acids. These

are, however, less, affected in contact with organic matter.

Phenyl is being used since very beginning for killing insects

grown in nallahas, lavatory and kooradan. Most of the

diseases causes due to insects.

Phenyl is a strong germicide for disinfecting areas

covering places like hospital, nursing homes, drains, lavatory,

toilets, cowsheds and is extensively used for sanitation

purpose. White phenyl compound is a disinfectant fluid of

milky color, often used to fight bad odors, repell mosquito‘s,

flies, insects and used for floor cleaning and fragrance, it has

demand everywhere, it is produced from a compound called

white phenyle concentrate, which is diluted to 20 to 40 parts

of water to produce white phenyle fluid, its packed in bottles

and cans and sold in market. Its use is almost everywhere

so its demand is growing day by day.

The demand for phenyl is rapidly increasing due to the

propagation and awareness regarding importance of hygiene.



White phenyl (phenyle) is most suitable to fight dirt and

germs in the house including kitchen appliances, carpets and

other items.

It is basically an agent, which destroys pathogenic

organism, and hence its uses are numerous. It is extensively

used in for sanitation purposes for drains, floors, stables, etc.

As these are slightly soluble in water, have to be emulsified

for use as disinfections.

White phenyl is finding wide spread use and acceptance

as hard surface cleaner to remove greasy, fatty and oily soils

or various non-porous hard surfaces like floors, bathrooms

marbles, ceramics, metals, plastics, concrete, granite, walls,

cabinet, appliances etc. White phenyl assist in the removal

of dirt and grim and leave all surfaces and atmosphere

pleasantly smelling.

It is being popular day by day in India in homes, hospitals,

clinics, veterinary clinics, restaurants, factories, food

establishments, offices, shops, schools, institutions,

government departments etc. for disinfecting purposes.

White Phenyl has effective composition to kill microbes

coming into contact with it and a fresh fragrance. The White

Phenyl is a great alternative for ensuring a fresh and diseasefree

environment. The reason for White Phenyl to be widely

preferred is its effectiveness to keep the surroundings

hygienic for long.




Cleaners are typically water-based, with acidic, alkaline,

or neutral washing agents added to them. The primary

use of an acidic agent is to eliminate inorganic deposits, like

lime scale. Alkaline agents serve to remove deposits that are

formed of grease, fat, protein, or oil. Neutral agents are so

named due to their neutral pH-level. Their purpose is to dispel

different forms of dirt.

Floor Cleaning is the process of removing visible debris

and dust particles too small to be seen by the naked eye.

Removal of lead-based paint hazards in a dwelling unit will

not make the unit safe unless excessive levels of leaded dust

are also removed. This is true regardless of whether the dust

was present before or generated by the lead hazard control

process itself. However, cleaning and clearance can be

achieved routinely if care and diligence are exercised.

Just as there are different types of bases for cleaners,

there are also different jobs for household cleaners. Allpurpose

cleaners can generally be used on any surface to

clean any kind of deposit.

Floor Cleaner that effortlessly removes oils, Floor Cleaner

is highly effective, versatile aqueous cleaner and degreaser.

The powerful cleaning action easily removes oils and heavy

soiling from most flooring surfaces.



• for the cleaning of industrial surfaces, shop floors and

workshop floors, production sites and warehouses

• can be used manually and mechanically in pressure

washers, floor cleaning machines, etc.

• by heating to a maximum of 90 °C cleaning performance

can be increased many times over.



Naphthalene C10H8, sometimes called ‘TARCAMPHOR’ is

a colourless crystalline-flaked solid with the familiar

odour of mothballs. Naphthalene C10H8 is an aromatic

hydrocarbon with two condensed ring aromatic compounds.

Naphthalene is a white solid chemical that vaporizes

easily. It has a strong smell. You can sometimes smell

naphthalene in the air or in water. Naphthalene is used in

mothballs and moth flakes. Petroleum and coal contain


Mothballs and other products containing naphthalene are

solids that turn into toxic gas. The toxic gas kills insects and

may repel animals.

A good commercial grade of naphthalene (called 78°

Naphthalene, referring to the melting point) is approximately

96% pure. Refined naphthalene is available in flakes, pellets,

and balls. Use of Naphthalene as an insect repellent has

dwindled in recent years as other materials, e.g. pdichlorobenzene,

have displaced it.

It is a consumable product, hence it finds extensive

application in cities. General awareness is improving in

cleanliness and hence this product has got good scope for



dyestuff industry and the manufacture of phthalic anhydride

for synthetic resins. It is also used in the manufacture of

lampblack, as an addition to enrich the illuminating gas and

motor fuels, and as an insecticides and soil fumigant.

It is used as intermediate for the manufacture of phthalic

anhydride teralin, declin, chlorinated naphthalenes and dyes.

It is most widely used as moth repellant and fungicides in


Other important applications are as explosives, cutting

fluids lubricants, preservatives. It is sometimes used as a

solvent for certain chemicals. Its minor uses are as textile

chemicals, emulsions breakers.

Naphthalene balls are used as moth repellent and

fungicide in homes to prevent the woolen clothes. Due to the

volatile character of naphthalene, balls are vaporizes and

require some additives wherever these are used. These are

also used in urinals and toilets to prevent the bad smell.



Hot pressed Naphthalene, relatively free of oils, has a

melting 168.8 to 172.4ºF. It should be noted, however, that

these temperatures are somewhat lower than given for the

pure naphthalene. As the oil content increases, the melting

point drops accordingly.

Crude naphthalene is generally produced by the fractional

distillation of coal tar. It exists in various forms depending

upon the amount of oil present. It is also formed in certain

processes for making fuel gases where it causes trouble in

gas distribution systems by depositing in small lines and


Naphthalene is known to domestic users as mothballs.

It is also used in the manufacture of dyes, phthalic acid,

explosives, lamp black, varnishes, in grease for greasing

vehicles, as an antiseptic, in the fun industry. Hydrogenated

naphthalene is also used in making tetralin & decalin, which

have been used as solvents & motor fuels. Naphthalene is

also used in a under variety of chemical compounds.




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