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Modern Technology Of Perfumes, Flavours And Essential Oils (2nd Edition)

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Modern Technology Of Perfumes, Flavours And Essential Oils (2nd Edition)

Author: NIIR Board
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8186623434
Code: NI33
Pages: 844
Price: Rs. 975.00   US$ 100.00

Published: 2004
Publisher: National Institute of Industrial Research
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Since primeval times Flavors and Fragrances has been an element of our life. We have been making it a part of life. By different means we all utilize perfumery and flavor materials, in our everyday life. Fragrances have a key part in religious ceremonies as it was considered to possess strengths to cure and protect from evil. We in our routine life starting from morning till night make different uses of products for personal care and cleanliness which have perfumes. Even consumables like confectionary contain some type of perfume or flavors. Most fragrance comes naturally form many plants. This smell is known as aroma which is a Latin word and those flora which have this aroma are known as aromatic plants. These aromas are extracted from some odoriferous material called essential oils. There is no dearth of aromatic plants in India. The country is famous for its rich endowment with aromatic plant. In fact the Vedic literature one can find many references of Ayurveda Gandhshastra the science of odor which deals with the cosmetics and fragrances. The famous aromatic plants in India with medicinal uses are mint, Tulsi etc. The book tries to give a brief note on the fragrance and essential oils and has been one of the bestseller.
The book contains chapter on Standards on Essential Oils in India, Fragrance and Flavors Industry in India, Process Flavorings, The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin Essential Oils, Terpeneless Oils, The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Synthetic Origin, Synthetic Ingredients of Food Flavorings, Beverage Flavorings and Their Applications, The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Synthetic Origin, Citronella Oil and many more detailed chapters.
This versatile book takes way out to most realistic formulae on diversified perfumery products, flavors, essential oils etc. Taken as a whole, the book furnishes complete formulae with processes along with the technical aspect which are enormously innovative and profoundly utilitarian for new entrepreneurs as well as will act as a source of motivation to the existing units in quality improvement and cost reduction. Flow diagrams for various methods of preparation are vivid representations of the process sequence, Sequence. The enclosure section in the book also has a directory on Sources of raw materials; plant and machinery.

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Related Books


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1. Standards on Essential Oils in India
Standardisation of Essential Oils
Standard for Essential Oils
Material Specifications for Essential Oils

2. Fragrance and Flavour Industry in India
Industry Growth in India
Production of Aroma Chemicals
Natural Raw Materials

3. Role of Trace Ingredients in Natural Perfumes
Methods of Extraction of Natural Perfumes
Analysis of Natural Perfumes
Synthesis of Natural Perfume
Role of components in Citrus Oils & Mint Oils
Trace Components and threshold values

4. Essential Oils
The Production of Essential Oils
Further Processing of Essential Oils
The uses of Essential Oils
The Composition of Essential Oils

5. Synthetic Ingredients of Food Flavourings
General aspects
Synthetic Flavour Ingredients
Synthetic Flavour Ingredients and the future

6. Beverage Flaourings and Their Applications
Categories of Beverages
Types of flavouring for Beverages
Methods of extraction solubelization & Concentration of Flavouring

7. Flavours
Flours from Ingredients
Flavours Developed During Processing
Selection of Flavourings

8. Dairy Flavourings
Development of Flavour in Dairy Products
Instrumental Analysis

9. Process Flavourings
Research into Beef Flavour
Creating a Process Flavouring
Applications of Process Flavourings
The Safety Question
Process Flavouring in the Future

10. Historical & Biographical

11. The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin
Introduction, Concretes & Absolutes
Concrete Oils
Absolute Oils
Essential Oils derived from distillation
Essential Oils obtained by expression
Isolated etc. from Essential Oils
Natural Odorants as Tinctures
Balsams & Raisins

12. The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin
Essential Oils, Terpeneless Oils

13. The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin
Tinctures, Raisins, Balsams

14. The Perfumer's Raw Materials: Products of Synthetic Origin
Rose Odorants
Jasmine Odorants
Orange Flavour and Neroli Odorants
Muguet Odorants
Green Ootes
Fruity Notes
Woody Notes
Empyreumatic Notes
The Salicylates
Animal Ootes
The Fatty Alcohols, Aldehydes and Acetates

15. Formulary Section: Flower Perfumes
Rose Jasmine
Orange Flower & Neroli
Fougere (Ferm)
Lilly of the Valley
Mignonette (Reseda)
Sweet Pea
Syringa (Philadelphus)
Treele (Clover)
Wall Flower
Ylang Ylang

16. Formulary Section: Sophisticated or Fantasy Perfumes
Flower Bouquets Perfumes
Aldehydic Perfumes
Chypre Types
Oriental Perfumes
Green Perfumes
Dominent Note Types
The Ampergris Notes
Manufacturing Process
Alcoholic Strengths

17. Colognes: Eaux de Toilette: Perfumes for Men
Eau - de - Cologne
Toilet Waters
Modifies Colognes
Perfume for Men

18. Packaging and Marketing
The Importance of Presentation
Packaging in the Past
The Impact of Aerosols
Giving a Perfume Identity
Who Makes the Decision
Perfume and World of Fashion
National Preferences
Question of Colour

19. The Production of Natural Perfumes
The Perfume in the Plant

20. Odour Classification and Fixation
Top Note
Middle Note
Duration of Evaporation Table

21. Monographs on Flower Perfumes
Fern Gardenia
New Mown Hay
Orange Blossom
Sweet Pea
Wall Flower

22. Menthol Oils
Property & Structure
Uses & Application
Market Survey
Material & Methods
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

23. Essential Oil from Flowers and Leaves
Properties of Essential Oils
Market Survey
Essential Oils in India & Trade
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

24. Essential for Biscuit Confectionery
Uses & Applications
Market Survey
Formulations of Non-Alcoholic Flavour
Cost Estimation

25. Jasmine and Lily Flower Oil
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

26. Extraction of Jasmine Essence
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

27. Extraction of Oil (Cardamom, Jeera, Ajowan, Genger Oil)
Ajowan (Bishops Week)
Orangepeel Oil
Process of Manufacture
Cost Estimation

28. Extraction of Essential Oil & Packing
Orangepeel Oil
Market Potential
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

29. Eucalyptus Oil
Uses & Applications
Market Survey
Process of Manufacture
Cost Estimation

30. Lemon Gass Oil
Uses and Properties
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

31. Ginger Oil
Uses and Applications
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

32. Aromatic Perfumery Compounds
Properties & Uses
Market Position
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

33. Agarbatti Perfumery Compounds
Market Survey
Process of manufacture
Cost Estimation

34. Nilgiri Oil
Properties Uses & Application
Market Survey
Manufacturing Process
Cost Estimation

35. Citronella Oil
Uses & Applications
Market Survey
Process of Manufacture
Cost Estimation

Supplier of Plant & Machineries

Raw Material Suppliers

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Formulary Section: Sophisticated or Fantasy Perfumes


Sophisticated or fantasy perfumes: in other words, this chapter is devoted to what in France is quite simply called 'la Grande Parfumerie'. A difficult task faces us here, in that we must seek to hold the interest of the reader without exposing ourselves to charges of revealing too much or breaching confidences. This is a particularly delicate situation when currently fashionable perfumes are the subject of discussion.

We shall restrict ourselves to being as objective as possible, but in so doing will offer guides to creation and some formulae, as examples, to facilitate basic research.

Perfumes of Fantasy (as we may call them for want of a better name) are roughly divisible into six categories:

Floral perfumes

Aldehydic perfumes

Chypre types

Oriental types

Green types

Perfumes with a distinguishing dominant note.

These types may and do, of course, overlap. And, independently of the notes that characterise perfumes in each separate category, the tonality also plays an important part. This may be, in each group, one of three, namely light, medium and heavy.

Before quoting examples of these different groups, we give formulae for certain bases, both of a general and more specific nature, that can be utilised in a variety of formulae, just as can many of the floral bases already discussed in the previous chapter. Here is a representative of the very interesting bergamot-vanilla bases:

Bergamot-Vanilla Base

Bergamot oil100
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA) 10%1
Aldehyde C.8, 10%0.3

In the formula that follows the cedrat oil, once a natural product, may be replaced by the now conventional artificial blend of lemon, bergamot and orange oils.

Aldehydic base A.1

Aldehyde C.80.50
Aldehyde C.91.25
Aldehyde C.102.50
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic)1.25
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric)2.50
Aldehyde C.22 (MNA)1.50
Bergamot oil12.50
Bergamot oil, sesquiterpeneless 6.20
Superorange (Lautier) 50%10.00
Supercitron (Lauiter) 5%1.90
Lemon oil1.25
Cedrat oil3.75
Neroli A3.10
Folia (Bertrand frères)0.60
Ylang-ylang oil37.50
Opopanax L.G. (Givaudan)1.25
Costus absolute0.60
Musk tincture No.12.50
Rose No.26.20
Sandalwood oil3.15

Aldehydic Base A.2

Aldehyde C.12 (lauric)1.30
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic)0.78
Aldehyde C.100.39
Hydroxycitronellal (Laurine, Givaudan)9.75
Phenylethyl alcohol14.30
Rose oil, Bulgarian2.60
Geraniol 100% extra (Frimenich)6.50
Beta-si Methyl ionone (Raldeine D6.50
Benzyl acetate4.55
Jasim absolute3.90
Anisic aldeyde7.80
Ylang-ylang oil6.50
Linalool ex bois de rose Brazil13.00
Sandalwood oil11.70
Dimethyl phthalate22.23

Curacao Base

The 'orange curacao' note is very characteristic and the actual Curacao orange oil virtually unobtainable. For that reason the following formula will often prove useful.

Bitter orange oil (Guinea)37.50
Bitter orange oil, deterpenated7.45
Coriandrol (from Russian coriander oil)2.70
Aldehyde C.82.00
Aldehyde C.9 10%5.00
Aldehyde C.10 7.00
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic)18.30
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA)3.00
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric)8.70

Leather or 'cuir' bases have continued to be popular and widely utilised in perfumery at the time of writing. They are indispensable in certain fashionable perfumes and are particularly of interest in perfumes for men.

Cuir Base C.1

Bergamot oil1.5
Framboisis (de Laire)7.5
Coromia (Givaudan)40.0
Corinal (Firmenich)14.0
beta-Methyl ionone4.5
Jasmin No.22.4
Mandarin oil1.5
Lilac No.29.0
Musk ketone1.8
Musk ambrette1.8
Neroli B0.9
Cedrate oil0.8
Dimethyl phthalate0.5

Cuir Base 2

Alliantone (Givaudan)14.0
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal Works)9.0
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 10%10.0
Aldehyde C.10, 10%4.0
Angelica root oil2.0
Musk ketone3.0
Ethyl vanillin6.5
Costus absolute, 10%2.5
Birch tar oil. rectified10.0
beta-Methyl inone15.0
Ionone extra10.0

The woody note is often employed in association with other notes, not only to confer its own characteristics but to soften and round off the finished composition.

Woody Base B.1

Linalyl acetate27.00
Bergamot oil12.35
Rose de Grasse absolute12.20
Jasmin absolute6.90
Bois de rose oil, Brazil6.00
Lilac No.25.70
Muguet No.15.25
Sandalwood oil3.90
beta-Methyl ionone2.70
Neroli oil1.95
Bitter orange oil, Guinea1.95
Labdanum absolute1.20
Patchouli oil1.05
Vetiver oil, Bourbon1.05
Hyperessence orange (Charabot)0.90

The moss note plays a very important part in perfumery. It sustains the head notes of 'green' compositions, which are currently fashionable; but long before this it found other applications. That great perfumer Roudnitska has contributed significantly to the popularly of the moss note, and perfumers everywhere known the famous mossy base, made by one of the leading synthetic houses and bearing the name of a German province.

The day when oakmoss was first associated with the synthetic odour of isobutylquinoline, was indeed a landmark in the history of perfumery. It opened a new and broad avenue of perfume creation, and especially so when homologous odorants became available to vary the original accord and multiply the possibility of further combinations.

In their basic notes these mossy compositions afford admirable support for special fruity effects, on condition that they are accompanied by a more 'human' note, as it were, such as musk, amber, civet etc.

Moss Base M.1

Sandalwood oil10.20
Bergamot oil10.25
Bulgarian rose oil2.40
beta-Methyl ionone9.10
Jasmin No.42.40
Patchouli oil6.70
Thyme oil, red0.35
Vetiver oil, Bourbon5.30
Ciste absolute5.50
Oakmoss absolute5.30
Castoreum absolute11.30
Neroli A0.95
Musk ambrette0.75
Caraway oil (Flebo)17.65
Superorange (Lautier)11.60

In the following formula readers should note that vetiver acetate does not mean vetiveryl acetate. The former - with its own distinctive odour - results from the acetylation of the oil itself, which naturally involves not only the acetylation of the oil's vetiverol but also that of the other alcohols present in the oil. Vetiveryl acetate, on the other hand, is prepared by the simple acetylation of vetiverol.

Base 1.S

Opopanax L.G.(Givaudan)30.0
beta-iso Methyl ionone13.5
Ylang-ylang oil2.5
Ionone alpha5.0
Rose Bulgarian oil (10%)10.0
Jasmin absolute5.0
Vetiver oil, Java1.0
Musk ambrette2.5
Base Claveline No.12.5
Muguet No.210.0
Vetiver acetate5.0

Moss Base M.2

Sandalwood oil16.60
Rose de Mai absolute3.80
beta-Methyl ionone4.50
Neroli oil 1.50
Jasim absolute3.80
Thyme oil0.60
Patchouli oil1.55
Vetiver oil, Java7.60
Ciste absolute4.15
Tree moss absolute9.10
Castoreum tincture2.65
Opopanax L 2.65
Musk ambrette1.15
Tincture of musk1.50
Bergamot oil32.70
IsoButylquinoline (5%)4.60
Supercitron (Lautier) 50%0.75
Superorange (Lautier)0.40
Coriandrol 0.40

See Chapter 13 of this book, under Green, Fruity and other special notes. In addition to the newer 'green' odorants marketed as pure chemicals, others have been introduced as proprietary bases. In most instances these bases have been well contrived, so as to permit their introduction into standard formulae without causing any undue imbalance or interference. They nevertheless give rise to effects that are quite distinctive and different from those that preceded their introduction. The auxiliary notes so introduced may of course be pleasing or displeasing, but the possibility of producing novel and interesting effects cannot be overlooked.

Moss notes may be more or less 'fruity' in type, according to taste. Moss Base M.2 can very easily be reorientated in this fashion.

A certain number of odorants are capable of suggesting the sea and the open air, faintly suggesting the odour of ozone. Givaudan's Alliantone, Laserson's Aldehyde Mer and Robertet's Absolu Marin are among the products of this type that strike a note of originality and may well introduce effects that appeal to outdoors enthusiasts, the masculine market, and perhaps a still wider market. This type of perfume could well be the subject of tomorrow's success story.

We now turn to the various general types of perfumes indicated in our earlier classification.


Parfum QH No.1

Lilac No.2
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal Works)0.10
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA) 10%0.25
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric) 10%0.10
Citronellyl lactone (I.F.F.) 10%0.05
Amyl salicylate5.00
Sandalwood oil1.55
beta-Methyl ionone5.05
Benzyl acetate3.90
Rose No.34.00
Jasmin absolute2.00
Cedrat oil7.00
Bergamot oil5.00
Ylang-ylang oil10.00
Musk ambrette1.00
Musk ketone1.00
Ambrophore (Firmenich)2.00

The next flower perfume (A) is characteristic of a kind of bouquet which had a great success at the end of the nineteenth century. As an essential part of its structure it contained a base termed Bouvardia, which had then and still retains a wide acceptance among perfumers. For that reason we first give a formula for a base or this general type.

Bouvardia BM

Ylang-ylang oil20.00
Geraniol extra5.00
Jasmin absolute3.75
Base Tuberone No.12.50
Neroli B12.50
beta-Methyl ionone25.00
Bois de rose oil, Brazil25.00
Hypressence orangeflower (UOP)6.25

Parfum AO

Mimosa flower absolute1.7
Rose de mai absolute3.4
Hyperessence orangeflower5.0
Narcisse des Montagnes absolute(Camilli)2.0
Base Tuberose No.24.0
Jasmin absolute3.4
Jasmonone No.4a1.0
Ylang-ylang oil, Manilla3.0
Acacia 200 (Firmenich)8.5
Bouvardia BM4.0
Bouvardia 100% (de Laire)3.0
Bergamot oil10.0
beta-Methyl ionone8.0
Anisic aldehyde6.0
Methyl anthranilate1.0
Linalyl acetate2.0
Ionone alpha2.0
Ambrophore (Firmenich) 3%20.0
Civet tincture10.0

The following perfume is distinguished by its association of a lilac type of composition with the atmosphere or the sea.

Parfum TL

Musk ketone1.2
Rose No.12.0
Hyacinth No.15.6
Lilas Isobutaflor (Robertet)7.7
Jasmin absolute10.0
Lilac No.3 72.0
Aldehyde Mer (Laserson & Sabetary)0.5
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal)1.0

Parfum F

Ylang-ylang oil12.70
Jasmin absolute3.40
Narcisse des Montagnes absolute (Camilli)2.10
Lilac No.321.50
Paracetone (Givaudan)22.70
Gardenia 9058 (Givaudan)10.25
Heliotropol (Firmenich)4.20
Jasmin No.44.20
Grapefruit oil5.10
Bergamot oil, sesquieterpeneless3.40
Neroli A3.40
Base Cuir C.12.10
Bornoia absloute oil1.00
Rose No.11.00
Pollenol (Firmenich)0.50
Hyperessence reseda (Charabot)0.15
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal)0.15
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA)50%0.05
Phenylacetaldyde dimethylacetal 50%0.05

Parfum HB

Jasmin No.27.50
Bergamot oil10.00
Lavender oil7.45
Opaslaunax (Ets: Hasslauer)7.50
Methyl anthranilate6.70
Orange oil4.10
Lilac No.13.60
Rose No.13.00
Methyl ionone2.20
Jasmin absolute2.20
Muguet No.12.00
Neroli A1.40
Claveline Base No.11.30
Sandalwood oil1.30
Ambreine S (Firmenich)0.80
Orangeflower water absolute0.80
Ylang-ylang oil0.65
Anisic aldehyde0.45
Cedarwood oil, Virginia0.40
Merisia (Descollonges)0.40
Orris absolute P.V.0.20
Benzyl acetate0.20
Zdravetz oil, 10%0.90
Cinnamon oil, Ceylon 10%0.40
Framboisis (de Laire) 10%0.20
Peru balsam tincture 13.00
Civet tincture13.00
Musk No.1 tincture 4.20

Parfum AR

Jasmin No.41.10
Jasmin No.23.95
Jasmin absolute2.65
Rose de Grasse absolute 1.60
Rose No.12.10
Ylang-ylang oil1.60
Arhenol (Firmenich)7.10
Daturol (Firmenich)0.55
Lilac No.1 5.10
Methyl ionone3.60
Irophore (Firmenich)0.30
Bioflor (Synarome)6.65
Bois de rose oil, Brazil1.15
Teprene (Synarome)6.15
Muguet No.110.00
Bergamot oil13.00
Aldehydic Base A1 3.20
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 10%0.40
Oakmoss absolute dècolorèe (Robertet)1.10
Cyclopentadecanolide 1%0.80
Musk ketone1.20
Musk ambrette1.10
Civet tincture3.70
Musk No.1 tincture 3.20
Vanilla tincture5.25
Castoreum tincture1.10
Cuir Base C.10.80
Castoreum Anhydrol (Givaudan) 1%0.80


Parfum VN

Bergamot oil5.30
Bitter Orange oil4.25
Aldehydic Base A23.00
Ambreine S (Firmenich)3.25
Methyl ionone4.25
Cinnamic aldehyde340
Jasmin de Provence (Descollonges)3.00
Petitgrain oil, French2.20
Jasmin absolute2.20
Sophora (Givaudan) 2.80
Jonquil absolute (Charabot)0.50
Sandalwool oil0.60
Benzoin Gomodor (UOP)0.60
Opopanax vrai resine (Hasslauer)3.00
Elemi resinoid2.00
Rose No.12.20
Civet tincture30.60
Musk tincture12.45
Peru balsam tincture5.15
Castoreum tincture4.00

Parfum C

Rose No.20.40
Lilac No.34.20
Jasmin No.26.70
Neroli B0.15
Cinnamic alcohol ex styrax0.50
Methyl ionone3.20
Amarante (Givaudan)5.00
Oakmoss absolute1.25
Opopanax L3.75
Base 1.S.2.60
Liquidambar II0.10
Mousse de Saxe (de Lair)5.00
Thyme oil0.30
Vetiver oil, Java1.90
Patchouli oil3.00
Sandalwool oil3.00
Coriander oil, Russian4.00
Cedrat oil1.00
Bitter Orange oil2.00
Lavender oil3.00
Bergamot oil10.00
Linalyl acetate5.00
Ambreine S (Firmenich)4.50
Dimethyl phthalate0.60
Ethyl vanillin0.80
Musk ketone0.50
Musk ambrette1.00
Cyclopentadecanolide 3.00
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic)0.42
Aldehyde C.12(lauric)0.36
Aldehyed C.12 (MNA)0.27
Tincture of civet 1.50
Tincture of castoreum8.50

Fairly frequent reference is made in these formula to the natural resin, Liquidambar. This balsamic product of very dark bituminous aspect is not used as such but is appropriately treated to yield three different fractions. The first of these has the strongly 'grassy' styrene odour; the second has a labdanum odour and an 'animal' note; while the third has the animal note in an even more marked degree. In fine perfumery only the second and third fractions are normally used; and these are referred to in the various formulae as Liquidambar II and Liquidambar III.

Treatment of raw materials in this way may be carried out in the perfumery laboratories if they happen to include a suitable chemical laboratory adequately staffed. Alternatively, arrangements can often be made with an outside laboratory to carry out this and other collaborative work.

Parfum SP

Opopanax L2.20
Opopanax 18 (de Laire)0.90
Cyclamen aldehyde0.10
Amyl salicylate0.25
Costus resinoid (Camilli)0.15
Bergamot oil3.20
Patchouli oil2.40
Grisambrol (Firmenich)0.80
Labdanum oil (Schmoller)0.25
Moss Base M20.40
Oakmoss absolute superessence (Yugoslav)0.90
Liquidambar II0.05
Mousse 1026 (Roure Dupont)2.15
Musk BRB (Rhône-Poulenc)0.10
Musk ketone0.60
Ethyl vanillin0.10
Thibetine (Givaudan)0.60
Animalis (Synarome)0.30
Civette RP No.2(Rohône-Poulenc)0.10
Elecampane oil4.50
Sandalwood oil0.20
Methyl ionone3.20
Jasmonone No.45.70
Gardenia 9058 (Givaudan)19.70
Gardenia No. 14.50
Gardamon oil, Naardenised (Naarden)0.25
Hydroxycitronellal 2.40
Corona (Roure Dupont) 1.70
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal)1.60
Camomile absolute (Schmoller)0.15
Lavender oiol, Barrême (42% esters)1.30
Linalool ex bois de rose4.50
Ylang-ylang oil0.25
Styrallyl acetate2.10
Aldehyde C.80.10
Adehyde C.90.10
Aldehyde C.100.60
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic)0.60
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric) 50%0.70
Opopanax resin tincture6.30
Peru balsam tincture2.00
Vanilla tincture1.10
Castoreum tincture2.70


Chypre perfumes have always found great favour among women and, indeed, among men. Witness the famous Chypre of Coty, about which and its constituents so much has been written.

Characteristic of the Chypre odour, in addition to its conventional notes of bergamot, oakmoss, civet, linalyl acetate, amyl salicylate, rose, neroli, vetiver, sandalwood, labdanum and the little rustic or herbal notes of red thyme, tarragon and basil, etc.... is a note of safrole or isosafrole. Others will see in this very special note, which assures the perfume's success, a celebrated composition of the German firm Heine, known under the name of Product EM and probably based on oakmoss, labdanum, liquidambar, linalyl acetate - and various floral elements.

Many Chypre variants have been introduced each, with its slightly different note or emphasis which distinguish it from the other members of its class.

When a perfumery house lacks imagination enough to devise a really new perfume. It tends to fall back on a 'special' Chypre; this being a more or less safe bet, in that it is most unlikely to prove an abject failure. This 'policy of the least effort' provoked Maurice Chevron to remark: 'It is simply beef steak.' During the past few years aldehydic chypres have made headway. The following examples are given as typical of this class.

Pafum C.2

Rose No.11.80
Ysminia (Firmenich)15.00
Jasmin absolute15.00
Oakmoss absolute superessence, Yugoslav (Schmoller) 0.60
Bergamot oil4.20
Oakmoss absolute (Camilli)4.35
Jasmin No.14.00
Geranium sur rose oil1.80
Methyl ionone11.30
Vetiver oil3.60
Sandalwool oil1.30
Linalool ex bois de rose1.80
Dianthine (Firmenich)7.60
Gardenia 9058 (Givaudan)4.00
Costus absolute 10%2.10
Mace oil0.15
Florizia (Firmenich)3.15
Tincture of Musk, 3%7.60
Tincute of Civet, 3%1.00
Musk ambrette0.70
Musk ketone1.40
Aldehyde C.10, 1%0.80
Aldehyde C.11 (undecyclenic) 1%1.20
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA) 10%3.60

This is typical of Aldehydic Chypre. The following Chypre Base is also, in its way, very characteristic.

Base Chypre H

Vanillin 4.60
Ethyl vanillin2.90
Methyl ionone1.20
Musk ketone0.75
Rose H0.60
Orange oi, bitter, Guinea4.50
Geraniol extra2.90
Bois de Rhodes oil (Chiris-UOP)1.00
Noisette (de Laire)0.20
Sandalwood oil2.80
Benzoin Supergomodor (Chiris-UOP)0.45
Liquidambar II2.90
Labdanum Clair (Lautier)5.80
Linalool ex bois de rose Cayenne0.75
Linalyl acetate ex bois de rose2.90
Terpinyl acetate8.80
Benzyl acetate2.90
Vetiver acetate0.09
Estragon (tarragon) oil 5%0.54
isoButylquinolin 5%0.75
Ysminia (Firmenich)1.20
Bergamot oil, sesquiterpeneless34.97
Bergamot oil6.00

Parfum MD

Opopanax L2.60
Cyclamen aldehyde0.40
isoButyl salicylate1.70
Costus oil0.90
Bergamot oil4.22
Cyclosia Base (Firmenich)2.00
Patchouli oil18.10
Jasmin No.14.23
Ylang-ylang oil5.07
Muguet No.14.22
Paracetone (Givaudan)4.22
Lavender oil1.70
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal Works)0.45
Cardamine (Synarome)4.22
Gardenia No.16.07
Galbanum oil (Robertet)1.70
Oakmoss absolute superessence (Schmoller)2.60
Base Tuberose No.10.85
Rose No. 20.45
Cardamon oil1.70
Ambre 83 (de Laire) 10%0.85
Grisambrol (Firmenich)2.25
Ethyl vanillin0.45
Musk ketone4.22
Musk BRB (Rhône-Poulenc)0.85
Civettone (Firmenich) 100%0.90
Musk ambrette4.22
Ambrophore (Firmenich)2.87
Animalis (Synarome)2.15
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic)1.70
Aldehyde C.12 (lauric)0.45

The number of chypre variations is very great and it would be impossible for us to offer examples of a comprehensive range of them in the necessarily restricted space available to us. The following, however, reveals the incorporation of distinctively 'animal' note in a chypre base.

Chypre I.D.

Oakmoss absolute hyperessence (Charabot)0.30
Jasmin absolute0.90
Musc VH (Ets. Hasslauer) 10%20.15
Musc baume epure (Payan & Bertrand)10%10.00
Ambergris tincture18.80
Civet tincture29.00
Musk ketone0.30
alpha-Methyl ionone0.90
Sandalwood oil0.40
Vetiver oil0.90
Bergamot oil4.75
Rose No.33.75
Bouvardia CNC (Firmenich)4.75
Carrot Clair (Lautier) 10%2.05
Celery Clair (Lautier) 10%1.25
Tobacco W (I.F.F.)0.55
Aldehyde C.11 (undecylenic) 10%0.25
Cyclopentadecanolide 1%0.15
Orange oil superdèterpenèe (Charabot)0.35
Celery seed oil0.35
Angelica root oil0.15

The following formula is for a modified chypre perfume with a peach type of top note.

Parfum V.W.

Ysminia (Firmenich)3.00
Wardia (Firmenich)2.00
Benzyl acetate9.00
Orange oil, sweet3.00
Jasmin absolute1.25
Vetiveryl acetate4.50
Cedryl acetate (Givaudan)4.00
Sandalwood oil (Mysore)2.50
Lavender oil, Barrême 42% esters6.00
Amyl salicylate1.50
Bergamot oil 12.00
Lemon oil, Guinea3.50
Methyl ionone5.00
Ylang-ylang oil3.50
Oakmoss decolorèe (Robertet)3.50
Patchouli oil2.50
Petitgrain oil, paraguay4.00
Dimethyl benzyl carbinol3.00
Geranium extra2.50
Fennel oil0.75
Black pepper oil0.75
Musk ketone1.50
Ambrettozone (Haarmann & Reimer)0.40
Ambrarome Absolute (Synarome)0.25
Clove bud oil0.30
Aldehyde (pseudo) C.18, 10%0.40
Aldehyde (pseudo) C.16, 10%0.20
Aldehyde C.14 ('peach'), 10%5.00


The principle underlying the creation of so-called oriental perfumes is to utilise balsams and resins of all kinds as the base, e.g. Perue balsam, benzoin, opopanax, olibanum, labdanum, etc., accormpanied by musk and civet, etc., natural and artificial. The conventional crystalline 'fixatives' are also used according to taste. The desired objective is to obtain a perfume with warm and even seductive tonalities. The typically oriental base is 'floralized' by means of heady flower odours such as jasmin, tuberose, magnolia, gardenia, honey-suckle, syringa, etc.

Due note must be taken of the fact that all the basic raw materials are heavy in character and slow to be released into the atmosphere. It is, therefore, necessary to use, with them, a sufficiency of citrus type oils, etc., acetates and other synthetics of a light nature, in order to entrain and disperse them.

By way of example we give a base that may serve as a starting point for these types of perfume.

Base S.H.

Tonka beans hyperessence (Charabot)1.75
Peru balsam rectified (Hasslauer)3.30
Castoreum anhydrol (Givaudan)2.55
Ethyl vanillin2.20
Bergamot oil51.25
Orange oil, bitter (Guinea)8.70
Orange oil, sweet8.70
Lavender oil, Barrême4.40
]Ondatrol (Descollonges)0.75
Linalyl acetate ex shiu oil16.40

Here is another oriental pefume:

Parfum J

Coriandrol (Robertet)10.85
Vetyrisine (Firmenich)7.30
Opaslaunax (Hasslauer)7.30
Humuscol (Descollonges)5.82
Heliotropol (Firmenich)0.35
Sandalwool oil3.65
Lavender oil, Barrême, 40% esters3.65
Bergamot oil3.65
Coriander oil, U.S.S.R.2.91
Gardenia 9058 (Givaudan)3.65
Supercuracao (Lautier)2.59
Clary sage (Chiris-UOP)1.48
Jasmin absolute1.48
Patchouli oil0.74
Musk ambrette0.74
Ylang-ylang oil0.37
Rose No.10.37
Wintergreen oil0.14
Peru balsam rect. (Hasslauer)2.50
Anhydrol Castoreum (Givaudan)0.37
Civettone 100%0.37
Musk tincture No.128.71


For some years there has been a growing demand for perfumes with a more or less pronounced note of greenery or verdure. It could of course be said that the original perfumes with a type of green note were the ferns or fougères, led by the famous Fougère Royale of Houbigant, created by Paul Parquet around 1880-1882. Other fougères were quick to follow, and all helped to popularize the fern note, which is really one of forest trees and undergrowth rather than a truly green leaf note.

Towards 1920 or perhaps a little later appeared, under one of the more modest brand names, Parfums Ybry, a very green type of hyacinth-based perfume. Some years after this came Schiaparelli's Shocking, with its lightly green note superimposed on a very powdery base. Still later (1930-32) Houbigant tried to launch a green type of perfume under the name Festival. But it was still too soon to anticipate success in this direction. A little later, however, Carven came out with Ma Griffe and this, with its truly green note, proved to be a great success. After this came a profusion of 'green' perfumes, and the fashion still endures.

Her is a hyacinth-green base which can be of considerable service in the creation of green perfumes.

Hyacinth Green Base No. 10

Hydroxycitronellal (Cyclosia,Firmenich)3.60
Phenylethyl acetate1.80
Phenylethyl alcohol43.00
isoEugenol 3.50
Cinnamic alcohol16.66
Phenylacetaldehyde 50%0.85
Phenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal0.50
Folial (Firmenich) 0.05
Hyacinth absolute (Polak's Frutal)1.25
Benzyl acetate1.80
Phenylethyl formate0.50
alpha-Amylcinnamic aldehyde0.30
Paracetone (Givaudan)0.20
Rose No.20.06
Jasmin absolute0.20
Hosaldeine (de Laire)0.79
Framboise 2222 (Firmenich) 10%0.24
Dimethyl phthalate 20.40

The green note is rather more restrained in the formula that follows:

Parfum P No. 2

Jasmin No.112.65
Jasmin absolute5.60
Lilac No.322.90
Vetiver oil, Java2.45
Orangeflower No.44.95
Rose No.14.95
Narcisse des Montagnes absolute (Camilli)4.95
Methyl cinnamate2.40
Nardcissus No. 225.65
Phenylacetaldehyde dimethyl acetal0.26
Vert de Lilas (de Laire)0.94
Musk ketone1.20
Oakmoss absolute, Yugoslav,Superessence (Schmoller) 3.75
Liquidambar II1.20

Other suggestions on the subject of green notes are to be found in Chapter 14.


These are perfumes which have a well-defined characteristic note produced by a specific synthetic odorant or a group of two or three odorants, natural or synthetic.

It is easy enough to obtain in perfumery what, in painting, one terms a grisaille: in other words a soulless overall tint, which shades off into a heavy and nondescript mist. To avoid this one experiments with a restricted number of odorants in order to arrive at a note that is at once novel and, as we have said, well defined.

Here is a formula in which the dominant note is formed by an accord of four principal odorants: ambergris, Arhenol, boronia and cassis:

Parfum D

Bornia absolute oil(Plaimer)3.75
Cassis bud absolute incolore3.00
Oakmoss absolute incolore2.50
Jasmin absolute Butaflor (Robertet)1.25
Vetiver oil, naardenised (Naarden)7.38
Carrot oil, naardenised 0.07
Paracetone (Givaudan)9.80
Benzoin Supergomodor (Chiris-UOP)2.00
Rose No.11.87
Cinnamon oil, naardenised (Naarden)1.25
Clary sage oil, naardenised3.50
Clary sage oil, natural3.50
Sandalwood oil4.00
Hydroxycitronellal 4.50
Arhenol (Firmenich)4.50
Pollenol (Firmenich)3.00
Ambrarome (Firmenich)7.38
Ondatrol (Descollonges)3.50
Alcohol C.11 (undecylenic)0.62
Aldehyde C.10, 10% 0.03
Linalool ex bois de rose Brazil3.75
Bergamot oil, sesquiterpeneless 15.50
Mandarin oil0.75
Moskene (Givaudan)0.25
Ethyl vanillin2.50
Benzyl acetate2.25
Opopanax tincture4.00
Castoreum tincture3.60

The ambergris note

When it comes to using this composition for preparing a perfume of chosen concentration, the quantity of tincture of ambergris that should be added, is calculated in the proportion of 100 parts of the concentrate to 73.5 parts of ambergris tincture - with the balance made up of perfumery alcohol. As an example, suppose that what is wanted is a perfume containting 15 per cent of concentrate. Then to 15 parts of the concentrate we add 11 parts of tincture of ambergris, and complete the formula by adding a sufficiency of alcohol at 95o to arrive at a total volume of 100 parts.

Tincture of ambergris at 3 per cent concentration may be replaced by much less expensive synthetics: vide the section on Animal Notes in the chapter on synthetic odorants. In this particular case excellent results, possibly even superior to those yielded by the natural product, may be obtained with a 3 per cent tincture of Ambergris Synthètique (Givaudan).

Another example of a formula in this category may be given:

Parfum BM
Arhenol (Firmenich)5.40
Sophora (Givaudan)20.00
Cattleya (Givaudan)3.60
Jonquille alpha (de Laire)6.00
Orangeflower A0.30
Folia (Bertrand fères)2.00
Methyl ionone1.00
Paracetone (Givaudan)3.00
Cinnamic alcohol ex styrax9.78
Benzyl acetate2.00
Linalyl acetate4.00
Phenylethyl alcohol0.80
Rose No. 13.20
Orange oil, bitter4.00
Orange oil, sweet1.60
Cedrat oil2.00
Aldehyde C.12 (MNA)0.03
Aledhyed C.11 (undecylenic)0.02
Patchouli oil0.27
Ethyl vanillin0.80
Jasmonone No.4A3.00

The formula for the finished perfume is made up as follows:

Perfume concentrate as above (Parfum BM)15 kilos
Tincture of musk No. 24 litres
Alcohol at 95o81 litres

After chilling and filtration one obtains 100 liters of perfume.

Many simple, small-scale chemical processes may be profitably used by the perfumer or his associates. One thinks of the fractional distillation of Virginian cedarwood oil, for example, or the interesting end-product of distilling bergamot oil over oakmoss, just as the larger supply houses have distilled geranium over rose flowers and petitgrain over orange flowers. The separation of a determined portion or portions of a known essential oil can also yield an attractive result. Nothing should be overlooked, in fact, that may contribute a novel and perhaps an in inimitable note to a new perfume.

Manufacturing Processes

No perfume can be better than the concentrate from which it is prepared. Hence the necessity not merely of ensuring the best results in conception and formulation but also of taking every possible care in the selection, purchase and storage of raw materials. A constant standard of quality is essential.

Citrus oils are among those materials which deteriorate relatively rapidly. Stocks should therefore be used up accordingly and any falling off in quality duly noted and acted upon. Storage basements, etc., should be dry, shaded and well ventilated. They should afford adequate protection against normal fire risks. Storage should preferably be in glass, although internally lined aluminium cans provide one of the permissible alternatives. Some oxidation-prone essential oils are often treated on the production site with traces (e.g. 1 part in 20,000) of antioxidants, but the practice of adding such materials should be kept to a minimum and note knowingly encouraged in fine perfumery. First-grade fresh oil is always superior to comparable treated oil.

A few odorants, e.g. myristic aldehyde, should not be stored in the cold. This particular aldehyde tends to polymerise if kept below room temperature.

When weighing-out, the formula may conveniently be typed on a Cellophane-wrapped card and clipped into a holder having a movable wide flat strip, designed to indicate clearly the actual line that is to be wieghed.

Much thought should be given to the containers and other utensils, in respect of the metals from which they are fabricated (e.g. good quality tinplate) and their design (e.g. with spouts for drip-free pouring and bases suitable for use on a steam bath or hot plate.


Accurate weighing is essential, and especially so in the case of very small quantities, which may have to be weighed separately on a more sensitive balance or used as a 10, 5 or 1 per cent solution in ethyl alcohol, benzyl benzoate, diethyl phthalate or other appropriate diluent. A very serviceable type of balance is one that incorporates a zero resetting device and a calculator which shows automatically, at the end of the weighing, the same total as that shown in the typed formula.

Most mixtures are prepared in the cold, but some require gentle heating to promote thorough solution. Sensitive materials such as flower absolutes and fatty aldehydes should be added only after such dissolving-with-heat has been affected and the blend allowed to cool.

Modern mixing equipment offers many improvements on the old-fashioned hand methods once used in the perfumery industry. The steps that follow comprise the maturation of the concentrate on storage and (in the case of spirituous perfumes) its subsequent reduction or dilution with alcohol; its chilling, filtration and filling into bottles.

Probably the best way of preparing a finished perfume consisting of the compounded odorants known as the perfume concentrate, together with alcohol and water, is to pre-mix the concentrate with an equal quantity by volume of the alcohol, and then to dilute the rest of the alcohol with the proper amount of distilled water, allow to cool completely, and then add the concentrate-plus-alcohol with renewed stirring. This method tends to prevent colloidal precipitation of part of the concentrate, which one gets by adding the concentrate to the main bulk of alcohol initially, or the difficulty in solubilisation that may arise when the concentrate is added last of all.

After the lapse of some 24 hours the alcoholic batch is chilled (-0.4 to -0.6o C) and filtered. Where filter aids are used, as in the case of weakly alcoholic solutions, asbestos wool and diatomaceous earth are preferred to the mildly alkaline magnesium carbonate.

Alcoholic Strengths

As we mention in the chapter on eaux de Cologne, the perfume content of Colognes, eaux de toilette, eaux de parfume and other fancifully named 'dilute perfumes' may range from 3 to 8 per cent, although in some few cases this figure has been found to exceed even 10 per cent. There seems little point in marketing as a toilet water what is, in fact, a perfume - unless its water solubility has been artificially enhanced for the purpose.

Perfumes themselves range from the perhaps old-fashioned 'low' of 10 per cent to 15, 20, 25 and even, quite irrationally, 35 per cent. The alcoholic strength may lie between 850 and 950 Inexperienced perfumers, and some captains of industry in the perfumery world who are not perfumers, seem occasionally to believe that higher perfume concentration means enhanced strength and tenacity. This is not so. Sometimes the tenacity may be slightly increased but, beyond a certain optimum level, the strength is not increased. Indeed, too high a concentration lowers the tonality of a perfume and flattens it out, curtailing its ability to expand. With a very high concentration dull, non-diffusive perfumes result, and one of the most valued properties of a good grade of ethyl alcohol is wasted.


Adequate checking and control methods are of course essential at all stages of perfume production: from the intake and essay of raw materials, through storage and processing to filling and packaging. The variability of certain materials because of batch or climatic deviations, etc., is an additional obstacle in the way of producing a uniform series over a period of time. The perfumer should be closely concerned with the provision and use of standard samples for odour checking and comparison. These standards must be kept in optimum conditions, i.e. where possible in sealed ampoules or under nitrogen. Watch should also be kept on the exact matching of colour shades.

Ethyl Alcohol: Conversion from Gay-Lussac to equivalent degrees Proof, U.S. and U.K., and compared with Percentage Alcohol by Volume

Gay-Lussac(15oC)% Alcohol by volume (60oF) Equivalent specific gravity in air (60oF/60oF) Degrees overproof (U.K.)U.S. Proof at 60oF (approx.)
8584.710.850348.49 170
8685.710.847250.25 172
8786.720.844252.01 174
88 87.720.841153.78 176
8988.730.837855.55 178
90.89.740.834657.31 180
9190.750.831259.08 182
9291.750.827860.85 184
9392.760.824362.62 186
9493.760.820664.38 188
9594.760.816866.15 190
9695.760.812969.67 192
9796.760.808769.67 193
9897.770.804371.44 195
9998.790.799673.20 197
10099.780.794774.97 199
100.2100.000.793675.35 200


  1. Equivalent specific gravities in air at the now standard temperature of 200C are given in the Specific Gravity of Spirits tables published by H.M. Stationery Office, London, 1954.[/l]
  2. Degrees overproof may also be stated as 'percentage of proof spirit', in which case 48.49, for example, become 148.49.
  3. It will be seen that the Gay-Lussac figures are in close approximation to those given for percentage alcohol by volume. They are in fact derived from the volume of alcohol measured at 15oC contained in 100 cc of the alcohol-water mixture also at 15oC.

It is fequently necessary to dilute 95 per cent alcohol to 90, 85, 80, 70 per cent or even lover strengths. To determine the quantity of water required to reduce the proof of alcoholic solutions by a definite amount, one divides the percentage by volume of alcohol in the given proof by the percentage by volume of alcohol of the desired proof. The quotient is multiplied by the percentage by volume of water in the desired proof, and from this one subtracts the percentage by volume of water in the given proof. The remainder is the number of volumes of water that must be added to 100 volumes of the given proof to produce a solution of the desired proof. The resultant volume of the diluted alcohol will be the quotient first obtained multiplied by the original volume.

Thus if 13.38 vol. of distilled water are added to 100 vol. of 95 per cent alcohol, the resultant solution will be 85 per cent alcohol.

90 per cent alcohol may be prepared by diluting 947 ml of 95 per cent alcohol with water to 1000 ml.

80 per cent alcohol results from diluting 842 ml of 95 per cent alcohol to 1000 ml.

70 per cent alcohol is obtained by diluting 737 ml of 95 per cent alcohol; 60 per cent by diluting 632 ml, 50 per cent by diluting 526 ml, and 45 per cent by diluting 474 ml to 1000 ml with purified water.

Contraction of volume and rise of temperature occur when ethyl alcohol and water are mixed. The final adjustment of volume, when preparing these dilutions, is therefore made at the same temperature as that at which the 95 per cent alcohol is measured, i.e. about 20o C.

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