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Medicinal Plants Cultivation & Their Uses

Medicinal Plants Cultivation & Their Uses

Author: H. Panda
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8178330962
Code: NI56
Pages: 598
Price: Rs. 975.00   US$ 25.95

Published: 2002
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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The medicinal plants have been used since ancient times for the treatment of human ailments. Over three quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. The herbal medicines today symbolize safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment. In the primeval times, the Indian sagacious held the view that herbal medicines are the only resolution to treat numeral health related problems and diseases. Although herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavoring and aromatic qualities for centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with hope of safety and security.
Understanding the worth and heritage of excellence of medicinal plants the book makes an attempt to provide information on cultivation of medicinal plants and their different uses. This book includes the chemical composition of plants, plant protection, essential oils extracted from plants, cultivation of more than 100 medicinal plants, list of rare medicinal plants and their various uses.
The book covers different parameters of medicinal plants cultivation and various ways of their uses. It covers medicinal plants containing alkaloids, steroids flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, additives and other active metabolites. We hope that this book will be useful not only for technologists, professionals, but also for farmers, traders, exporters and importers of Medicinal Plants.

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55. Cleroendrum Serratum (Linn.) Moon
56. Commiphora Mukul
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60. Cucumis Melo, Linn.
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62. Cycyrbita Maxima, Duchesne.
63. Curcuma Zedoaria, Rose.
64. Cynodon Dactylon
65. Daemia Extensa, R. Br.
66. Dolichos Biflorus
67. Eclipta Alba Hassk
68. Elettaria Cardamomum
69. Embelia Ribes
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71. Eugenia Aromatica
72. Evolvulus Alsinoides
73. Ferula Foetida
74. Feronia Elephantum, Correa
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76. Fumaria Officinalis
77. Galega Purpurea, Linn.
78. Garcinia Mangostana, Linn.
79. Hedychium Spicatum
80. Hermodactylus Gol
81. Hibiscus Rosa - Sinensis Linn.
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84. Inula Racemosa Hook F.
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87. Lawsonia Inermis Linn.
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95. Melaleuca Leucadendron, Linn.
96. Melia Azedarach, Linn. M. Sempervirens.
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98. Myrica Nagi, Thunb, or M. Sapida; M. Cerifera
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100. Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn
101. Nigella Sativa Linn., N. Indica
102. Operculina Turpethum (Linn.)
103. Oryza Sativa Linn.
104. Phoenix Dactylifera Linn.
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106. Phyllanthus Niruri Linn.
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108. Pisum Sativum, Linn.
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111. Psychotria Ipecacuanha Linn
112. Pterocarpus Marsupium Roxb.
113. Pterocarpus Santalinus Linn.
114. Castor Seeds
115. Saraca Indica Linn.
116. Sesamum Indicum, DC.
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155. Costus Speciosus (Koenig.) Sm.
156. Dipteracanthus Prostratus (Poir.) Nees.
157. Elytraria Acaulis (Linn. F.) Lindau
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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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[h2](N. B.- ARUM COLOCASIA)[/h2]

[p]Chocolate is a mixture of cacao Arum colocasia with sugar, and as a rule with spices also. Usually one part of cacao is mixed with one part (or 1½ part at most) of sugar. Cheap chocolate often contains admixtures of starch, such as corn flour, wheat, rice, or potato starch, etc. ; powdered roasted acorns, chestnuts, earthnuts, chicory, ship biscuits, the ground shells of the beans and other woody substances, and even plaster have been employed as adulterants. In England some brands of cacao contain starch, but this fact is, or should be, stated on the tin, so that it loses the character of adulteration, and moreover, the price is lowered in proportion. The cacao of some of the most important factories in Holland has been found to contain twenty-nine to thirty per cent of fat, fourteen to eighteen percent of albuminoids, five to nine percent of ash, four to five percent of water, 0.6 to 1.5 percent of theobromine, the rest consisting of starch. Thus it is seen that the composition varies, but these figures may be taken as the limits which "pure" cacao powder may not exceed.[/p]

[p]Cheap chocolate often contains the ground shells, but for the better kinds they are useless, as they may rightly be said to be adulterants, although it is true that they contain some theobromine and some fats, and taste cacao.[/p]

[p]The spices, volatile oils, or vanilla which chocolate contains as a rule are only added to the chocolate-mass ( i.e. cacao plus sugar) towards in the grinding process, in order to prevent a loss of perfume, which would certainly takes place during a prolonged heating in the grinding and mixing machines. Of course, the cacao mixed sugar and spices, and in the case of some kinds of cheap chocolate with different kinds of meal, in different proportions. In general from fifty to sixty parts of sugar are mixed with from fifty to seventy parts of chocolate, with small quantities of the necessary spices either as powders or in alcoholic solutions of their volatile oils. If chocolate composed of equal quantities of sugar and cacao, is too fatty, in consequence of the large quantities of butter contained in the beans, to be easily moulded in to forms wanted, part of the mass is replaced by an equal quantities of cacao powder of the same mixture of beans from which the fat has partly been extracted. This is what is done in the case of expansive chocolate. In the case of cheap chocolate, however, the same end is attained by adding more sugar. If the chocolate-mass contains more than sixty percent of sugar, it is impossible to mould in into different shapes, and pure cocao-butter must then be added.[/p]

[p]In the preparation of chocolate-powder or cacao, as we are accustomed to call it, the partial extraction of the fat takes the place of the mixing with sugar. This extraction is effected by means of a powerful hydraulic press.[/p]


[p]The genus Aristolichia L. (Family Aristolochiaceae) comprises about 300 species, most of which are tropical, occurring frequently in the Mediterrancean countries and rarely in the north-temperate region. Out of these only eight species are reported from India. The word 'Aristolochia owes its origin to two Greek words "aristos" meaning best and "lochia" meaning birth ascribed to the supposed virtues of the plant in obstetric cases. The members of this genus are well known for their alkaloidal contents of therapeutic importance. Quite a few species of the genus are well popular as garden plants because of their ornamental flowers. However, the odour of these flowers is quite unpleasant and repulsive. These plants are, accordingly, grown in the backyard of gardens. The shape of these flowers is peculiar so as to be erroneously treated as flycatchers but interestingly none of these are insectivorous. Several species of aristolochia have been used for medicinal purposes from early days. Pliny and Dioscorides described several species of the genus and their usefulness in curing various ailments. Most of the older herbals refer to the therapeutic properties of the roots and leaves of Aristelochia. Their roots contain a volatile oil, a bitter resin, and an extractable acid. It is because of this acid that these plants derive their virtue as stimulants of the glandular organs and of the functions of the skin. The roots are also administered as antihysteric, aromatic, stimulating tonic and useful in certain types of fevers, as purgative, mild aperient for children and as antidote to snakebite. They are also reputed as emmenagogue and antiarthritic, besides being used to cure syphilis, gonorrhoea and diarrhoea and to cause abortion in certain cases. Few species are poisonous.[/p]

[p]A survey of literature shows that the genus has attracted considerable attention of chemists and pharmacologists in the past. Chevallier (1853) and Walz (1853) isolated the bitter toxic "serpentaria" from A. serpentaria Linn. and A. clematitis Linn. A. serpentaria contains 0.5-2.0% volatile oil of which borneol is the chief constituent, and a bitter principle aristolochine also known as serpentarian. Numerous other compounds and essential oils have subsequently been isolated from different species of the genus. Krishnaswamy isolated aristolochine from A. indica L. Armand Castille, reported essential oil, fats oleoresins, sugars and aristolochic acid, etc. from the roots, stems and leaves of A. sipho L'He'rit. Aristolochic acid, a compound identical to aristolochine has been reported from other species of the genus also. Krishna Rao et. al. reported essential oil from roots of A. indica which mainly comprises sesquiterpenoids. Somasekar rao and Muthana reported dcamphor as the chief constituent of the essential oil from the roots of A. indica. Tomita and kura reported a compound magnoflourine and an aparphine type base from A. debilis Sieb & Zucc. and Coutts et. al. isolated aristolochic acid from the roots of A. reticulata Nutt. and A. indica. They further made a comparative study of acidic and basic constituents of A. reticulata, A. serpentaria, A longa L. and A. indica. In 1964, Martin et. al. worked out the revised structure of aristolactone from A. reticulata and A. serpentaria. Piers et. al. studied the total synthesis of aristolone from A. debilis and Comer et. al. studied the biosynthesis of aristolochic acid in A. sipho. Jagannadha Rao et. al., and Sastry reported aristolochic acid from roots of A. bracteata. The acids is also present in traces in the seeds of these plants. Mehta observed the presence of several compounds in addition to the non-drying oil (18.5%) in the seeds of A. bracteata Retz. Ruveda isolated magnoflourine and dimethyl aminoethyl phenantherene and aristolochic acid from root of A. argentina Griseb. Priestap isolated and characterised argentilactone, a new-5-hydroxy acid lactone from the roots of A. argentina. Schuette observed the presence of aristolochic acid and magnoflourine in all the species of the genus they investigated. Hussein Fowzy, reported the presence of alkaloid magnoflourine and two acidic compounds, aristolochic acid and aristo red from seeds of A. bracteata and b-sitosterol and five alkaloids from the leaves of A. elegans Mast. In 1979 kyburz isolated and characterised, sorelline and hobartine, two new indole alkaloids from A. peduncularis (Labill) hook. F.[/p]

[p]Ganguly in 1969, isolated ishwarone, a new tetracyclic sesquiterpene from A. indica. Govindachari has studied the absolute stereochemistry of ishwarone. In 1970 govindachari isolated ishwarane and aristolochine, two new sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and later govindachari and parthasarathy isolated isharol, a new tetracyclic sesquiterpene alcohol from A. indica. Govindachari and Viswanathan have identified the alkaloid aristolochine isolated by krishnaswamy as 1-curine. Gaushirt has studied the quantitative determination of aristolechic acid isolated from various members of Aristolochiaceae.[/p]

[p]The various active principles isolated from the different organs of several spices of the genus have also been investigated pharmacologically to certain extent . Ryo observed that aristolochine causes cradiac and respiratory paralysis in frogs and mice, intestinal inflammation in dogs and an aloin-like haemorrhagic nephritis in rabbits and Duefel and Gaushirt studied the action of aristolochic acid on bacteria and on cell division of Viciafaba. Dutta and Sastry observed that alcoholic as well as aqueous extract of the root and stem of A. bracteata have stimulating effects on uteri of animals. Mose investigated the effect of aristolochic acid from A. clematitis on phagocytic and serum bactericidal activity. In 1964, Jummel studied the effectiveness of aristolochic acid in chronic inflammatory tissue processors. Tiwari et. al. observed that extract of A. indica has relaxant effect on rhythmic contraction of uterus of rats and human beings. Wiedermann studied the influence of aristolochic acid on the leucocytic phagocytosis in man and on the clearance function of the reticulocndothelial system in the albino mouse. Pakrashi and Chakrabarty studied the biological properties of the interceptic agents from A. indica. Angeles investigated the effect of aristolochic acid on tumour phospholipids. According to Bhaskar aristolochic acid obtained from A. bracteata has chemosterilizing effect on certain insects.[/p]

[p]Moretti isolated aristolochic acid from A. acuminata Roxb. and A. multiflora Duch from Madagascar and investigated its cytotoxicity on animal tumour cells and noticed the tumorous cells of crown gall most sensitive to the acid.[/p]

[p]Pakrashi and Chakrabarty demonstrated that aristolochic acid, isolated from A. indica root prevents eustrogen induced weight increase and epithelial growth of the uterus of mice.[/p]

[p]Pakrashi and Pakrashi isolated two compounds aristolactum glucoside and p-coumaric acid from the roots of A. indica and tested their antifertility activity on mice. They observed that on the 6th day of pregnancy aristolactum glucoside showed 30% interceptive activity while p-coumaric acid was 100% effective.[/p]

[p]Botanists have also taken interest in the study of aristolochias. In 1960 Bruckbauer reported the occurrence of the virus disease on A. clematitis. In 1964 Nozeran and Halle reported a new species, namely, A. embergeri sp. n. from the humid tropical forests if the 1 vory Coast. He conducted studies with special reference to its inflorescence. In 1968, Nain described and illustrated A. gourigangaica as a new find from Kumaon Himalayas. He ascribed this new taxon to the section Siphisia Duchart. Behnke investigated the fine structure of sieve tube plastids of Aristolochia and Asarum and discussed the position of the Aristolochiaceae in the systems of classification of plants. Ahumada Zulema studied the morphology and systematics of A. angustifolia Cham. and A. viperina. These two species with long leaves and unilabiate flowers often pose a lot of confusion. A comparative study of the morphology of leaves and flowers, as well as biometrical analysis of quantitative characters have proved extremely useful for determining their identity. Delaigue made a morphological and ontogenetic study of the axillary complex of A. clematitis.[/p]

[p]Sharma and Verma made cytological studies of A. indica, A. cymbifera Mart. & Zucc., A. ridicula N. E. Brown and A. grandiflora Swartz. and found a gross structural similarity in their chromosomal compliments. Venugopalan also studied aristolochias cytologically. The numerical and structural differences in the karyotypes of different species indicate that minute structural alteration in the chromosomal details appear to be responsible for the evolution of the species. A. indica having lowest chromosome number (2n=12) and only one pair of chromosome with secondary constriction is regarded as the most primitive of the species. Gaushirt investigated the leaf indentations and secretory cells of A. clamatitis and observed that the brown oil from these cells is very resistant to chemicals. The oil in young leaves is stained with Sudan III. Secretary cells in fairly developed leaves are practically devoid of any contents. Johri and Bhatnagar investigated the embryology and morphology of few species of Aristolochia. Investigating the flower nectaries of several species of the genus, Daumann inferred that development of the nectaries is phylogenetic and the same cane be usefully utilised for the systematic studied of the genus. He also investigated the pollination ecology of A. clematitis. According to Hagerup perianthium of A. elegans is developed from a single leaf. Nair and Narayana studied the nodal and flora anatomy of some members of Aristolochiaceae.[/p]

[p]Das conducted a comparative study of a phenolic acid composition of aristolochias from a chemotaxonomic point of view and suggested that aristolochias should be placed nearer to the family Anonaceae rather than to Myrtaceae.[/p]

[p]Certain species of the genus have also been investigated from pharmacognostic point of view. Thus, Datta and Mukerji, Mukerji and Aiyer investigated the root of A. indica while Prasad and Vohra investigated the roots and stems of A. indica and A. bracteata and Nayar studied the root of A. tagala Cham.[/p]

[p]Tomy and Singh recently undertook the investigation of root of A. ornithocephala and compared it with that of A. indica. The diagnostic characters of the leaves of five species of the genus, namely, A. bracteata, A. grandiflora, A. indica, A. leuconeura Linden and A. ornithocephala Hook, have also been worked out by Singh and Tomy. Occurrence of abnormal stomata in leave of the above species and an anamalous cambial ring in the stem of A. leuconeura have also been observed by them for the first time. The root and stem of the above five species have also been studied pharmacognostically and diagnostic characters highlighted to enable their correct and easy also from the adulterants.[/p]


[h3]- Vansalochanam[/h3]

[h2](N.O. - GRAMINAE, POACEAE)[/h2]

[p][b]Parts Used :[/b] The siliceous concretions young-shrubs, bark, root and flowers.[/p]

[p][b]Historical Aspects:[/b] The siliceous concretions called Vansalochana, Vanskapur. Kshir (latex) comes out from the vans so it is known as Tawakshri or tugakshiri. Two varieties are available in the market, the blue and white, both having a sweet taste. Charaka and Sushruta have mentioned the medicinal use of the plant.[/p]

[h3]Origin, Distribution and Composition :[/h3]

[p]The bamboo is a perennial tree with grows up to a height of 12 metres with its 8 to 15 cm in diameter. Every year, between July and October, new shoots sprout at the base of the tree. Bamboo trees are always found in clusters.[/p]

[p]The stem of the tree is round, smooth and hollow. Nodes are swollen. The trees has no branches but, the lower portions, that is, three - fourths of the tree, have more spines between each node. It has simple, shiny, thin, stiff, smooth and dark green leaves. Flowers are found in bunch and seeds resemble the corn of wheat, in shape.[/p]

[p]Bamboo is presumed to have originated in Asia. The tree grows wild throughout most parts of India, especially in the hilly forests of western and southern India but is cultivated only in the lower Himalayas and in the valleys of the Ganges and Indus.[/p]

[p]An analysis of bamboo shows that it contains moisture 88.8 per cent, protein 3.9 per cent, fat 0.5 per cent, minerals 1.1 per cent and carbohydrates 5.7 per cent per 100 grams of its edible portion. Calcium phosphorus, Iron, Thiamine, riboflavin, niacine, and vitamin and minerals. Its calorific value is 43.[/p]

[p]Bamboo leaves are a rich source of hydrocyanic and benzoicacids Tender bamboo-shoots contain various enzymes such as nuclease. deamidase, proteolytic enzyme, amylase, amigdalin splitting and silicon splitting enzymes. Besides, the juice of the pressed bamboo - shoots possesses protease activity which helps digestion of proteins.[/p]

[p][b]Habitat:[/b] It grows wild throughout greater part of the country, particularly in the hilly forests of western and southern India ascending up to an altitude of 1000 m in the Nilgiris. It also occurs in the warmer parts of Sri Lanka and Burma. This plant has a rapid growth and good yields.[/p]

[p][b]Botanical Description :[/b] The plant is erect, bending at the summit and pointed, hollow between joints, branches, alternate on the joints, leaves sheathing, linear, lanceolate. The plant grows quite tall and is ornamental.[/p]

[p][p]Pharmacognosy :[/p] Vansalochanam is a white siliceous concrete crystalline substance irregularly shaped, light, soft and brittle; pieces are one inch in diameter, concave-convex. It readily imbibes volatile and fatty oils, which produce an opacity; with acetate of copper, sulphuric or malic acid, vansalochanam assumes the colours of emerald. The macroscopic and microscopic and microscopic characteristics have been described.[/p]

[p][p]Phytochemistry:[/p] Vansalochanam contains silica 90% or silicon as hydrate of silicic acid, peroxide of iron, potash, lime, alumina, vegetable matter. The grains of the plant contain water 11.0%, Starch 73.1% albuminoids 11.86%, fibre 1.7% and ash 1.2%. The young shoots containing cyanogenic glycoside and poisonous. The glycoside is hydrolysed by an enzyme also present in the shoots when they are cut and soaked in water.[/p]

[h3]Healing Power and Curative Properties[/h3]

[p]The leaves of bamboo tree are stimulant aromatic and tonic. They are useful in counteracting spasmodic disorders, and arrest secretion or bleeding. They are also an effective aphrodisiac. The leaves do not have any prominent taste.[/p]

[h3]Stomach Disorders[/h3]

[p]The leaves are beneficial in the treatment of stomach troubles. They are useful in strengthening the stomach and promoting its action. The young shoots of the tree are also useful in stomach disorders. Pickled or cooked they serve as an appetizer. In many parts of India the leaves of the tree used in the form of decoction to treat diarrhoea.[/p]

[h3]Respiratory Disorders[/h3]

[p]The tender shoots are useful in the treatment of respiratory diseases. Decoction of the shoots should be taken with a tablespoon of honey once or twice daily.[/p]

[h3]Menstrual Disorders [/h3]

[p]A decoction of the leaves as a emmanagouge would stimulate menstruation. It promotes and regulates the menstrual periods. A decoction of the nodes of the bamboo stem is also useful for this purpose.[/p]

[h3]Intestinal Worms[/h3]

[p]The leaves are useful in killing intestinal worms, especially threadworms. They should be taken from of decoction.[/p]

[h3]Wounds and Ulcers[/h3]

[p]A poultice of the tender shoots is used for cleaning wounds and maggot infested sores. Decoction or juice of the fresh bamboo leaves is applied as a medicine in such ulcers.[/p]

[p][b]Dosage : [/b]The juice of 35 grams of fresh leaves may be taken twice daily either alone or mixed with any other juice. The decoction extracted from 70 grams of leaves may be used by its self. About 120 ml of the juice extracted from very tender shoots may be taken twice daily.[/p]

[h3]Other Uses[/h3]

[p][b]Abortion, Pregnancy and Post - Delivery Use:[/b] Decoction of the tender bamboo - shoots, mixed with palm jaggery (tad-ka-gud) is given once or twice a day for a week to cause abortion during the first month of pregnancy. The same preparation can be used in the last month of pregnancy to induce labour. Its use after the childbirth eases the process of the expulsion of the placenta and prevents excessive loss of blood. It is a safe substitute for ergot in such conditions.[/p]

[p]Bamboo shoots are used as food in various ways. They are used in preparation such as bamboo candy, bamboo chutney and canning of bamboo in syrups.[/p]

[h3]Ayurvedic Properties:[/h3]

[p]Rasa: Madhura, Kashaya. Veerya: Sheeta. Vipaka: Katu. Leaves: Rasa: Madhura. Shoots: Guna: Guru, Vidahi. Rasa: Katu. Vipaka: Katu. Seeds: Guna: Ruksha, Saram. Rasa: Kashaya. Vipak: Katu. Veerya: Ushna. Dosha: Kaphapittashamaka. Karma: Bastishosharn, Chhedana, Kushtaghna, Shothahara, Vranapah.[/p]

[p][b]Pharmacology : [/b] Not much experimental work has been carried out on the plant. The young shoots contain 0.3% hydrocyanic acid and are lethal to mosquito larvae.[/p]

[p][b]Safety :[/b] One quarter of an ounce of law shoots or a slightly larger amount, when insufficiently cooked can cause death. The young shoots contain 0.3 per cent hydrocyanic acid. Chronic intake of cyanogenic alkaloids can lead to tropical ataxia due to neuropathy.[/p]

[p][b]Clinical Usage :[/b] Vansalochanam is used clinically for the treatment of prameha and given in combination with other drugs, relieves burning sensation. It is also useful to children with cough and asthma. A decoction of bamboo joints is said to increase the flow of lochia after delivery. The juice of leaves with aromatics is given in haematemesis; older and dried stems of bamboo are used as splints in fracture, young shoots of the bamboo made into poultice is an efficacious application for dislodgement of worms from ulcers of cattle, the juice is poured on the vermin and the liquid mass applied and secured by a bandage. Vansalochanam is a stimulant and a tonic used in asthma, tuberculosis, jaundice, leprosy, anaemia and other vata rogas. In combination with other astringent medicines it is also given in chronic dysentery and internal haemorrhage. Sitopaladi churna is given in tuberculosis with honey. In urinary retention vansalochanam is used with rice water and sugar.[/p]


[li]Cough and cold.[/li]
[li]Urinary retention.[/li]
[li]Infected wounds.[/li]
[li]As adjunct in tuberculosis.[/li]


[tr][td]Sitopaladi churna[/td][td]:[/td][td]2-5 g t.i.d. with honey.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Leaves juice[/td][td]:[/td][td]10-15 ml t.i.d.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Flower juice [/td][td]:[/td][td]one drop in ear b.i.d.[/td] [/tr]
[tr][td]Decoction of root bark and bamboo manna[/td] [td]:[/td] [td]30-100 ml afterfood b.i.d.[/td][/tr]


[h2](N. O.- SAPTOTACEAE)[/h2]

[p]Sans.-Madhhuka. Eng.- Indian Butter Tree; Mahwah tree. Hindi.- Jangli Moha; Mahua. Ben.- Mahua. Mah.- Mowda. Tel.- Ippachettu ; Eppi; Madhookam. Tam.- Kat illipi; Kattuirrupai. Mal.- Madhookam. Illupai. Can.- Ippe-mara. Pers.- Ippicha; Mohecha; Darakhta-gulchakane-sahrai. Guj.- Mahuda. [/p]

[p][b]Habitat.-[/b] Bombay Presidency, Central Provinces, Bengal and South Indian forests and Ceylon.[/p]

[p][b]Parts Used :[/b] Flowers, fruit, oil of the seeds, leaves and bark.[/p]

[p][b]Constituents :[/b] Flowers contain sugar, cellulose, albuminous substances, ash, water etc. Dried flowers contain from 50 to 60% sugar. Seeds contain 50 to 55% of fatty oil, fat, tannin, extractive matter, bitter principle probably saponin, albumen, gum, starch, mucilage and ash. "The composition of the facts present in the seeds as worked out by R. G. Pelly (1912) at the Imperial Institute:- The unsaturated acids yield an oxidation dihydroxy stearic acid with a M.P. of I300C. No linolic acid could be found. The saturated acids have M.P. of 530C. neutralisation value 205 and iodine value I2.7 percent. On re-crystallisation from alcohol they yield nearly half their weight of stearic acid, some palmitic acid is also obtained. A saponin of the formula C17H26O10 has also been separated from the seeds. "Ash contains silicic, phosphoric and sulphuric acids, lime and iron, potash and traces of soda. Juice contains caoutchouc, tannin, starch, calcium oxalate, gum, rasins, formic & acetic acids and ash. Oil is a mixture of 80 p.c. of sterin (separated crystals of stearic acid) and 20 p.c. of olein, "Leaves contain a glucosidic saponin different from that obtained from the seeds have been reported. Traces of an alkaloid have also been found. A spirit is distilled from the flowers. Flowers contain a fairly good quality of suger, enzymes and yeast. Church gives the following figures of analyses for air dried flowers:- Cane Suger 2.2 p.c., invert suger 52.6 p.c., other substances soluble in water 7.2 p.c., cellulose 2.4 p.c., albuminoids 2.2 p.c., ash 4.8 p.c., water lost at 1000C 15.00, undetermined 12.6 per cent."[/p]

[p][b]Action :[/b] Fresh juice is alterative and the spirit distilled from the flowers is a powerfully diffusible stimulant and an astringent, tonic and appetiser. Flowers are at once cooling, demulcent, expectorant, tonic, nutritive and stimulant. Liquor obtained from the flowers by distillation contains a large amount of empyreumatic oil which is apt to cause gastric irritation in large doses. " Because of the tannin content, B. latifolia acts as astringent. Leaves have also astringent properties. Bark is astringent and tonic.[/p]

[p][b]Preparations :[/b] decoction of flowers and concrete oil of seeds. [/p]

[p][b]Uses :[/b] Fruits sometimes eaten. Fruit or the seed produces the kernels yield a thick concrete oil (Mahua butter) which is used by the Gonds and other Centrol Indian tribes for edible purposes and is frequently used as adulterant off "ghee", and is useful for application in skin diseases and to the head in cephalagia, and is often applied in chronic rheumatism. It acts as a laxative and may be used in habitual constipation and haemorrhoids. Leaves boiled in water form a good stimulant embrocation. "Ashes of the brunt leaves mixed with 'ghee' are often used as a dressing for burns and scalds by Kavirajas and Hakims." bark in decoction is a remedy for rheumatic affections; rubbed on the body it cures itch. "Internally the bark is employed in diabetes mellitus with much benefit." Residue cake after extraction of oil os used as an emetic; the smoke produced in burning the cake is reputed to kill insects and rats. "Succulently developed flowers from an important article of food especially in times if famine, and are used for the manufacture of spiritous liquor and power alcohol on a large scale". Decoction of the flowers is useful in coughs," chronic bronchitis and wasting diseases." Flowers mixed with milk are useful in impotence due to general debility; one ounce with eight ounce of fresh milk is the dose. Dried flowers are used as a fomentation in orchitis for their sedative effect. Sugar, acetone and proof spirit are also made from various parts of the tree.[/p]



[h3]Sanskrit : Pashanabheda[/h3]

[h3]Hindi : Pashanabheda[/h3]

[p][b]Parts used :[/b] Rhizomes.[/p]

[p][b]Historical Aspects :[/b] This plant has been recognized for its action on the urinary tract since ancient times the name Pashanabheda being descriptive of its litholytic property. It has also been used as a poultice, as it is regarded as a locally effective remedy for boils in Kashmir where it known as 'Zakhmehayat'.[/p]

[p][b]Botanical Description :[/b] It is a perennial climbing plant that grows well in moist and shady hilly areas, especially in the foothills of the Himalayas and the Khasi hills Assam. The stems are showed and thick and the leaves ovate and bright red seasonally. The flowers are white, pink or purple.[/p]

[p][b]Pharmacognosy :[/b] The rootstock is very stout, the rhizomes irregular in outline and very bitter and acrid. The macroscopic and microscopic features of rhizomes are well known. 'Pashanabheda' used in ayurvedic practice often contains B. ciliata and B. stracheyi rhizomes in addition to B. ligulata.[/p]

[p][b]Phytochemistry :[/b] From the rhizomes of B. ligulata only bergenin and B-sitosterol have been isolated. The rhizomes of B. ciliata yield gallolylated leucoanthocyanidin-4-(2-galloyl) glucoside as well. The roots of B. stracheyi contain a new derivative (+) catechin-3-gallate.[/p]

[p][b]Ayurvedic Properties:[/b][/p]

[p]Guna: Laghu, Snighdha, Tikshna. Rasa: Tikta, Kashaya. Veerya: Sheeta. Vipaka: Katu. Dosha: Tridosha. Karma: Ashmarighna, Mutrala, Krichchagna, Bastirogahara.[/p]

[p][b]Pharmacology:[/b] The antilithic property of the crude extract has been investigated by several workers. Shah et. al. concluded that the alcoholic extract had no effect in preventing stone formation in rats (after the method of Lyon) but was of significant help in dissolving preformed stones. Low doses of Pashanabheda extract (0.5 mg/kg of alcoholic extract) promote diuresis in rats, but higher does 100 mg/kg reduce the urine output, and also reduce the diuresis produced by urea.[/p]

[p]In rats, the extract reduced spontaneous motor activity and besides its own analgesic action it also potentiated morphine analgesia. However, it had no protective effect against convulsions produced by pentylene tetrazol or electric shock. There is significant CNS depressant activity in the crude extract.[/p]

[p]The alcoholic extract displays marked anti-bradykinin activity although it does not effect the action of 5-HT and acetylcholine on is isolated guinea pig ileum. It has been shown to potentiate the action of adrenaline on guinea-pig trachea and ileal muscle.[/p]

[p]The alcoholic extract has a marked anti-inflammatory effect on the response to various forms of experimental injury. The anti-inflammatory effect of the extract, like its diuretic effect, is reduced when higher doses of the drug are employed. There is also a mention of antiviral activity against influenza-A virus.[/p]

[p][b]Safety :[/b] Its cardiotoxic, antidiuretic and CNS depressant action on experimental models have been reported with large doses. It is unlikely that these effects will be encountered with the doses in clinical use. In rats, the LD50 of the aqueous extract was 650 mg/kg intraperitoneally.[/p]

[p][b]Clinical Usage :[/b] In ayurvedic practice, Pashanabheda, as its name suggests, is used a litholytic agent for urinary calculi. It is widely used in the treatment of dysuria and renal failure, cystitis and crystalluria. Its anti-inflammatory property finds a use in the treatment of abscesses and cutaneous infections. It is also used in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea.[/p]


[li]Urinary calculi[/li]
[li]Chronic ulcers and wounds.[/li]


[p]Powered rhizomes : 1-3 gm b.i.d.[/p]

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