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Manufacture of Food & Beverages (2nd Edn.)

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Manufacture of Food & Beverages  (2nd Edn.)

Author: NPCS board
Format: Hardcover
ISBN: 9789381039113
Code: NI14
Pages: 189
Price: Rs. 1,895.00   US$ 50.95

Published: 2012
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***********Limited Edition- available in Photostat Version Only************

The Food and Beverages Industry is one of the leading industrial and business segments across the world, extending over a vast chain of production, distribution and retail lines. It is the mainstay of the much of the industrial and economic activities going around the world. The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supply much of the food and food energy consumed by the world population. Only subsistence farmers, those who survive on what they grow, can be considered outside of the scope of the modern food industry. The beverage industry refers to the industry that produces drinks. Beverage production can vary greatly depending on which beverage is being made. The food processing is one of the most under development almost exploited segment of agriculture industry. Food processing is the set of methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food or to transform food into other forms for consumption by humans either in the home or by the food processing industry. Baking is the traditional technique of prolonged cooking of food by dry heat acting by convention. Bakery product, bread products, biscuit products, and other products are a major growth area. Food preservation is one of the major parts of food processing.
The Indian food industry was estimated at over $182 billion, accounting for about two-thirds of the country's total retail sector. Expected growth of food industry is to grow $300 billion by 2015 and by 2025, it is expected to be worth $344 billion. Consumption of non-alcoholic beverages is expected to increase by 16.5-19% over the next three years as more people are trading up to packaged drinks. Corporate manufacturers of non-alcoholic beverages are expected to grow at an annual rate of 16.5% and non-corporate manufacturers at 19%. The estimates are based on an assumed gross domestic product growth of 7%, which is much higher than the 5% growth.
The content of the book includes information about food and beverages. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like Food Industry, Beverage Industry, Beer, Biscuit, Bread, Chocolate Drinks (Liquid Form), Corn Flakes, Date Syrup, Date Paste, Date Jam & Date Drinks, Health Drink, Indian Made, Foreign Liquor, Lychee Juice, Packaged Drinking Water, Potato Powder, Flakes and Granules with Cold storage, Soft Drink (Aerated), Sugarcane Juice in Tetra Pack, Tomato Concentrate & Ketchup, Wine from Grape.
Project profile contains information like introduction, properties, B.I.S specification, uses and applications, manufacturing process, manufacturing process flow diagram, plant and economics, land and building, plant and machinery, fixed capital, working capital requirement/month, total working capital/month, cost of project, total capital investment, turn over/annum, profit sales ratio, rate of return, breakeven point (B.E.P).
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.

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Related Books


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1. Food Industry
2. Beverage Industry
3. Beer
4. Biscuit
5. Bread
6. Chocolate Drinks (Liquid Form)
7. Corn Flakes
8. Date Syrup, Date Paste, Date Jam & Date Drinks
9. Health Drink
10. Indian Made Foreign Liquor
11. Lychee Juice
12. Packaged Drinking Water
13. Potato Powder, Flakes and Granules with Cold Storage
14. Soft Drink (Aerated)
15. Sugarcane Juice in Tetra Pack
16. Tomato Concentrate & Ketchup
17. Wine from Grape

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Health DRINK (Cocoa Beverage Powder in Granules)


Health drinks are the drinks containing natural minerals vitamins like A and C most of which are plant based and having rich diet components .With people turning more health conscious the non carbonated beverage segment has become one of the fastest growing and most exciting businesses at the moment. The liquids which are healthy for consumption such as fruit juices dairy products milk with honey buttermilk fruit juices etc comes in this category.

A Cocoa beverage is manufacture by the mixing ingredients of cocoa powder, milk powder, sugar and vitamins homogeneously. There is much more popularity of cocoa beverages as health drinks. It can be substitute of milk products. There is availability of technology for manufacturing of the cocoa beverages. All the plant and machineries are available indigenously in India. There is scarily available of cocoa powder. The product has good market demand. The market demand of cocoa beverages increases about 10% per annum. There is necessity of special labelled packaging material required for packing the cocoa beverages granules. Granules should be packed in aseptic condition. There should not be any microbial load especially no pathogenous should be there. There is environmental pollution problem arises especially liquid and gases pollution. Environmental pollution can be overcome by proper treatment of the raw material. This is good project provided quality product is manufactured with economic price.

Cocoa beverage powder mixes from which chocolate drinks may be made by dispersing the powder mix in milk usually contain from 2 to 25% cocoa, 0.5 to 2% emulsifier, up to 1% flavour all or most of the remainder being made up of sugar or a filler, such as malto-dextrin, or a mixture of sugar and a filler. A sugar-free cocoa beverage powder mix from which a chocolate drink may be made typically contains cocoa and whey together with small amounts of an emulsifier, such as lecithin, and of an artificial sweetener and flavour. Generally, the ingredients of the cocoa beverage powder mix are batch mixed and then agglomerated to enhance the appearance and performance such as miscibility and flow ability. However, when such cocoa beverage powder mixes are dispersed in milk to prepare the beverage, the physical properties are sometimes less then desired.

Chocolate flavoured dry powdered food products of the type intended to be dispersed in water and a process for their manufacture characterised by high wettability and dispersibility in water comprising continuously moistening a mixture of a chocolate flavoured powder and anhydrous milk powder while the material is in dispersed condition, causing the moistened particles of the material, while dispersed in a treatment zone, to contact and permanently adhere together in the form of light moist random aggregates of random shape and of a size substantially greater than the size of the original particles, the aggregates leaving said zone in dispersed condition and having a total moisture content of from 8 to 20%, and then removing excess moisture from the aggregates without any substantial amount of crushing of the same, the final product being a free-flowing granular material. The excess moisture is removed from the aggregates by permitting them to rest without handling for from 1 to 2 minutes, for example on a moving belt until the structures become firm. After the period of rest, the material is less sticky, is relatively free flowing, and the aggregates have sufficient strength for handling and drying without serious breakup or crushing.


It should be dissolved in the water and milk to form homogeneous solution.

     1.   It should have good flavour and pleasant taste.

     2.   It is easily digestible.

     3.   It can be stored at room temperature for long time.

     4.   It has owned characteristics colour and flavour.

Physical Properties of Cocoa Powder

There are several physical properties of cocoa powder that are important to both the consumer and food manufacturers (1). The pH and color of cocoa powders are important characteristics and can vary significantly depending on the source of cocoa beans and how they are processed. Natural cocoa powders have lower pH and a characteristic light brown color while alkalized cocoa powders have higher pH and darker colors that range from dark brown to brownish red to dark red to black.

The ability to produce cocoa powders that are either darker in color, including dark red or even black, have important uses in the food industry. The dark color of alkalized cocoa powder yields a rich dark brown color to cakes, cookies, and brownies that are desirable. The milder flavor of alkalized cocoa powder also provides a unique and desirable taste for certain products. In particular, alkalized cocoa has less sourness (acidity) and lower bitterness than untreated, natural cocoa powder. Another advantage of alkalized cocoa powder is its increased solubility in certain beverage applications.

pH: The pH of cocoa powder is a measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity on a 14 point scale. A value of pH 7 is neutral, while values less than pH 7 are acidic and values above pH 7 are alkaline. In a scientific study published by Miller et. al. in 2008(2), the pH of natural and alkalized powders was measured. Light brown natural powders ranged from pH 5.4-5.8. Lightly alkalized, darker brown cocoa powders had values ranging from pH 6.8-7.2. Moderately alkalized dark brown and brownish-red powders had pH values in the range of 7.2-7.5 and heavily alkalized dark red and black powders had pH values ranging from 7.6-8.1. All of these pH values for cocoa powders are within safe and acceptable ranges for food products and for cocoa powders in particular.

Colour: One way to objectively measure the degree of lightness or darkness of cocoa powder is by using the Hunter “L” scale value where a high value represents lighter colours and a lower value represents darker colours. In a study the Hunter “L” values for natural cocoa powders ranged from 38-41 exhibiting light brown colours. In contrast, alkalized cocoa powders had “L” values ranging from 16-35 depending on the degree of alkalization. The colours for these alkalized cocoa powders ranged from medium brown and brownish red at the higher end of the ‘L” scale to dark red and black at the low end of the scale.

Nutrition: Cocoa powder is nothing more than a cocoa bean seed with most of the fat removed. It, therefore, contains a wide variety of plant nutrients necessary for the seed to grow.


Aside from delivering essential vitamins and minerals and increasing energy, the following are other benefits of health drinks:

     1.   Satisfies the hunger and gives a sense of fullness. In a fast-paced, busy environment people are living in today, it is a must to have a source of energy at all times. One of the reasons why more and more people are into health drinks is to make up for the lost vitamins and minerals when they need to skip meal due to busy schedule.

     2.   Improves overall health. Since most health drinks are packed with vitamins and minerals, it can help you fight off common diseases by consuming it regularly.

     3.   Helps enhance mental stability. The nutrients in most health drinks are aimed to produce oxygen that keeps the blood vessels clear. Once a person takes in these nutrients regularly, it can help them have greater focus in the things that they do either at work or at home.


Basic Raw Material Required

     1.   Cocoa Powder

     2.   Sugar

     3.   Milk Powder

     4.   Permitted Food Preservative.

     5.   Minerals and Vitamins

Plant & Machinery Required

     1.   Digital Weighing Machine

     2.   Jacketed Close Mixing Machine Containing Ribbon Conveyor Blade

     3.   Extruding Machine

     4.   Continuous Cross Flow Funnel Dryer or Roller Dryer

     5.   Aseptic Automatic Vacuum Filling, Weighing and Sealing Machine

Most Probable Formula

    Fat Content Cocoa Powder                           20%-25%

    Sugar Powder                                              40%-45%

    Milk Powder                                                 35%-40%

    Minerals and Vitamins                                   2%-5%


Take above all the ingredients by weight and put in the jacketed mixing machine made by SS 304 containing ribbon blade inside the mixer. All the powder products are mix homogeneously. Homogeneous mixed products mixed with measured quantity water (Content 40% on the dry basis wt of the powder) and mixed properly, mixed dough is pass through the extruder, extruder content dies of diameter 2 mm. to 4 mm. Extruded product collects in the pot and dried through the funnel drier of temperature maintained 75°C-80°C and inlet air content humidity less than 15% Dry the ingredients and product aseptically by using vacuum packing machine. Check quality of vacuum pack products and store at room temperature for marketing.



Rated Plant capacity                                                 =      500.00 KGS./day

                                                                                =      150000.00 KGS./annum

                                                                                        GRANULATED COCOA BEVERAGES


No. of working days                                                  =      25 days/month

                                                                                =      300 days/annum

No. of shifts                                                             =      1 per day

One shift                                                                   =      8 hours



     1.   Close Jacketed Mixing Machine contain Ribbon blade.

     2.   Extruder containing Hopper with barrel.

     3.   Rotary Tunnel Drier

     4.   Gas or Oil fiered Horizontal Boiler steam

     5.   Water Softening Tank or Ion Exchange, Exchange Column

     6.   Digital Weighing Machine           

     7.   Automatic filling, weighing and can sealing machine

     8.   Nitrogen Gas Flashing Unit

     9.   Lab Testing Equipment

    10.   Examination Table

    11.   Sugar Grinder/Pulveriser

    12.   Miscellaneous Items                                                          TOTAL           Rs.         19 Lacs


     1.   LAND & BUILDING                                                                                 Rs.         0.00

     2.   PLANT & MACHINERY                                                                           Rs.         19 Lacs

     3.   OTHER FIXED ASSETS                                                                         Rs.         6 Lacs

                                                                                                   TOTAL           Rs.         25 Lacs



     1.   Coca Powder

     2.   Sugar

     3.   Milk Powder

     4.   Mineral and Vitamin

     5.   Labeled Packing (Metallic container)

     6.   Laboratory Chemicals                                                        TOTAL           Rs.         11 Lacs


     1.   RAW MATERIAL                                                                                     Rs.         11 Lacs

     2.   SALARY & WAGES                                                                                Rs.         1 Lacs

     3.   UTILITIES & OVERHEADS                                                                      Rs.         1 Lacs

                                                                                                   TOTAL           Rs.         13 Lacs


           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                          Rs.         25 Lacs

           MARGIN MONEY                                                                                   Rs.         10 Lacs

                                                                                                   T OTAL          Rs.         35 Lacs


           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                          Rs.         25 Lacs

           TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL FOR 3 MONTHS                                           Rs.         39 Lacs

                                                                                                   TOTAL           Rs.         64 Lacs

           TURN OVER/ANNUM

           By Selling of Granulated

           Cocoa Beverage (Health Drink) : Rs. 203 Lacs

           PROFIT                                                 =         33 Lacs

           PROFIT SALES RATIO                          =         16.20 %

           RATE OF RETURN                                 =         51.08 %

           BREAK EVEN POINT (B.E.P)                 =         40.19 %


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NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. NPCS is manned by engineers, planners, specialists, financial experts, economic analysts and design specialists with extensive experience in the related industries.

Our various services are: Detailed Project Report, Business Plan for Manufacturing Plant, Start-up Ideas, Business Ideas for Entrepreneurs, Start up Business Opportunities, entrepreneurship projects, Successful Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, project report, Cost and Revenue, Pre-feasibility study for Profitable Manufacturing Business, Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Business Opportunities, Investment Opportunities for Most Profitable Business in India, Manufacturing Business Ideas, Preparation of Project Profile, Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Study, Market Research Study, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Report, Identification and Selection of Plant, Process, Equipment, General Guidance, Startup Help, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial project and Most Profitable Small Scale Business.

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