Handbook on Pig Farming and Pork Processing (Feeding Management, Breeding, Housing Management, Sausages, Bacon, Cooked Ham with Packaging)


Handbook on Pig Farming and Pork Processing (Feeding Management, Breeding, Housing Management, Sausages, Bacon, Cooked Ham with Packaging)

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9789381039786
Code: NI302
Pages: 272
Price: Rs. 1,075.00   US$ 125.00

Published: 2016
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Pig farming is the raising and breeding of pigs. Among the various livestock species, piggery is most potential source for meat production and pigs are more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Pig rearing has traditionally been in the main occupational axis of the socially backward down-trodden class of Indian population since time immemorial. But at present commercial pig farming has greatly changed social scenario of this business in India. Now everyone is conscious about the economic importance of pig farming.

Pig farming for meat production is one of the best and profitable business ideas for people. There are several highly meat producing pig breeds available and Initial requirements of small investment, quick returns and utilization of bristles and manure further increase the importance of this animal.

This handbook is designed for use by everyone engaged in the pork production. The book explains about how to raise and care for pigs, by choosing the right breed, how to house, feed and breed them, butchering process, manufacturing process of various pork products and sample plant layouts & process flow sheets with machinery details. Major contents of the book are behavior of pigs, feeding management, pig breeding, housing management, diseases, pork processing, sausages, bacon, cooked ham, chilling and freezing of meat, meat packaging.

It will be a standard reference book for professionals, food technologists, entrepreneurs, and others interested in startup of pig farming and pork production.

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1. Introduction
Advantages of Pig Farming in India
Physical Characteristics of Pigs
SWOT Analysis of Piggery Sector
Pig Breeds
(1) Large White Yorkshire
(2) Jangali Bandel/Wild Boar
(3) Pygmi Bandel
(4) Landrace
(5) Middle White Yorkshire
(6) Hurra
(7) Chwanche
(8) Banmpudke
(9) Hampshire
2. Behaviour of Pigs
Social Behaviour
Rooting Behaviour
Maternal Behaviour
Huddling Behaviour
Sexual Behaviour
3. Feeding Management
Types of Nutrition
Feeding of Boars
Feeding of Female
Feeding of Farrowing Sow and Litter
Feeding for Piglets
Feeding of Growing and Finishing Pigs
Orphan Pigs
4. Pig Breeding
Managing the Sows
Selection of Breeding Gilt
Recognising the Heat
Selecting the Boar
Managing the Boar
Feeding and Housing the Boar
Timing the Service
The Birth and Care of the New-Born Piglets
Preparation Measures
Care of the New Born Piglets
Problems Related to the Birth
Slow Delivery
Accidental Killing of the Piglets by the Sow
The Sow Becomes ill After Farrowing
5. Housing Management
Selection of Housing Location
Construction Plan for a Good Pig House/Shed
Housing and Equipment
• The Boar and Boar Pen
• The Sow and Sow Pen
• The Dry Sow and Dry Sow Housing
• Farrowing Pens
• Weaners and Weaner Housing
• Grower and Finishing Pens
Different Models/Types of Pig House/Sheds
6. Diseases
Internal Parasites
(1) Roundworm
• Symptoms
• Prevention
(2) Tapeworm
• Symptoms
• Prevention
External Parasites
(1) Mange
• Symptoms
• Prevention
• Treatment
(2) Lice
• Symptoms
• Prevention
• Treatment
(3) Myiasis
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(4) Anaphrodisias
• Symptoms
• Prevention
• Treatment
(5) Leptospirosis
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(6) Brucellosis
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(7) Uterine Prolapsed
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(8) Mastitis
• Symptoms
• Prevention
• Treatment
(9) Endometritis (Bacteria)
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
Diseases and Disorders of Digestive Tract
(1) Birth Diarrhoea
• Symptoms
• Prevention
• Treatment
(2) Red Diarrhoea or Clostridial Enteritis
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(3) Fat Diarrhea
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(4) Post Diarrhea
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(5) Salmonellosis
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(6) Swine Dysentery
• Symptoms
• Prevention
• Treatment
(7) Post Weaning Syndrome (Oedema Disease)
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
Diseases of the Respiratory Tract
(1) Influenza
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(2) Pleural Pneumonia
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(3) Atrophic Rhinitis (Inflammation of the Nose)
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(4) Pasteurellosis
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(5) Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome (PRRS)
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
Disease Causing Problems in Walking
(1) Arthritis
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(2) Streptococcal Infections
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
Nutritional Disorders
(1) Anaemia
• Symptoms
• Control and Treatment
Other Diseases
(1) Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD)
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
(2) Hog Cholera
• Symptoms
• Control
(3) African Swine Fever
• Symptoms
• Control
(4) Swine Influenza
• Symptoms
• Control
(5) Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE)
• Control
(6) Enteric Colibacillosis
• Symptoms
• Control
(7) Salmonellosis
• Symptoms
• Control
(8) Erysipelas
• Symptoms
• Control
(9) Anthrax
• Symptoms
• Prevention and Treatment
Vaccination Schedule for Pigs
7. Pork Processing
Stunning Methods
• Percussion Stunning
• Electrical Stunning
• Carbon Dioxide Gas Stunning
• Bleeding on a Rail
• Horizontal Bleeding
• Bleeding Without Stunning
Hair or Skin Removal
Skinning Method
Splitting and Head Removal
Chilling the Carcass
Carcass Cutting Equipment
Basic Equipment Needed for the Slaughtering Operation
Useful Additional Equipment
8. Sausages
Sausage Types
(1) Fresh Sausage
(2) Cooked Sausage
(3) Dry & Semi-Dry Sausages
(4) Luncheon Meats and Jellied Products
Sausage Ingredients
Sausage Recipes and Procedures
Fresh Pork Sausage
Italian Style Pork Sausage
Nurnberger Bratwurst
Polish Sausage
Smoked Kielbasa
Coarse Ground Bologna
Cooked Salami
Summer Sausage
Dry Beef Salami
Honey Loaf
Spiced Luncheon Loaf
Family Loaf
Main Types of Products Worldwide
(1) Frankfurters (Wieners)
(2) Grill Sausages
(3) Bratwurst
(4) Bologna
(5) Mortadella
(6) Mettwurst
(7) Breakfast Sausage
(8) Blood Sausage
(9) Weisswurst
(10)Liver Sausage
Processing Stages
(1) Ingredients and Additives
(2) Formulation
(3) Comminution
(4) Smoking/Cooking
Quality Aspects of the Finished Product
Safety Aspects
9. Bacon
Processing Stages
• Traditional Wiltshire Curing
• Injection of Pork Sides
• Immersion in a “Live Brine”
• Maturation
• Modern Wiltshire Cured Bacon
• Modern Bacon Production
• Pig Production and Slaughter
• Slaughter and Chilling
• Immersion Curing (Tank Curing)
• Bag Curing
• Dry Curing
• Smoking
• Tempering and High-Speed Slicing
• Packaging
• Storage Instructions
10. Cooked Ham
Types of Products
Raw Materials
Processing Technology
• Reception
• Brine Injection
• Massaging and/or Tumbling
• Cooking
• Cooling
• Final Product
Quality Aspects of the Finished Product
• Color
• Texture
• Flavor
Safety Aspects
11. Chilling and Freezing of Meat
Effects of Freezing
Microbiological Effects
Mould Growth
Fat Rancidity
Physical Effects
Ice Formation – Mechanical and Chemical Effects
Effects on Meat Properties
• Colour
• Drip Losses
• Cooking Losses
• Fatty Tissue
Storage Life
Management of the Cold Chain
Types of Freezers
12. Meat Packaging
Advantages of Packaging
Purpose of Packaging
Requirements for Packaging Materials
(1) Single-Layer Films
(2) Multi-Layer Films
Types of Packaging
(1) Controlled Atmosphere Packaging (CAP)
(2) Vacuum-Packaging
(3) Masterpack
(4) Modified-Atmosphere Packaging
Packaging Guidelines for Meat and Meat Products
13. Sample Plant Layouts & Process Flow Sheets with Machinery Details

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Pig is one of the most efficient feed converting animals

among the domesticated livestock. It is the only litter

bearing animal among meat producing livestock having the

shortest generation interval and high feed conversion

efficiency. Piggery farming has been recognized as one of

the profitable venture among the rural masses. This

venture has proved to be one of the most important

livelihood options. Generally the pigs are reared for pork,

considering the increasing trend of pork consumers;

Piggery farming will certainly take a industrial form of

livelihood in future.

Pigs are kept for the production of pork and bacon.

Most breeds, if properly managed and fed are capable of

producing either pork or bacon. Pig meat (pork) is a very

important source of animal protein in human diets. In the

areas where pigs are reared on tree range, they are most

valued as a kind of “savings” to the farmer trom where he

can tap in times of cash shortage and emergency needs.

Commercial production under semi-intensive conditions

is becoming more popular because of its favorable rate of

return on investments.

Commercial pig farming in India for meat production

is one of the best and profitable business ideas for the

Indian people. There are several highly meat producing pig

breeds available around the globe. Some of those are very

suitable for commercial meat production according to the

weather and climate of India. A few years back, pig farming

had a bad image in the society (only socially back warded

down-trodden class Indian people used to raise pigs since

the time immemorial and they were not respectable people).

But at present the scenario has changed tremendously and

commercial pig farming in India is no more restricted to

lower class people.

Physical Characteristics of Pigs

Pigs are medium-sized mammals whose thick bodies

weigh anywhere from 77 to 770 pounds (35 to 350

kilograms). Some domesticated, tamed, breeds weigh up

to 990 pounds (450 kilograms). Pigs measure 34 to 83

inches (86 to 211 centimeters) in length and stand 21 to

43 inches (53 to 109 centimeters) high. The exception is

the pygmy hog, which is the smallest species and never

grows longer than 28 inches (71 centimeters).

The neck is short and the head is long and pointed.

The snout is able to move separately from the head. The

eyes are small, the ears are long, and each foot has four

toes. The two middle toes are flattened and have hooves.

The upper canines, cone-shaped teeth on each side of the

front of the mouth, are big and curve upward, protruding

from the mouth. Skin color varies, depending on the

species, from brown to near black. Some species have

manes or tufts of hair. Others have warts on the face.

Pig Breeds

(1) Large White Yorkshire

It is a large sized and most extensively used exotic pig

breed in India. Their body is solid white colored with erect

ears, dished face and snout of medium lengths. An adult

boar (male pig) weights around 300 to 400 kg and an adult

sow weights around 230 to 320 kg. Large White Yorkshire

is an excellent pig breed for the purpose of cross breeding.

Jangali Bandel/Wild Boar

Jangali Bandel / Wild Boar Found in the wild

throughout the country, for the commercial production to

receive seed Rs 10,000 per piglet to be paid to the National

Park and Wild Life Conservation Department of Nepal.

Height ; 90 – 95 cm, Weight; 200 - 250 kg


Banmpudke is the domesticated form of Jangali

Bandel. Known as smallest domesticated breed of pig.

Color varies red – brownish to black. Reached adultery at

187 days. Gestation period is 114 days with farrowing

interval of 138 days. Average litter size is 4.7 and weaning

size is 3.4 with birth weight 650 gm. Matured males average

20 and female 19 kg live weight. Resistance to several

diseases and parasites.


Pigs are highly intelligent, curious animals who engage

in complex tasks and form elaborate, cooperative social


Their uncanny physiological and behavioral similarities

to humans have given pigs a mysterious and often mythical

quality that lends itself to folklore and fables.

Pigs were once considered wicked and dirty, but science

has helped to shed light on the depths of their remarkable

cognitive abilities and to extend a greater appreciation for

these often maligned and misunderstood animals.

Social Behaviour

Social behaviour is highly developed in pigs. Within

hours, newborn piglets begin to form social dominance

relationships with littermates and eventually a stable

hierarchy is formed. Fighting is therefore rare except when

closely matched mature males encounter each other during

the breeding season. Aggression may occur during the

autumn when food becomes concentrated in patches but

it is usually regulated by the ‘submissive’ behaviour of

lower ranking individuals.

The early associations between piglets often persist into

adulthood, particularly among females. It is believed that

pigs can remember up to 30 other individuals, consistent

 with the finding that pigs are rarely observed

to congregate in groups of over 20. The basic social unit

consists of one to several females and their offspring with

other loosely associated individuals. This organisation

remains more or less stable until the beginning of the

rutting season in October when the boars join the females.

Mature males are relatively solitary but bachelor groups

may form in the late summer. Sows usually give birth in

spring though it is known that they can give birth

practically all year round. In good feeding conditions, sows

can give birth twice a year. In social groups, the breeding

is often synchronised.

Rooting Behaviour

Rooting behaviour appears to be an important part of

the behavioural repertoire, a rewarding experience and

perhaps a behavioural need. The pigs’ natural inclination

to root can also provide a useful cultivation and weeding

tool. However, rooting can also lead to environmental

damage. There are apparently no real differences between

rotational and set-stocked systems with regard to levels

of rooting, foraging and feeding behaviour.

Keeping pigs on the right soil type and the use of

rotational grazing is key to the exploitation of the former

and minimising the impact of the latter. A system of

integrating pigs into a crop rotation is described by Lund

and Weary whereby a once a year farrowing herd is moved

periodically within a crop rotation programme.

Maternal Behaviour

Maternal behaviour Young piglets are very active and

are able to stand within a few minutes after birth. They

sample the sow’s 14 teats before attaching to one with

which they will remain for the rest of the nursing period.

Newborn piglets also go up to the sow’s nose and sniff. This

may be important for future mutual recognition. It is

common for piglets to be born within a range of sizes and

for the smaller ones to be born last. The larger, earlier born

piglets attach themselves to the more productive anterior

teats, which they then vigorously defend. This means that

the strongest piglets get the most food, significantly

increasing their survival chances at the expense of the




Managing the Sows

Sows that are to be kept for breeding should be selected

and separated from the litter at about 3 months of age.

They should not be allowed to get too fat because this will

create fertility problems. They should get a little exercise

to remain in good condition.

Young sows are mature enough to conceive at about

six months of age. They should not be served (mated) too

early however as it is better to wait until they are fully

grown. If they are well fed and healthy this will usually be

at about eight or nine months. Mating too early will result

in small litters, problems at birth, a loss of condition and

poor growth of the sow.

Mating can only be successful during the sowís period

ëon heatí (ëoestrusí). Sexually mature, non-pregnant and

non-lactating sows come on heat for two or three days

about every three weeks. However if the boar is kept

separate from the sows and gilts (young sows, not yet

mated), as he should be, it may sometimes be difficult (but

nevertheless essential) to recognise the heat.

Recognising the Heat

Twice a day (in the morning and in the evening), a check

should be made of the sowís oestrus condition. This should

be done some time after feeding, preferably in the morning.

Doubtful cases can be looked at again in the afternoon.

Differences in breed and climatic variations in the tropics

sometimes make it difficult to recognise oestrus. The first

sign is a redness and swelling of the vulva, which is more

obvious in gilts than in sows. Another sign is that other

sows in the pen start to mount the sow on heat.

The clearest indication is the reaction of the sow to the

boar. If a boar is brought alongside the sowís pen, a sow

on heat will advance towards the boar. They exhibit a

typical ear display (especially noticeable in breeds with

erect ears). If the sow does not react convincingly, then the

boar should be let into the pen. The boar will nose the vulva

and prod the sow in the belly and flank. If the sow accepts

he will mount her. A good oestrus sow will stand rigid when

mounted, with her back legs slightly apart (the so-called

standing reflex).

Selecting the Boar

Selecting a boar is even more important than choosing

your breeding sows. In choosing a breeding boar, the same

factors should be taken into account as for the sows; this

includes the presence of 12 nipples. Avoid choosing a boar 

too highly in-bred from your existing stock, as in-breeding

will lead to reduced fertility, poor growth, and lower levels

of disease resistance.

Feeding and Housing the Boar

Boars should be kept neither too lean nor too fat. They

need plenty of exercise. In very hot conditions or when

suffering from fever, they can remain infertile for a long

time. A boar that is ill should be rested for 1 to 2 months

and be replaced by another for this period.

Boars should be housed in individual pens, for if they

are kept with non-pregnant sows it becomes impossible

to tell whether and when he has served the sows, and

whether or not they are in-pig. It is therefore important to

separate the boar from them.

The Birth and Care of the New-Born Piglets

On average delivery will take place 115 days after

conception (3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days). The sow will

usually farrow during the night or evening. In the last 14

days of pregnancy the udder will increase in size. It feels

firmer, and the nipples stand out more towards the end of

the pregnancy. In gilts the udder begins to develop after

two months of pregnancy. Care of the New Born Piglets

A few minutes after the birth the umbilical cord may

be pulled gently away or cut if necessary (to about 5 cm

length). After birth, the navel of each piglet should be

soaked in a cup of iodine solution to prevent inflammation

and tetanus. Each piglet should be rubbed carefully, dry

with a cloth.

Make sure the piglets are able to suck from the udder

as soon as possible after birth. Their sucking will encourage

the sow to let down her milk.

Problems Related to the Birth

Although there are normally very few complications at

birth it is advisable to be at hand. If the whole process of

delivery takes longer than 8 to 12 hours then there is

something wrong. In particular the last piglets may be born

in the membrane and will suffocate if they are not taken

out. It is also true that sows do not pay much attention to

their offspring until all the litter has been delivered. Piglets

that waste no time in searching for milk may easily be

crushed if the sow lies down again in the course of the

farrowing. By being on hand to intervene in time this can

be prevented.


This may still be an appropriate method for some farms,

but today most farmers will need to fence in or

otherwise confine their pigs in some way to prevent them

from trespassing on others property. Pigs are crafty

creatures, especially if they perceive food Within reach, and

they will go under, through, and over many barricades in

search of a morsel. Careful site planning and materials

selection will keep you and your pigs happy.

Selection of Housing Location

Avoid locating hog pens in any area where water pools

or the ground becomes excessively muddy during rainy

seasons. As light slope will help drain away rain water and

urine and keep your pigs more comfortable. In case of a

large scale pig farm, the site selected needs also to be: well

connected to roads throughout the year, Suitable for

manure disposal, connected to reliable water and electricity



If you raise your pigs outdoors, fencing is a primary

concern. Hog fences should be at least 32 inches high for

smaller pigs and upto 60 inches high for larger pigs.

Fencing can be constructed of many materials, including

wood, hog or cattle panels, pipe, field fence, electric wire,

and barbed wire. Each has advantages and disadvantages.

Housing and Equipment

Pig houses must be well constructed for maximum

performance of the animals. For backyard operations

houses can be constructed using locally available material

such as bamboo, planks etc. Movable houses are

constructed for pigs on range. For permanent pig houses

the flooring must be concrete (neither too rough nor too

smooth) to allow for easy cleaning and minimize occurrence

of parasites and diseases. Pig houses should be provided

with concrete feeders and water troughs though other

materials such as automobile or truck tires cut in halves

may be improvised as drinkers.

The Sow and Sow Pen

In an intensive pig production system, provision is

made for five single sow pens per boar, because the sow

has to stay there for five weeks and a sow/boar ratio of

1:20 has to be maintained. To manage enough contact

between boar and sows, partitions are placed over the

slatted area between the adjoining boar and sow pens,

because pigs tend to defecate while communicating with

pigs in adjoining pens. Alternatively, the sow may be placed

in a pen directly next to the boar right after she weaned

her litter. For individual feeding.

Farrowing Pens

The most important considerations regarding housing

during farrowing and the first seven to ten days there after,

are to supply optimum temperatures to the sow and her

litter and to limit deaths among the piglets through

trampling or overlying. Sows should be placed in

disinfected farrowing pens one week before farrowing to

allow time for adjustment to the new surroundings. The

sow or gilt is washed and treated for scabby skin, not less

than two days before she farrows.

Weaners and Weaner Housing

For many years it was customary in South Africa to

wean pigs at the age of 35 days, although there is the

tendency to wean pigs at an earlier stage. This section

focuses on housing for pigs weaned at 35 days, with two

litters grouped together, all-in-all-out pens, housing for

early weaned pigs and flat deck housing.


A disease outbreak in a piggery can have disastrous

consequences: The management practices already

described, if carefully followed, will minimize the

occurrence of diseases. That prevention is better than cure

is very relevant in the pig industry.

A clean, sanitary environment provides the best

prevention for internal and external parasite which can be

serious problems. Confinement prevents pigs from

contaminated fields and dirty lots. Anthelmintics and other

drugs, when properly used, aid in elimination of parasites.

Antibiotics also protect pigs against disease proliferations

and reduce disease outbreaks. They can also promote

growth in pigs when given at recommended levels. For

diseases that can be prevented through vaccination, a

Veterinarian should be contacted to provide such services


A basic knowledge of the main diseases which may

affect a pig herd is necessary so that a producer can

diagnose the condition and implement control measures

as quickly, as possible. Some of the common parasites and

diseases that affect pigs are highlighted.


The internal parasites are more common to pigs on

free-range. An example is the round worm (Ascaris

Lumbricoides) which causes lots of damage to pig herds.

The round worm can grow up to 300mm long and 6mm

thick in the small intestine. Heavy infestation leads to

inherit in piglets, weakness and loss of weight.

Worms are one of the most serious threats to pig

keeping. There are more than 30 types affecting the

intestines of pigs. The most important two are the intestinal

roundworm and the tape worm.


Tapeworms are flat and long ribbon like creatures

which are common in all parts of the world. Tapeworms

do not have a digestive system so they receive their food

through their skin as they absorb our nutrients. They

especially absorb folic acid and vitamin B-12. These

parasites may cause what is referred to as “verminous

intoxication” as they put out and leave dangerous waste

products in our bodies. These tapeworms can roll

themselves into a ball and can be felt on the right side of

the abdomen under the liver.


These are blood suckers that also cause irritation of

the skin. The hog louse is the largest louse species (6,4mm)

commonly associated with domestic animals. It is found

most frequently in the folds of skin behind the ears and

between the legs. The blood-sucking activity of hog lice

results in much irritation and discomfort to swine.


• Itching

• Skin may show red spots or bite wounds.

• Thick skin and rough hair coat.

• Anaemia in severe cases especially in piglets.


• General cleanliness.

• Treat piglets before putting them in fattening house.

Fatteners don’t need to be treated.

• Treat gilts before first service.

• Treat boars twice a year.

• Treat new stock on arrival and seven days later. Piglets

below three weeks should not be treated.



The animal should be killed as quickly and humanely

as possible. In most slaughter plants, hogs are

immobilized either by electrical stunning or carbon dioxide

gas suffocation. On the farm a hog can be stunned by

striking it one sharp blow with a mechanical stunner or

by shooting it in the forehead midway between and slightly

above the eyes. The first attempt should be successful.

Improperly placed bullets could cause the animal much

pain and injure helpers or other livestock. Animals that

become excited during stunning will not bleed as well as

those less excited. As always the case whenever using

firearms, exercise all appropriate safety precautions.

The animal can be scalded by several methods. The

easiest method is to have two barrels, one for heating the

water and one for use as a scalding vat. Fifty-five gallon

barrels will be large enough for most hogs. The scalding

barrel can be buried in the ground at a slight angle; thus

movement of the hog in and out of the barrel is easier. Be

sure the angle of the barrel is not too flat or the barrel will

not hold enough water to cover the carcass. Another

method for scalding is to have a scalding vat or a barrel

under which a fire can be built. This method requires more

construction, and the temperature of the water is difficult

to control. Slow scald is usually best. Scalding water

temperatures between 140° and 140°F are optimal. At

these optimal temperatures, 3 to 6 minutes of scalding are

required to loosen the hair and scurf (layer of accumulated

oil, dirt, and the outer layer of cells on the skin). In the fall

when the winter hair is beginning to grow, the hair of most

hogs is difficult to remove. Higher water temperatures (146°

to 150° F) or longer submersion times are usually required

for scalding during this “hard-hair” season. About l/4 cup

of rosin, lime or some other alkaline material added to the

scald water to aid in scurf removal results in a whiter skin.

On the farm, regulation of water temperature is difficult.

Add boiling water to the scalding barrel, then add cool

water to adjust to the proper temperature. Begin with the

scalding water at 155" to 160" F because it cools rapidly.

At these high temperatures, the carcass must be kept in

motion and pulled from the barrel several times.

Skinning Method

The skinning procedure used for pork carcass is similar

to that used for beef carcasses. Skinning requires less

equipment and can be done faster than scalding and

scraping. We have commonly believed that the skin was

needed on hams and bacon to assure proper curing;

however, this belief is not necessarily correct. A poor

skinning job can lower the quality of the belly for bacon.

After stunning and bleeding the animal, move the

carcass to the location of the hoisting equipment. Place the

carcass on a sheet of plywood, a concrete slab, or straw.

Wash the blood and dirt from the carcass. Turn the carcass

on its back and hold it in place with blocks placed on each



Lossen the anus by cutting around it, deep into the pelvic canal.

 Pull outward and cut any remaining

attachments; be careful not to cut into the large intestine.

When the anus is loosened, tie it with a piece of string to

avoid contaminating the carcass.

Splitting and Head Removal

Wash the inside of the carcass before splitting. With

the saw, begin splitting from the inside between the hams.

Keep the split as near the center of the backbone as

possible, and saw through the tail region to a point midway

through the loin. Move around to the back and continue

sawing through the shoulder and neck to the base of the

head. If the split gets off center. continue sawing through

to the next vertebra and then realine the saw.

Remove the head at the atlas joint (the joint closest to

the head). 1 his joint should be exposed if the carcass is

properly split. After cutting through the joint cut downward

along the jaw bone, leaving the jowls attached to the

carcass. If desired, remove the tongue, wash it thoroughly,

and place it with the liver and heart.


Cooked Sausages is an ideal meat product. It can be

made by many different formulations and in any

forms. All edible parts of the carcars can be used in an

efficient way, thus making it possible to utilize its entire

nutritional capacity. It is ready-to-eat food that can be

eaten cold or heated, as a part of a meal or on its own.

Sausage Types

Sausage can be simply defined as a product

manufactured from ground or chopped meat; combined

with salt, spices and other ingredients; and shaped in some

manner, usually by means of various sizes and types

casings. The origin of sausage-type products precedes

recorded history. Over the centuries, sausage making has

been refined and developed into an art strongly tied to

various ethnic groups. Today scientific principles are

employed to improve production procedures, product

quality and product safety.

By altering raw materials (including spices and

composition), processing procedures, spice and other nonmeat

ingredient usage and level, casing size and type,

smoking and cooking procedures, a wide variety of

sausages can be produced. Classification of all sausages

into specific categories is very difficult, since any given

sausage may be produced in a number of different ways.

Extreme caution must be used when adding nitrite to

the sausage batter since overdoses of this ingredient can

be toxic to humans. As little as 3-7 grams of nitrite can be

very toxic and lethal to humans. Because of the safety

concern in using nitrite, it is not readily available in pure

(100%) form. In addition, since straight sodium nitrite is

added at a very low level (1/4 ounce per 100 pounds of

meat) it would be difficult to accurately weigh out the

desired amount on commonly available scales. Therefore,

for safety and accuracy, salt blends already containing

nitrite at the proper level are best used by home sausage

makers when the recipe calls for nitrite or nitrate addition.

Mortons “Tender Quick Salt” (contains 0.5% nitrate. 0.5%

nitrite and 99.0% salt) is an example of such a blend,

containing a very small amount of nitrite and nitrate. It is

available in many grocery stores. When this blend is used

as the salt source for products which call for nitrite or

nitrate, these curing ingredients will automatically be

added to the batter at a safe and proper level.


Home sausage makers often inquire about where they

can buy sausage casings. Usually a small supply of natural

and synthetic casings can be purchased from local meat

processors, who use these casings in the manufacture of

their own line of sausages. Most casings used in sausage

making are natural, collagen or synthetic. Natural casings

are from the G.I. tract of animals. Most fresh bratwurst

are in pork casings. Natural casing wieners and some

breakfast sausages are in lamb casings. Ring bolognas are

typically in beef casings. Natural casings always have a

natural “curve” to them and a very desirable “snap”.


Originally developed as a method of preserving pork

before the widespread use of refrigeration, bacon

remains a popular product in its own right. Its production

varies from country to country but typically involves the

treatment of boneless pork cuts with curing salt, usually

added as a brine. As practiced in North America, bacon is

produced from boneless pork belly that is not smoked,

sliced thinly, and vacuum packed, while in Ireland and the

United Kingdom, the most popular bacon is made from

cured pork loins. In continental Europe, bacon lardons

(cubes) are used mainly as a cooking ingredient.

Salt (sodium chloride) and nitrite are essential for

curing, although nitrates (sodium or potassium) are still

used in some brines. Both major ingredients, salt and

nitrite, are multifunctional. Salt acts as a preservative by

lowering water activity, gives bacon its characteristic salty

flavor, and increases the water-holding capacity of meat

by solubilizing myofibrillar protein and increasing the

myofibrillar lattice spacing. Although nitrite chemistry is

relatively complex, the basic functions of nitrite are well

known. It (1) acts as a preservative, (2) promotes the

formation of the cured meat color, (3) contributes to cured

meat flavor, and (4) acts as an antioxidant.

Injection of Pork Sides

Whole sides, usually bone-in and rind-on, were injected

with a brine containing salt, nitrate, and nitrite. Injection

was carried out manually, using a single needle. The brine

was introduced at multiple points (25-30) along the carcass

in order to obtain a reasonably uniform distribution.

Pig Production and Slaughter

Most bacon is made from pigs, of various genetics,

reared in intensive indoor systems and fed a commercial

concentrated diet. The pigs have a fast growth rate and are

slaughtered at 90-110 kg when they are 5 to 6 months old.

Such pigs are relatively lean, the average backfat thickness

of UK pigs being about 11mm. Bacon from organically

produced pigs—reared less intensively and using organic

feed—inevitably commands a premium price.



The processing of cooked ham involves the use of brine

that is either injected or infused through soaking,

followed by the application of thermal treatment. The final

quality depends on both the raw materials and the

processing. The most outstanding factors are the type of

meat cut, the type and amounts of ingredients, the injected

volume of brine, the rate and extent of tumbling, and the

cooking time and temperature. The goal is to obtain a

product with high sensory quality that is microbiologically

safe, usually based on minimum temperature-time

treatments. The best-quality products are generally

produced with a low-brine injection level and no addition

of polyphosphates. In general, the more water is injected

into the ham, the poorer is the quality, since water

retention is facilitated by some compounds like

polyphosphates and starches.

The consumption of cooked ham is relatively high, since

it is a very popular meat product. For instance, it may

account for as much as 26% of the delicatessen products

sold in Europe, with France, Spain, and Italy being major

consumers. There are different manufacturing technologies

for the production of cooked ham, depending on the raw

materials and the processing conditions.

Types of Products

There is a broad range of types of cooked ham, which

generally are classified depending on different

characteristics. In general, cooked hams can be classified

according to the raw material used for the processing, the

composition of brine ingredients (like the use of

polyphosphates, starches, and carrageenan), the

technological yield (from 85% to higher than 110%), and

finally, the ham presentation (boneless, bone-in, pieces,

whole legs, and so on).

The manufacture of cooked ham has been evolving in

order to solve different problems such as the increased

proportion of exudative meats or the reduction of the salt

content and processing time. The intensive selection for

leaner pigs in response to consumer demands resulted in

an increased proportion of exudative pork meat. The

protein of this meat exhibited poor texture, lower waterholding

capacity, and poor cooked cured color. In order to

improve the functionality of these meats, several binders

have been used, including starch, carrageenan, and soy



Meat has long been considered a highly desirable and

nutritious food. Unfortunately it is also highly

perishable because it provides the nutrients needed to

support the growth of many types of micro-organisms.

Fresh meat requires presence of oxygen for maintaining

color for consumer appeal. Packaging fresh meat is carried

out to avoid contamination, delay spoilage, permit some

enzymatic activity to improve tenderness, reduce weight

loss, and where applicable, to ensure an oxymyoglobin or

cherry-red colour in red meats at retail or customer level.

It has a shorter shelf life. Cured meats degrade in presence

of oxygen. Two decisions are important while selecting

packaging material i.e. shape or form and material.

Selection of packaging material would depend on product

factors such as color, stability, storage conditions,

microbial condition, preservatives and degree of

processing. Processed products require more sophisticated

and extensive packaging because they will be stored at

higher temperatures for longer periods than refrigerated


Single-Layer Films

One common use of single-layer films is the wrapping

of meat pieces, processed meat products, bone-in or

boneless meat cuts or even entire carcasses. These films

are usually self-adhesive, i.e. they cling together -”cling

film”- in the overlapping areas. Hence they provide good

protection from external contamination and to some extend

from evaporation, but no protection from oxygen, as they

are not hermetically closed or sealed packages. Foils with

good self-adhesive properties are PE, PA, PVC and PP.

Another important utilization for single-layer films is

in freezer storage. For meat blocks, meat cuts or smaller

portions of meat or meat products, single-layer films are

stretched tightly around the meat surface before freezing.

The tight film prevents evaporation losses, which occur

during freezer storage of unpacked products. The film is

in tight contact with the products surface, in order to avoid

evaporation, ice formation and freezer burn at non contact

spots. Suitable cold resistant films for freezer storage are

PA or PE.

Multi-Layer Films

Practically all the other films used for meat packaging

are designed as strong oxygen and water-vapour barriers.

In order to fully achieve these requirements, films with good

barrier properties for oxygen and water vapour respectively

are combined.

Layer A: Outside layer (mechanically strong, gas barrier

to oxygen).

Layer B: Middle layer (barrier to oxygen).

Layer C: Inside layer = sealant layer (capable of being

melted and welded under pressure to the sealant layer of

the opposite sheet of the bag/pouch, serves also as barrier

to water vapour).






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