2nd Revised Edition of The Complete Book on Onion & Garlic Cultivation with Processing

2nd Revised Edition of The Complete Book on Onion & Garlic Cultivation with Processing

2nd Revised Edition of The Complete Book on Onion & Garlic Cultivation with Processing (Production of Onion Paste, Flakes, Powder & Garlic Paste, Powder, Flakes, Oil)

Garlic could be a plant from the onion family that has a strong taste and smell and is used in cooking to feature flavor. Garlic is that the most significant crop in most of the Asian countries. It may be thought-about as an ideal food that has a large range of essential nutrients with several potential health advantages. Garlic is an excellent supply of metal, vitamin B6, and vitamin b1. Estimations are made supported global consumption of garlic.

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Consumption of garlic as a food ingredient or extract prevents illnesses and improves immunity. The presence of active compounds in garlic reduces high blood pressure and prevents strokes and heart attacks. It also helps improve cholesterol levels and reduces the chance of cardiopathy. Moreover, the antioxidants in garlic facilitate prevent dementia and Alzheimer’s illness. Therefore, growing consumer awareness about these health advantages has increased the demand for garlic product similar to dehydrated garlic powder and garlic extracts.

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Garlic is that the most significant crop in most of the Asian countries. Hence, Asia-Pacific holds a 91% share of the worldwide market, in terms of consumption of garlic.

However, in recent years, there are instances of giant losses to the Chinese garlic sector, because of root diseases found in garlic.

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Garlic could be a crop widely grown for fresh market by many producers on a small scale for local markets and, particularly within the U.S., by a few large-scale producers for processing and fresh sales. About 1,000,000 hectares (2.5 million acres) of garlic manufacture about ten million metric tons of garlic globally every year, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Garlic is one of the most popular spices in the world. It’s rumored that in ancient Egypt, the staff who had to make the great pyramids were fed garlic daily, and therefore the Bible mentions that the Hebrews enjoyed their food with garlic.

 

Garlic is also utilized in processing industries, because of high sales of pickles and curry product. It’s additionally widely utilized in herbal product pastes and medicines. The vegetable is additionally famous to be used as a flavoring agent in various cuisines. Onion is one in every of major bulb crop grown in India that presently attracting attention of all persons because of rise in prices. Each immature and mature bulbs are used as vegetable and condiment. The Onion is that the world’s leading news publication, offering highly acclaimed, universally revered coverage of breaking national, international, and local news events.

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Onions not only provide flavor, they also offer important nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals. It contains vitamin b and a trace of vitamin C and also traces of iron and calcium. As a culinary ingredient it adds to the taste and flavour during a wide range of food preparations and it’s also used as a dish. So there’s a steady increase within the demand for onion across the world.

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The onion, also referred to as the bulb onion or common onion, is used as a vegetable and is that the most widely cultivated species of the genus allium. Consumption of onions might prevent gastric ulcers by scavenging free radicals and by preventing growth of the ulcer forming microorganism, Helicobacter pylori. Onions are cultivated and used around the world. As a foodstuff they’re usually served cooked, as a vegetable or part of a prepared savory dish, however also can be eaten raw or used to build pickles or chutneys. Our main export product are Dehydrated Red and White Onions in various forms like slices, flakes, kibbled, chopped, minced, granules and powder.

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About the Book

Onion (Allium cepa L.) has been valued as a food and a medicinal plant since ancient times. It is also used indifferent forms of processed food, e.g. pickles, powder, paste, and flakes, and it is known for its medicinal values.

Garlic belongs to the genus Allium, which comprises of approximately 600 known species distributed over the whole northern hemisphere. Characteristic for Allium species are herbaceous, perennial bulbous plants with a typical leek odour.

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Onion and Garlic are the spice commodities used for flavoring the dishes. These are considered as valuable medicinal plants offer variety of medicinal properties. Onion & garlic are important commercial crops with versatile applications. The demand for the processed products is increasing day by day due to its convenience to handle and use. Onion & Garlic can be processed into a wide variety of products. As per the estimate, approximately 6.75% of the onion produced is being processed. Besides fulfilling the constant demand of domestic population, India exports 13 to 18 lakh tons of onion annually worth around Rs. 2200 Crores of foreign exchange revenue. Similarly in case of garlic, the production increased from 4.03 lakh tons to 12.26 lakh tons.

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In the world market, the demand for onion and garlic product is increasing as they’re hygiene and easy to handle, able to avoid wastage. There are smart prospects for these processed products to export to gulf countries and even Europe. Overall, world Garlic market continues to point a perceptible growth. After China, India is that the second largest producer of onion and enjoys 19% share of the worldwide onion production. Maharashtra and Karnataka are the chief onion manufacturing states in India and contribute close to about 45% of the whole production of onion in India. Production of onion in India is about 15m tones a year.

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Proper placement of onion & garlic product (like; onion pickle, onion chutney, onion paste, garlic oil, garlic paste, garlic powder, garlic flakes, onion flakes, onion powder) within the departmental stores, super markets, looking malls backed-up by publicity is that the key to success. It’s also possible to have tie-up with exclusive restaurants, star hotels, and renowned caterers for their regular requirements.

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This handbook is designed for use by everyone engaged in the Onion & Garlic products manufacturing. Major contents of the book are Varieties of Onion, Onion Production, Onion Dehydration, Types of Garlic, Garlic Growing, Garlic Dehydration, Onion Pickle, Onion Chutney, Onion Paste, Garlic Oil, Garlic Paste, Garlic Powder, Garlic Flakes, Onion Flakes, Onion Powder, Pest Species and Pest Control of Garlic and Onion, Integrated Weed Management, Packaging, Product Advertising and Sales Promotion, Marketing, Plant & Machinery Photographs, Addresses of Plant & Machinery Suppliers, Sample Plant Layouts  etc.

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It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, food technologists, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of Onion & Garlic products manufacturing.

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CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION OF ONION

Nutrition per Serving of Onions

Medicinal Value of Onion

Effect

Chemical Structure and Influences on Flavour

Uses

Culinary Uses

Non-Culinary Uses

Historical Use

  1. VARIETIES OF ONION

Yellow Onions or Brown Onions

Red Onion

White Onion

Sweet Onions

Green Onions or Scallions

Pearl Onions

Phytochemical Properties of Onion

Health Benefits of Onion

Cardiovascular Benefits

Support for Bone and Connective Tissue

Anti-Inflammatory Benefits

Cancer Protection

Other Health Benefits

Diseases of Onion

Damping-Off

Purple Blotch (Alternaria Porri)

Onion Smut

Onion Smudge

Black Mould

Bacterial Brown Rot

Onion Yellow Dwarf

White Rot

Neck Rot

  1. ONION PRODUCTION

Phases of Growth

Vegetative Phase

Bulbing Phase

Blooming Phase

Climatic Requirements

Soil

Site Selection and Planting

Cultivars

Onion Sets

Irrigation

Weed Control

Pest Management

Harvest

Curing

Storing

  1. ONION DEHYDRATION

Dehydrated Onion

Onion Varieties Suitable for Dehydration

Uses of Dehydrated Onions

Dehydration Practices for Onion

Solar Drying

Convective Air Drying

Fluidized Bed Drying

Microwave Drying

Infra Red Drying

Vacuum Drying

Freeze Drying

Osmotic Dehydration

Onion Dehydration Process

Processing Steps

Power Production and Energy Requirements

  1. GARLIC – AN INTRODUCTION

Uses

Culinary Uses

Spiritual and Religious Uses

Historical Use

Other Uses

Properties of Garlic

Chemical Structure

  1. TYPES OF GARLIC
  2. Softneck Garlic
  3. Hardneck Garlic

Diseases of Garlic

Health Benefits of Garlic

Cardiovascular Benefits

Garlic and Cancer

Anti-Inflammatory Benefits Across Body Systems

Antibacterial and Antiviral Benefits

Garlic and Blood Pressure

Antioxidative Effects of Garlic

  1. GARLIC GROWING

Climate

Land Preparation

Soil/Nutrients

Soil Fertility

Planting

Plant Development

Mulching

Irrigation and Labor

Pest Management

Weed Control

Harvest and Storage

Marketing

  1. GARLIC DEHYDRATION

Drying

Methods of Drying

  1. Hot Air Drying
  2. Solar and Open Sun Drying

Experimental Setup

Design

Raw Material and Sample Preparation

Washing

Drying Process Flow Chart of Dehydrated Garlic

Equipment/Apparatus Used

Measurement of Variables

Air Temperature and Relative Humidity

Air Velocity

Solar Radiation

Initial Moisture Content (IMC)

Moisture Content during Drying Experiment

Equilibrium Moisture Content (E.M.C.)

Moisture Ratio (M.R.)

Drying Rate (D.R.)

Average Drying Rate (A.D.R.)

Quality Evaluation of Dehydrated Garlic

Rehydration Ratio, Coefficient of Rehydration

Comparison between Solar and Open Sun Drying

Freeze Drying

Fluidized Bed Drying

Dehydration Process

Dehydration Process Flow Diagram

Safety Precautions & Other Cares in Garlic Dehydration

  1. ONION PICKLE

Introduction

Raw Material

Onion Pickle Manufacturing Process

Onion Pickle Process Flow Diagram

  1. ONION CHUTNEY

Introduction

Manufacturing Process of Onion Chutney

Process Flow of Onion Chutney

  1. ONION PASTE

Introduction

Nutrition Information of Onion Paste

Frozen Onion Paste

Manufacturing Process of Onion Paste

Process Flow of Onion Paste

  1. GARLIC OIL

Introduction

Garlic Oil manufacturing Methods

Manufacturing Process

Removal of Undesired Material

Washing of Bulbs

Peeling

Crushing of Bulbs

A Steam Distillation

  1. Hydrodistillation
  2. Direct Steam Distillation

Advantages of Direct Steam Distillation

Disadvantage of Direct Steam Distillation

Inspection and Analyzing

Packing and Dispatching

Heart Diseases

Cholesterol Levels

Process Flow Diagram

Diabetes

Bodily Aches and Pains

Skin Problems & Other Infections

Other Ailments

  1. GARLIC PASTE

Introduction

Manufacturing Process of Garlic Paste

Process Flow of Garlic Paste

  1. GARLIC POWDER

Introduction

Uses of Garlic Powder

Manufacturing Process of Garlic Powder

Process Flow Diagram (Garlic Powder)

  1. GARLIC FLAKES

Introduction

Manufacturing Process of Garlic Flakes

  1. ONION FLAKES

Introduction

Properties of Onion Flakes

Uses of Onion Flakes

Manufacturing Process of Onion Flakes

Plant & Machinery Required

Raw Material Required

  1. ONION POWDER

Introduction

Varieties of Onion Powder

Chemical Specification

Nutritional Information

Uses of Onion Powder

Meat Rubs

Bloody Maty Drinks

Spice Mixes

Dressings

Manufacturing Process of Onion Powder

Process Flow Diagram

Health Benefits of Onion Powder

Low in Fat and Calories

Potassium

Magnesium

Calcium

Low in Sodium

  1. PEST SPECIES AND PEST CONTROL OF GARLIC AND ONION

(a) Indirect Pests of Garlic

Removal of Scapes

Weed Control

Insects

Onion Thrips

Onion Maggot

Armyworms

Wireworms

Nematodes

Diseases

Pink Root

Botrytis

Rust

Viruses

Pest Control

Disease Management

Onion and Garlic

Damping Off Symptoms

Management

Cultural Methods

Biological Method

Chemical Methods

Purple Blotch

Symptoms

Management

(i)       Cultural Methods

(ii)      Host Plant Resistance

(iii)     Biological Methods

(iv)     Chemical Methods

Stemphylium Leaf Blight

Symptoms

Management

Cultural Methods

Host Plant Resistance

Chemical Methods

Colletotrichum Blight/Anthracnose/Twister Disease

Symptoms

Management

Cultural Methods

Host Plant Resistance

Chemical Methods

Fusarium Basal Rot/Basal Plate Rot (Fusarium Oxysporum F.sp Cepaae).

Symptoms

Management

Cultural Methods

Host Plant Resistance

Biological Methods

Chemical Methods

White Rot (Sclerotium cepivorum Berk)

Symptoms

Management

Cultural Methods

Biological Methods

Chemical Methods

Pink Root (Phoma (Pyrenochaeta) Terrestris, Fusarium Solani)

Symptoms

Management

Host Resistance

Cultural Methods

Chemical Methods

Black Mold (Aspergillus Niger Van Tieghem. A. Fumigatus (Green Mold) and A Alliaceus)

Symptoms

Management

Cultural Methods

Chemical Methods

Bacterial Rots

Symptoms

Management

Viral Diseases (Transmitted by Various Aphid Species or Mechanically to Onion)

(i) Onion Yellow Dwarf Virus

Symptoms

Management

(ii) Iris Yellow Spot Virus

Symptoms

Management

Onion and Garlic

Thrips

Management

Cultural

Planting Date

Mulching

Irrigation

Barriers

Biological Control

Plant Resistance

Botanicals

Chemical

Maggot (Delia Antique)

Symptoms:

Pest Management

Cultural

Chemical Control

Army Worms (Spodoptera Exiguo, S.litura) and Helicoverpa Armigera Hubner

Pest Management

Bulb Mite (Rhizoglyphus Robini Claparede)

Management

Eriophyid Mite (Aceria Tulipae Keifer)

Management

Red Spider Mite (Tetranychus Cinnabarinus)

Management

  1. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT

Weed Characteristics

Monitoring

Herbicides

Preventing Weeds

Crop Rotation

Cover Crops

Cover Crop Residues as Mulch.

Cover Crops as Living Mulch.

Stale Seedbed Preparation

Soil Solarization

Sanitation and Composting

Weed Problems

Yellow Sweetclover and White Sweetclover.

Seedling

Mature Plant

Nutsedge

Seedling

Young Plant

Mature Plant

Annual Bluegrass

Collar

Mature Plant

Dodder

Seedling

Mature Plant

Seeds

  1. BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS

Objectives

Quality Policy

Product Certification

Process of Setting Standards

Indian Standards for Onion

Indian Standards for Garlic

  1. THE NATIONAL BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITY AND FOOD STANDARDS (ACFS)

Mission

Responsibilities

Structure

Notification of the National Committee on Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards

Thai Agricultural Standard Garlic

  1. Scope
  2. Quality
  3. Sizing
  4. Tolerances
  5. Packing and Presentation

6,       Marking and Labelling

  1. Contaminants
  2. Pesticide Residues
  3. Hygiene
  4. Methods of Analysis and Sampling

Annex A: Garlic Illustration

Annex B: Unit

  1. PACKAGING

Packaging, Flexible

Introduction

Forms of Flexible Packaging

Manufacturing Techniques

Uses and Types of Flexible Packaging

Industrial Packaging

Metal Cans

Raw Materials for Can-Making

Steel

Aluminium

Can-Making Processes

Two-Piece Cans (Drawn Cans)

Single Drawn Cans

Drawn and Redrawn Cans (DRD)

Drawn and Wall-Ironed (DWI) Cans

Drawn and Ironed Cans (DI)

Three-Piece Cans

End-Making Processes

Coatings, Film Laminates and Inks

Container Handling

Storage and Distribution

Glass Containers

Attributes of Food Packaged in Glass Containers

Glass and Glass Container Manufacture

Melting

Container Forming

Design Parameters

Surface Treatments

Hot End Treatment

Cold End Treatment

Low-Cost Production Tooling

Container Inspection and Quality

Thermal Processing of Glass Packaged Foods

Glass Pack Design and Specification

Concept and Bottle Design

  1. PRODUCT ADVERTISING AND SALES PROMOTION

Advertising

Advertising Mediums

Sales Promotion

Objectives of Sales Promotion

Different Chennels for Sales Promotions

  1. Consumer Promotions
  2. Trade Promotions
  3. MARKETING

Functions of Marketing

Promotional Techniques

The Product Concept

Some Characteristics of Market Segmentation

Organization for New-Product Development

Developing New Products

Planned Obsolescence

Product Line Relationships

Product Features

The Sales Process

  1. PLANT & MACHINERY PHOTOGRAPHS
  2. ADDRESSES OF PLANT & MACHINERY SUPPLIERS
  3. SAMPLE PLANT LAYOUTS

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