Startup Projects for Entrepreneurs: 50 Highly Profitable Small & Medium Industries

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Startup Projects for Entrepreneurs: 50 Highly Profitable Small & Medium Industries

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9789381039724
Code: NI295
Pages: 400
Price: Rs. 1,675.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2016
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
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The first step to initiate planning is to identify a suitable project. To start your own venture you have to decide on many things. Making a choice of the right project is a difficult decision for an entrepreneur and is an imperative decision.

There are no set rules to identify a suitable project, though this is one decision on which the success of your entire venture hinges. So, don’t take hasty decisions. Most prospective entrepreneurs tend to display the herd tendency and go for a project, which people have already ventured into. This is not a healthy attitude as success of one in a particular field does not guarantee success of the other. While identifying a suitable project, you should make a SWOT analysis of your own strengths and weaknesses.



Startup India Stand up

Our Prime Minister unveiled a 19-point action plan for start-up enterprises in India. Highlighting the importance of the Standup India Scheme, Hon’ble Prime minister said that the job seeker has to become a job creator. Prime Minister announced that the initiative envisages loans to at least two aspiring entrepreneurs from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Women categories. It was also announced that the loan shall be in the ten lakh to one crore rupee range.

A startup India hub will be created as a single point of contact for the entire startup ecosystem to enable knowledge exchange and access to funding. Startup India campaign is based on an action plan aimed at promoting bank financing for start-up ventures to boost entrepreneurship and encourage startups with jobs creation.

Startup India is a flagship initiative of the Government of India, intended to build a strong ecosystem for nurturing innovation and Startups in the country. This will drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities. The Government, through this initiative aims to empower Startups to grow through innovation and design.



What is Startup India offering to the Entrepreneurs?

Stand up India backed up by Department of Financial Services (DFS) intents to bring up Women and SC/ST entrepreneurs. They have planned to support 2.5 lakh borrowers with Bank loans (with at least 2 borrowers in both the category per branch) which can be returned up to seven years.

PM announced that “There will be no income tax on startups’ profits for three years”

PM plans to reduce the involvement of state government in the startups so that entrepreneurs can enjoy freedom.

No tax would be charged on any startup up to three years from the day of its establishment once it has been approved by Incubator.



The next step, after you have selected your project, is to collect all information about it. The most important information is about the potential market of the items you selected. This book aims at providing a thorough understanding and analysis of the 5o highly profitable industrial projects that you can start. It describes formulae, properties, raw materials used and manufacturing processes of different products. Undoubtedly, this book is a gateway leading you to become your own boss.



The important projects described in the book are Linear Alkyl Benzene, Soy Flour & Milk Processing, Urea Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive, Toothpaste Production, Gypsum Board, Surgical Absorbent Cotton, Starch Derivatives Production, Wet – blue leather, PVC paste Resin, Saccharin, Sodium Chlorite, Phosphate Fertilizer, Tomato Paste, Paint, Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC Blocks), Carbon Black, Caffeine, Sodium hydrosulfite, Magnesium Sulphate (Fertiliser Grade), TMT Bar, Glass Fibre, Plastic (P.V.C.) Laminated Collapsible Tubes, Complex fertilizers, Copper Powder By Electrolysis Process, Atomized Metal powder, Electro Plating, Activated Carbon from Wood, Rubber Powder from Waste Tyres, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate, PVC Flex Banner Production, Reclamation of Used Engine Oil, Edible Corn Oil, Malt Production, Ethyl Oleate, Wheat Flour Mill, Instant Noodles, Zinc, Castor Oil & Pomace, Garlic Oil and Powder, Silica from Rice Husk, Thermocol Cups, Glass and Plates, Match Box (Automatic Plant), Camphor, LDPE/LLDPE Pouch Films, E-waste recycling, Cattle Feed, Saw Pipe, Polyethylene Wax, Disposable Plastic Syringes, Cement.



It will be a standard reference book for professionals and use by everyone who wants to startup as entrepreneur.

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Contents

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1.HOW TO START AN INDUSTRY SUCCESSFULLY
Choose an Industry or Location Conduct Your Feasibility Studies Sources of Project Ideas
(a)Analysis of Industries' Performance
(b)Analysis of Inputs and Outputs of Industries
(c)Analysis of Imports and Exports
(d)Government's Guideline to Industries, Published Annually is Available
(e)Suggestions of Financial Institutions and Developmental Agencies
(f)Survey of Local Resources
(g)Analysis of Economic and Social Trends
(h) New Technologies
Create Your Business Plan
Finance Your Business
Cash Flow
Collateral
Commitment
Character
Make a Good Impression with Your Lenders
Market Research

2.PROJECT IDENTIFICATION
How This Book Helps You to Identify the Project?


3.LINEAR ALKYL BENZENE
Uses
Properties
Typical Property of Linear Alkyl Benzene
Raw Materials Required
Process Description
Flow Diagram
Environmental Exposure
Occupational Exposure
Machinery Required

4.SOY FLOUR & MILK PROCESSING
Physical Characteristics & Chemical
Composition of the Soybean Chemical Composition Representative Proximate Composition Uses
Raw Material For Soy Flour For Soy Milk Process Description
1.Soy Flour Process Description
2.Soy Milk Process Description
Process Flow Diagram
Soy Flour
Machinery Required for Soy Flour
Soy Milk
Machinery Required for Soy Milk

5.UREA FORMALDEHYDE RESIN ADHESIVE  
Uses of Urea Formaldehyde Resin Properties of Urea Formaldehyde Resin Raw Material Process Description
Process Flow Diagram for Urea Resin
Adhesive Plant Machinery Required Equipment

6.TOOTHPASTE PRODUCTION
Toothpaste Composition and Ingredient
Functionality
Typical Toothpaste Ingredients Process Description
Storing and Filling the Finished Toothpaste Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

7.GYPSUM BOARD
Characteristics of Gypsum Board
Uses
Raw Material
Gypsum Board Constituents
Process Description
Transportation
Installation
Flow Diagram
Machinery Required
Gypsum Drying Section
Gypsum Calcining Section
Forming and Drying Section
Utility Section

8.SURGICAL ABSORBENT COTTON
Properties of Absorbent Cotton Raw Material
Process Description Based On Before Carding Method
(1) Opening and Cleaning
(2) Filling
(3) Bleaching
(4) Hydro-extracting
(5) Opening, Drying, Opening and Reserving
(6) Carding
(7) Winding, Cutting and Packing
Process Flow Sheet for Absorbent Cotton
Making Machinery Required

9.STARCH DERIVATIVES PRODUCTION
Uses
Some Important Definitions
Raw Material
Process Description
General Process Flow for Starch-Derived Sweeteners (Corn/Glucose Syrups, High Fructose Syrups, Dextrose, Fructose, Maltodextrins and Syrup Solids)
1. Glucose Syrup
Dextrose Syrup
Sorbitol

10.WET - BLUE LEATHER
Raw Material
The Process
Soaking Chemicals
Liming Chemicals & Use Condition
Chemicals
Conditions
Machinery Required

11.PVC PASTE RESIN
PVC Resin Suspension Grade PVC
Emulsion Grade PVC Bulk Polymerised PVC Copolymer PVC K Value
Rar Material and Utilities Process Description VCM Receiving & Storage VCM Recovery VCM Purification Dispersion Process Polymerization Process Drying Process Flow Diagram Machinery Required

12.SACCHARIN
Properties of Saccharin
Uses in Foods and Other Products
Process Description
Chlorosulfonic Acid Synthesis Process
Sulfonation
Amination and Refining
Oxidation Process
Concentration and Crystallization
Drying and Packing Process
Recovery of Oxidizing Agent and Catalyst
Raw Material
Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

13.SODIUM CHLORITE
Uses
Raw Materials
Process Description
Sodium Chlorite Manufacturing Process
Diagram Machinery Required

14.PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER
P is Essential for Plant Nutrition Types of Phosphorus Fertilizer Raw Material Process Description
(a) Superphosphate
(b) Fused Phosphate
(c) Fused and Superphosphate Complex
Fertilizer
Superphosphate Manufacturing Process
Flow Sheet Fused Phosphate Manufacturing Process
Flow Sheet Fused and Superphosphate Fertilizer
Manufacturing Process Flow Sheet Machinery Required Pollution Prevention and Control

15.TOMATO PASTE
Uses
Raw Material Requirements
Raw Material
Process Description
Receiving
Sorting
Juice Extraction
Evaporation
Aseptic Filling
Machinery Required

16.PAINT
Raw Material Products Specifications Flow Diagram Machinery Required

17.AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE
(AAC BLOCKS)
Features
Raw Material
Advantages of Autoclaved Aerated Concrete
Blocks
Typical AAC Product Shapes Process Description Detailed Schematic Diagram of the
Production Process Machinery Required

18.CARBON BLACK
Uses
Raw Material
Process Description
Reaction Section
Filtration
Pneumatic Conveying
Pelleting
Drying
Storage and Shipping
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

19.CAFFEINE
General Details
Uses
Pharmacological Effects of Caffeine
Raw Material
Process
Making
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

20.SODIUM HYDROSULFITE
Uses
Process of Manufacture Flow Diagram Required Machinery

21.MAGNESIUM SULPHATE (FERTILISER
GRADE) PLANT
Molecular Structure
Product Specification
Physical Properties
Main Feature
Uses
Raw Material
Manufacturing Process
From Mineral Kieserite
Reaction of Magnesium Oxide and Sulfuric
Acid Composition of Magnesium Sulphate
Heptahydrate Packaging Production Process Machinery Required

22. TMTBAR
Uses
Product Specification
Manufacturing Process
Quenching
Tempering
The Cooling Process Process Flow Diagram Machinery Required

23. GLASS FIBRE
Types of Glass Fibre
Properties
Uses
Raw Materials
Process Description
Process Flow Diagram
Schematic Diagram of Direct Melt Process for Continuous Filaments
Schematic Diagram of Marble Melt Process for Continuous Filaments Machinery Required

24. PLASTIC (P.V.C.) LAMINATED
COLLAPSIBLE TUBES
Uses
Raw Material Required
Process
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

25. COMPLEX FERTILIZERS
Complex Fertilizer for Vegetables
Characteristics
Component
Complex Fertilizer for Beans
Characteristics
Component
Briquette Complex Fertilizer for Forest
Characteristics
Complex Fertilizer for Field Crops
Characteristics
Component
Complex Fertilizer for Horticulture
Characteristics
Component
Complex Fertilizer Manufacturing
Description of NP & NPK Granulator Drying Screening Cooling
Polishing Screens Cyclone Separators Scrubbing Section Process Flow Diagram Equipments in Flow Chart

26. COPPER POWDER BY ELECTROLYSIS
PROCESS
Product Specifications
Uses
Raw Material
Process Description
Cleaning of Powders
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

27. ATOMIZED METAL POWDER
Examples of Metal Powders
Pure Metals
Alloys
Compounds
Uses
Metal Powder Applications
Powdered Components
Thermal Surfacing
Architectural
Decorative Applications
Industrial
Metal Powder Characteristics
Selection Criteria
Process Description
Machinery Required

28. ELECTROPLATING
Uses
Process Description
Polishing
Pretreatment
Plating
After-treatment
Electroplating Process Block Diagram
Machinery Required

29. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM WOOD
Uses of Activated Carbon
Typical Properties of Activated Carbon
Raw Materials
Manufacturing Process
Processing Steps
Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

30. RUBBER POWDER FROM WASTE TYRES  
Uses of Rubber Powder
Manufacturing Process
Flow Diagram
Environmental Concerns of Tyre Recyling
Machinery Required

31. PRECIPITATED CALCIUM CARBONATE    
Uses
Physical and Chemical Properties
Manufacturing Process
Flow Diagram
Required Machinery

32. PVC FLEX BANNER PRODUCTION
Process Description
Mixing
Extrusion
Tempering Rolls/Embossing Unit
Flow Diagram
Winding Station
Machinery Required

33. RECLAMATION OF USED ENGINE OIL
Uses
Process Description
Blending
Process Flow Diagram
Sludge Disposal (Pollution Control)
Machinery Required

34. EDIBLE CORN OIL
Process Description Required Machinery

35. MALT PRODUCTION
Standard Malt and Specialty Malt
Barley Conditioning
Malting
Malt Treatment
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

36. ETHYL OLEATE
Properties
Oleic Acid
Uses
Process Description
Machinery Required

37. WHEAT FLOUR MILL
Composition of Wheat Properties of Wheat Flour Flour Mill Products Manufacturing Process Machinery Required Cleaning Section: Machinery Milling Section: Machinery Conveying Equipments Refrection Grinding System

38. INSTANT NOODLES
Manufacturing Process
Processing and Classification of Instant
Noodles Machinery Required

39. ZINC
Uses of Zinc Process Description Process Description Machinery Required Roasting Process Acid Making Process Leaching Process Electrolysis Process Casting Process
Cd Making Process CuSO4 Making Process

40. CASTOR OIL & POMACE
Uses
Agriculture
Food
Textile Chemicals
Paper
Plastics & Rubber
Perfumeries
Cosmetics
Electronics & Tele-Communications
Pharmaceuticals
Aints, Inks & Adhesives
Lubricants
General Specifications
Process Description
Process Flow Diagram

41. GARLIC OIL AND POWDER
Composition
Uses
Process Description
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

42. SILICA FROM RICE HUSK
Composition of Rice Husk Ash on Dry Basis
1. Digestion
2. Precipitation
3. Regeneration
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

43. THERMOCOL CUPS, GLASS AND PLATES  
Uses
Food Packaging Like
Protective and Display Packaging
Other Applications
Process Description
Flow Diagram for EPS (Thermocol) Plates
Flow Diagram for Expanded Poly Styrene
Cups & Glass Machinery Required For Plates For EPS Glass & Cups

44. MATCH BOX (AUTOMATIC PLANT)
Raw Material Product Specification Process Description Match Box Manufacturing Filling
Finishing Process Process Flow Diagram

45. CAMPHOR
Uses
Production
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

46. LDPE/LLDPE POUCH FILMS
Uses
Raw Materials Process Description Process Flow Diagram Machinery Required

47. E-WASTE RECYCLING
Effects on Environment and Human Health Effects of E-Waste Constituent on Health Components of E-Waste Management Process Description Manual Dismantling and Sorting Mechanical Shredding and Separation Metallurgical Processes Process Flow Diagram

48. CATTLE FEED
Raw Materials for Concentrate Feeds
Process Description
Reception of Raw Material
Storage of Raw Materials
Blending
Grinding
Process Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

49. SAW PIPE
Uses
Industries Serviced
Oil and Gas Pipeline
Power Plant
Water & Sewerage
Structural
Other Industrial
Raw Material
Product Specification
Process Description
The Making of Spiral Weld Pipes
Ultra-Sonic Testing
X-Ray Test and Fluoroscopy
Hydro Testing
Final Inspection, Visual Checking,
Weighing and Measuring Process Flow Diagram Machinery Required Pipe Manufacturing & Testing Equipment

50. POLYETHYLENE WAX
Polyethylene Wax
Characteristic Properties of PE Wax
High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Wax
Low Molecular Weight Polyethylene Wax
Raw Material
Process Description
Reaction Conditions
Flow Diagram
Machinery Required

51. DISPOSABLE PLASTIC SYRINGES
Uses
Raw Material
Process Description
Plunger, Barrel & Gasket Production by
Injection Moulding Machine Advantages of Injection Moulding Assembly of Plunger, Barrel, Gasket and Needle by Machine Process Flow Diagram Packing by Poly Bag or Blister Sterilization by EO Sterilization Chamber Machinery Required

52. CEMENT
Uses
Types of Cement
Raw Material
Process Description Mining and Crushing Raw Mill
C.F. Silo and Preheater Kiln Operation Cement Grinding Process Flow Diagram Storage & Dispatch Machinery Required

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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 How to Start an Industry Successfully

Entrepreneurship is one of the critical decisions to be made. It involves number of risk and has its own advantages also. If you are thinking about starting a business of your own, you would need to take your time and not rush things. Though it is very exciting to start your very own business, you should take it slowly since you need to consider a lot of important aspects that could affect your business. There are several factors that, if taken for granted or overlooked, could spell the difference between success and failure. Taking your time in setting up all the things you need is very important especially if it would be your first time.

First of all, you need to think about the type of business that you are going to set up. It is good if you are already decided on what business you would put up but if not you need to choose one that you are comfortable with. A simple business plan would be a great help when you are starting out. If you do not know how to make one, you can hire the services of marketing experts or firms to design one for you. If you do not have a big budget, you can make use of templates.

Next thing you have to consider is manpower. Determine how much manpower you would need. Even a simple online business needs manpower and it would be ideal to have the different aspects of your business looked after by different persons. Though you may have the knowledge on how to run your entire operation, it would be more efficient if you don’t do everything on your own. Along with manpower is their salary. You also need to consider how many people you can afford to work for you. Make necessary adjustments depending on your budget.

Another important factor to consider is the materials you would need for your business. If you will be running an online business, the equivalent of physical materials would be a main website, its content, graphics, etc. When purchasing your materials or have someone create your website, it would be best to compare different sellers or service provides first. This is for you to get the most out of your budget. You need to save as much money as you can since you are just starting out.

The last thing you need to think about would be your product or service that you would sell. Make sure that your product or service is of high quality. Put yourself in the shoes of your customers and ask yourself if you will buy that product or employ that type of service that you are selling. It is always a great idea to see things at a customer’s viewpoint. This would help you identify what your customers really want and determine how to keep them happy or satisfied. The ultimate goal of any business is to give their customers what they want. Ensure that you understand all these important things that you have to consider and start taking actions.

Choose an Industry or Location

If you want to start your business in India, the first thing that is expected of you to do is to choose an industry where you would want to build a business in. An entrepreneur has many concerns: funding, staffing, developing a marketing strategy and ensuring that they have a viable product or service. Before beginning the process of starting a business, however, there is one important decision that must be made: where to start the business. It is one of the most exciting and fundamental parts of starting a business. Don’t choose an industry based on trends, statistics or some list of hot start-ups. Look in the mirror, focus on your strengths and weaknesses, your experience, whom you want to be and what you like to do–and start a business that reflects who you are and who you want to be. The best industries for starting a business is based on a range of research, interviews, and scouting reports. As most business owners eventually learn, it’s not the person running the business, the marketing or the employees that make or break a company’s success—it’s the quality and profitability of the idea behind the company. When building a company, you want to work for long-term; the first decision to make is what market to attack. Opportunity cost is incredibly high, so it’s important — no, critical — to select an industry ripe to support what you want to build. Before you start a business of your own, get some experience in the industry or profession that interests you—even if you work for free. Learn everything you can about every aspect of the business. If your plan is a plan to be presented to outsiders, then you need to explain the type of business you’re in. You’ll be expected to explain the general state of your industry and the nature of the Choose an Industry or Location.

If you want to start your business in India, the first thing that is expected of you to do is to choose an industry where you would want to build a business in. An entrepreneur has many concerns: funding, staffing, developing a marketing strategy and ensuring that they have a viable product or service. Before beginning the process of starting a business, however, there is one important decision that must be made: where to start the business. It is one of the most exciting and fundamental parts of starting a business. Don’t choose an industry based on trends, statistics or some list of hot start-ups. Look in the mirror, focus on your strengths and weaknesses, your experience, whom you want to be and what you like to do–and start a business that reflects who you are and who you want to be. The best industries for starting a business is based on a range of research, interviews, and scouting reports. As most business owners eventually learn, it’s not the person running the business, the marketing or the employees that make or break a company’s success—it’s the quality and profitability of the idea behind the company. When building a company, you want to work for long-term; the first decision to make is what market to attack. Opportunity cost is incredibly high, so it’s important — no, critical — to select an industry ripe to support what you want to build. Before you start a business of your own, get some experience in the industry or profession that interests you—even if you work for free. Learn everything you can about every aspect of the business. If your plan is a plan to be presented to outsiders, then you need to explain the type of business you’re in.

Gypsum Board

Gypsum board, also known as “drywall” or “plaster board,” consists of a core of gypsum surrounded with a paper covering. Several varieties of gypsum board products are available; each is comprised of a specially formulated gypsum plaster mix and facing paper specifically developed for the intended application. These gypsum board products include regular gypsum wallboard, moisture-resistant gypsum board, and type-X fire resistant gypsum board.

Gypsum board is made of gypsum, which consists of the core of the board and the both sides of the gypsum core are covered and adhered with paper, and is widely used as a construction material. It is widely used as construction materials mainly for interior finishing like partition, walls, ceiling and acoustic boards. Major raw materials are gypsum and hard board papers. The plant can be categorizes as small-scale industry.

Characteristics of Gypsum Board

The Characteristics of gypsum board as building material are briefly summarized as:

Good processing properties and easy application, light as for a heat insulation and fire resistance material, no practical deformation and warp as the lath of the wall. And because of these excellent properties, gypsum board is regarded as one of the indispensable materials among the interior finishing materials.

Uses

Gypsum board is commonly used for the construction of the inside wall, the ceiling, and the partitions. The application technique can be broadly classified into two categories, namely the dry method, in which the gypsum board is finished with wall-papers or is painted, or the printed gypsum board is directly applied, and the wet method in which the surface of the gypsum board is plastered. Hence the choice of the suitable type of gypsum board and the application method thereof are to be considered according to the circumstances.

The paper covering the both sides of gypsum core of the gypsum board is normally consisted of 3 to 8 layers of fibrous tissue. The most important properties required for the paper are the adhesion characteristic with gypsum, the strength and the resistance against the undulant tendency caused by the repeated drying and humidification.

Gypsum board is widely used as construction materials mainly for interior finishing like partition, walls, ceiling and acoustic boards. Therefore, the demand for the product is influenced by the dynamism in the real estate sub sector mainly of residential and commercial building. Nowadays, the use of gypsum board partition for commercial building has become customary. Furthermore, high end houses, restaurants, pastries and the like use gypsum board for ceiling and decorations.

Raw Material

Raw Materials Drywall primarily consists of gypsum that is mixed with additives and backed on both sides with kraft paper. The following Table shows the proportions of materials used in producing drywall.

Gypsum board of the following specifications are given below:

     •  Wall board : 9 mm, 12 mm, 15 mm thickness

     •  Lath board : 7 mm, 9 mm thickness

     •  Acoustic board : 7 mm, 9 mm thickness

     •  Waterproof board : 9 mm, 12 mm, 15 mm thickness

     •  Print board : 7 mm, 9 mm thickness

Process Description

The by-product gypsum of wet phosphoric acid  

Starch Derivatives Production

Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties. Modified starches are used in practically all starch applications, such as in food products as a thickening agent, stabilizer or emulsifier; in pharmaceuticals as a disintegrate; as binder in coated paper. They are also used in many other applications.

Starches are modified to enhance their performance in different applications. Starches may be modified to increase their stability against excessive heat, acid, shear, time, cooling, or freezing; to change their texture; to decrease or increase their viscosity; to lengthen or shorten gelatinization time; or to increase their visco stability.

For many years starch and starch containing materials have been converted by means of high temperatures in the presence of catalysts into soluble sweet products. Early in the last century it was discovered that, if potato starch slurry is treated with acid, a sweet tasting syrup was produced, from which dextrose crystallized.

In general large amounts of starch are processed into starch sweeteners. Any purified starch extracted, for example, from maize (corn), millet, wheat, rice, potatoes, or from tropical roots such as manioc, tapioca, cassava and yucca, can be used for this purpose. It is hardly often that these raw materials are process directly into starch sweeteners without starch as an intermediate.

Uses

Starches are inherently unsuitable for most applications and, therefore, must be modified chemically and/or physically to enhance their positive attributes and/or to minimize their defects. Starch derivatives are used in food products as thickeners, gelling agents and encapsulating agents, in papermaking as wet-end additives for dry strength, surface sizes and coating binders, as adhesives (corrugating, bag, bottle labelling, laminating, cigarettes [tipping, side-seam], envelopes, tube-winding and wallpaper pastes), for warp sizing of textiles, and for glass fiber sizing.

Various starch products are used to control fluid loss in subterranean drilling, workover and completion fluids (for oil, gas or water production). Modified starches are also used in tableting and cosmetic formulations. Some starch is incorporated into plastics to enhance environmental fragmentation and degradation. Thermoplastic starch and starch–polymer composites can replace petroleum-based plastics in some applications. Newer applications include use of nondigestible starch as nutraceuticals. The future of starch may include a role in detergents.

Some Important Definitions

Dextrose Equivalent, expressing the degree of hydrolysis (conversion) and, consequently, the breakdown of the glucose chains in the starch. Since glucose and maltose-type sugars, unlike the starch molecule, have reducing aldehyde groups, this reducing property can be utilized to define the DE. The DE is the percentage of reducing sugars (in terms of glucose) in the dry substance of the product concerned. The DE of starch is 0% and that of pure glucose is 100%, the DE is just a measure of the number of reducing groups present, but does not disclose any details about the sugar spectrum, i.e the percentages of glucose, maltose and higher saccharides. The acid hydrolysis, acid-enzyme breakdown and double – enzyme process makes it possible to produce substances having different Des and a different sugar spectrum. Unhydrolyzed starch has a DE value of zero, while the DE value of anhydrous D-glucose is 100. Glucose/corn syrups range from 20 to 95 DE. Glucose syrups, also known as corn syrups in the US, are purified aqueous solutions of nutritive saccharides obtained from edible starch having a dextrose equivalency of 20 or more. Dried corn syrups or corn syrup solids are glucose/corn syrups from which most of the water has been removed.

High fructose syrups are purified aqueous solutions of nutritive saccharides obtained from edible starch in which a portion (at least 42%) of the dextrose (D-glucose) has been isomerized to fructose. Crystalline fructose is crystalline product containing not less than 98.0% fructose and not more than 0.5% glucose.

Dextrose monohydrate is purified, crystalline D-glucose containing one molecule of water of crystallization per molecule of D-glucose. Anhydrous dextrose is purified, crystalline D-glucose without water of crystallization.

PVC Paste Resin

Plastics are also called synthetic resins and are broadly classified into two categories; thermosetting resins and thermoplastic resins. The thermosetting resins include phenol resin and melamine resin, which are thermally hardened and never soften again. Thermoplastic resins include PVC, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene(PS) and polypropylene(PP), which can be softened again by heating. Usually, thermoplastics are supplied in the form of pelletized material (compounds) with additives (antioxidants, etc.) already blended in it. However, PVC is supplied in powder form and long term storage is possible since the material is resistant to oxidizing and degradation. Various additives and pigments are added to PVC during the processing stage, and then molded and fabricated into PVC products. Over 30 million tons of PVC is used around the globe today, both in industrialized and developing countries, due to its cost efficiency, durability, self-extinguishing properties, process ability, and resources saving features. Owing to its safe, healthy, convenient and aesthetical advantages, PVC products support daily life in a wide variety of fields including urban infrastructures, electronic products, and consumer goods. For example, PVC can be found in public lifelines such as water supply, sewage pipes, or power lines. It is also used in building materials such as sidings, furniture, spouts, window profiles, flooring, decking boards, and roofing sheets. Agricultural and industrial applications include green house sheets, semi-conductor cleansing facilities, exhaust ducts, and parts for automobile and home electrical appliances. Consumer products include food wraps, synthetic leather and stationery.

PVC Resin

There are 4 types of PVC Resin grouped by polymerization method

    1.  Suspension Grade PVC

    2.  Emulsion Grade PVC

    3.  Bulk Polymerized PVC

    4.  Copolymer PVC

Suspension Grade PVC

The most widely prevalent type, Suspension grade PVC is made by polymerizing droplets of Vinyl Chloride monomer suspended in water. When Polymerization is complete, the slurry is centrifuged and the PVC cake is gently dried by special heating systems so as not to subject the unestablished resin to heat degradation. Particle size of the resin ranges from 50-250 microns and have porous popcorn like structures which readily absorbs Plasticizers. The structure of the PVC particles can be modified by selecting suitable suspending agents and Polymerization Catalyst. Less porous types are extensively used for the high volume Rigid or Unplasticised PVC applications like PVC pipes, windows, sidings, ducting. Suspension grades of a coarser particle size and very porous structures absorb large quantities of plasticizer forming a dry blend at temperatures as low as 80ºC. The more porous types are used in plasticized applications like cables, footwear, soft calendered sheeting and films etc.

Caffeine

Caffeine is one of the world’s most widely used drugs. Some anthropologists believe its use may date back to the Stone Age. Pharmacologically, caffeine is one of a group of stimulants called methyl xanthine, or xanthine that occur naturally in some plants. Beverages made from the nuts, seeds or leaves of these plants are major sources of natural caffeine, such as coffee, made from the Coffea arabica plant; soft drinks, like Coca Cola, made from Kola nuts; and tea made from the leaves of Thea sinensis. Cocoa, used to make chocolate, contains caffeine as well as theobromine, another xanthine.

Caffeine is a drug that is naturally produced in the leaves and seeds of many plants. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the beans, leaves, and fruit of over 60 plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants. Caffeine is believed to constrict dilated blood vessels that may contribute to tension headaches.

Heine ( C8H10N4O2– H2O ), the hydrate of caffeine is a white fleecy mass or long flexible silky crystalline. It is an alkaloid and loses water at 80ºC, it is efflorescent in air. It is odorless, bitter in taste and forms solutions sublimes at 1.76ºC. it is soluble in chloroform and is a lightly soluble in water and other. Caffeine is a weak mono acidic base and forms salts only with stong acids such citric, hydrochloric etc.

Uses

Pharmacological Effects of Caffeine

The drug exerts multiple effects on the heart. It has a positive inotropic effects on the sinoatrial mode, causing a transient increase in heart rate, force of contraction, cardiac output and work of the heart. It constructs the cerebral blood vessels, but directly dilates peripheral blood vessels, thus it decreases peripheral vascular resistance. The effect of this decreases in vascular resistance on blood pressure is compensated for by increased cardiac output.

Raw Material

The major raw materials for caffeine are tea waste and coffee – beans. Tea waste is, however, used more widely on commercial scale because of its availability in surplus and low cost of production.

Tea waste is the sole by produce of the tea industry. It is available in the form of weeping of fluff, stalk and leaves during processing and subsequent handling of tea in tea factories. It amounts to about 3% of the total tea production. It is estimated that the total tea production of indis is 24 million kg. per year. The wasteon an average contains 2.5% caffeine. Process The commercial process of caffeine manufacturing involves the solvent extraction of tea waste. Many petroleum solvents have been tried individually and in combination. Common solvents are benzene, toluene, chloroform, ethylene, chloride and dichloromethane. Then low boiling solvents are used, they can be recovered and re-used. The residual caffeine is purified by crystallization from water.

The various steps in the process are discussed below:

Making

Tea waste of good quality is denatured with anhydrous line. Amount of line used is 12 % of the amount of tea - waste. A typical batch consists of;

Tea waste                   1,000 kg.

Lime                          120 kg

Solvent                      200 liters

Water                         150 liters

De – natured tea – waste is charged in the extractors.

The extractors are partially filled with suitable solvent, with the help of a pump is that the level of the tea-waste is fully covered by the solvent, this will ensure efficient extraction through contact of the solvent end the solid tee –waste. The solvent is boiled with 20 paisa saturated steam and the temperature is maintained at ºC although extraction is carried out at atmospheric pressure, small pressure of the order of 5 - 10 paig, do exist within the extractor. For efficient extraction, the tea waste is contacted in the state of turbulences with the solvent. This is contacted in the state of turbulence with the solvent. This is achieved by circulation of solvent in the extractors with the help of a circulation  pump. Twelve circulation of hr. duration each have been considered adequate for a given batch size.

Evaporation & Condensation : The extract is charged into the evaporators where solvent is evaporated, as a result of heating with stem at 20 psig. the solvent is reused after condensing it in a condenser. A temperature rise of 5 - 10° C of water should be controlled.

Purification : The crude caffeine obtained from the bootee, of the evaporators is subjected to purification. It is done in the following stages :

    1.  Washing: The crude caffeine is treated with boiling water.

    2.  Bleaching: This partially washed caffeine is treated with activated carbon for discolouring. This is followed by subsequent treatment with bleaching and than by boiling water.

    3.  Filtration: The dissolved caffeine in the boiling water is filtered in the plate and filter press at atmospheric pressure.

    4.  Crystallization: The clear filtrate thus obtained is saturated with caffeine and allowed to crystallize in an open water tank. A fresh running stream of cold water is maintained for three hours in the crystallizer. Clear crystals of caffeine, saturated with water are thus obtained.

    5.  Drying & grinding: Crystals of caffeine which contain nearly 40 % Water are dried in a suitable drier. A tray can be used. Air heated at 200° C is used. The anhydrous crystals of caffeine are grinded and powder

    6.  Packing and dispatch: Powdered caffeine is packed in air – tight containers and dispatched for marketing. 

Magnesium Sulphate (Fertiliser Grade) Plant

Magnesium Sulphate is commercially available as heptahydrate, monohydrate, anhydrous or dried form containing the equivalent of 2-3 waters of hydration. Magnesium Sulphate occurs naturally in seawater, mineral springs and in minerals such as kieserite and epsomite. Magnesium Sulphate heptahydrate is manufactured by dissolution of kieserite in water and subsequent crystallization of the heptahydrate.

Magnesium Sulphate is used as fertiliser for supplying trace amounts of magnesium and Sulphate to the plant. Magnesium Sulphate of fertiliser grade manufactured by using magnesium ores. Manufacturing process of Magnesium Sulphate from the ore keserite is simple.

Magnesium Sulphate is found in certain mineral springs, those of bath and Epsom. It may be obtained commercially by dissolving kieserite, in boiling water and than crystallizing the solution when the rhombic crystals of the hepta hydrate. Magnesium Sulphate speciality chemicals used as are of the fertilizer grade. Magnesium can be applied as dolomite limestone, broadcast and mixed with the soil. It can also be blended into fertilizer mixtures or may be included as an ingredient of homogeneous fertilizers as well.

Product Specification

Magnesium sulphate heptahydrate crystal (MgSO4.7H2O)

Parameter                                          Specifications

Insoluble matter                                        Traces

Fe2O3                                                           0.05%

CaO                                                            0.35%

MgO                                                           16.43%

SO3                                                            31.65%

Cl                                                                0.26%

As                                                            0.37 ppb*

H2O                                                            50.10%

Yield                                                          84.00%

Physical Properties

Main Feature

     •  Formula                      MgSO4.7H2O

     •  Molecular weight         246.48

     •  Appearance                 Transparent crystal or                   white powder

     •  Odor                           Odorless

     •  Solubility                    Very soluble in water

     •  Hardness                    2-2.5

     •  Density                       1.67 g/ml

     •  pH                              5.5

Uses

    1.  It is used as a purgative in medicine.

    2.  It is used in sizing and loading paper, silk and cotton.

    3.  It is used in dyeing and fire proofing chemicals.

    4.  It may be used as platinised magnesium

    5.  It may be used in the manufacture of paints and soaps.

    6.  It may be used as micronutrient fertiliser.

    7.  Used in craft pulp bleaching process

    8.  Nourishing additive in cattle feed, fertiliser and other agricultural applications

    9.   Enriches outdoor lawns by increasing its chlorophyll content and improving its ability to synthesize food

  10.  Magnesium sulphate is a safe way to remove splinters and treat infections, insect bites, scraps and poison ivy

  11.  It is also used in leather industry/ tannery as a weighting agent and filler in the production of sole leather

  12.  It is also used for the manufacturing of high fructose products in food industry

It is also used for titanium dioxide production, zinc processing, metal plating, latex & rubber processing, manufacturing of ABS resin, explosives, soap detergents and in many other chemical industries. The less pure material is used extensively as sizing and as a fireproofing agent.

Raw Material

Magnesite, MgCO3, contains theoretically 47.8% MgO and 52.2% CO2. Magnesite is an important economic nonmetallic mineral since it is the main source of magnesium oxide, which is widely used as a refractory raw mineral. Magnesite almost never occurs pure enough to be used directly in any significant deposit. Magnesite ores contain a variety of gangue minerals, mostly other carbonates, silicates and oxides. Therefore some kind of beneficiation is required. The most commonly used beneficiation methods for magnesite ores are the heavy medium separation, hand sorting, magnetic separation and flotation.

Due to the fact that magnesite and dolomite have similar physical, chemical and physicochemical properties, physical and chemical beneficiation methods are not effective in the selective separation of these minerals.

Plastic (P.V.C.) Laminated Collapsible Tubes

Collapsible tubes are very popular product and are made from tin sheet. Now, the tin sheet made collapsible tubes have been substituted by polythene collapsible tubes, which is gaining increasing popularity throughout India.

Plastic collapsible tubes are used for packaging of a wild range of products, which were hitherto packed in aluminium collapsible tubes. The popularity of plastic collapsible tubes is increasing due to the fact that they are extremely tough and unbreakable, durable transparent to opaque, light in weight, nontoxic, unaffected by humidity environment, & economical, hygienic and corrosion instant & chemically inert, as compared to metallic ones, and keep the color and flavor of the ingredients intact.

The plastic collapsible tube is a product of daily use because every paste, like thing is packed in this tube. According to an estimate, the population of India is more than 100 crores and there are number of persons who might be using collapsible tubes in one way or the other. Once the tube has been used, it is discarded and cannot be used again; hence it is a consumable item.

Plastic collapsible tubes can be beautifully printed in multicolor which have better eye appeal. These plastic collapsible tubes are being widely used for packaging of adhesives, art colors, creams, lubricants etc. They are suitable for packaging of lotion cosmetics, tooth-pastes, shaving creams, hair cream; face cream, auto cleaners, polishes etc.

Uses

The printed collapsible tubes find a wide range of applications in number of items. A large number of cosmetic products, medicines, tooth pastes and other consumer goods are available in attractive multicolor printed collapsible tubes. The main industries which consume the printed collapsible tubes in large quantity are Shaving Creams, Tooth Pastes, Face Creams. Many other items which are at present packed in bottles can be introduced in plastic collapsible tubes like adhesives, art colors, lubricants, lotions, hair creams, auto cleaners, & number of cosmetics, rubber solutions, mosquito repellants, cyclostyling inks, vaccines.

Raw Material Required

The main raw materials required by the project are:

   (i)  Low Density Polythene

  (ii)  Polypropylene (PP) of suitable grade.

(iii)  HDPE

  (iv)  High Impact Polystyrene

   (v)  Printing Inks and Lacquers

   (vi)  Packing Materials i.e. Polythene Bags and Cartons.

Process

Collapsible plastic tubes are made using imported fully automatic tube moulding machine with blower complete with parison transfer and replacing system for making body with nozzle. The granules of polythene (low density) or 1 poly propylene (PP) of suitable grade are fed in the hopper of the above cited moulding machine. The granules are heated in three heating zones and the plasticized stock is then transferred to the nozzle head which is also kept hot.

The amount or plastic required for the tube is then injected through a ring nozzle in the injection mould, holding the tube head and thread mould. The injection mould of with the formed tube head then moves upwards and so draws a parison (hose) with inform wall thickness of plastic melt fed from the ring nozzle.

This parison (tube is then blown into a water-cooled mould, the inner surface of which correspond to the desired finished shape of the tube. A gripper device takes the cooled tubes of the mould and they are fed by at gripper to a cutting unit. Here the bottom surplus is removed and the tube trimmed to the finish size.

Another device then places the tubes on rotating mandrels on an indexing turret, ready for printing. The tubes are then made to pass through a high tension field pretreatment, they pass the printing stations and are over lacquered at a fourth station.

Following this treatment, the tubes are then carried by a chain conveyor to the counter flow hot air dryer from where etc. They emerge ready for filling all these operations are carried out automatically.

Copper Powder by Electrolysis Process

Copper makes vital contributions to sustaining and improving society. Copper’s chemical, physical and aesthetic properties make it a material of choice in a wide range of domestic, industrial and high technology applications.

Copper powders have been used in industrial applications for many years. Probably the best known is the self-lubricating bearing which was the first major application and still accounts for about 70% of the copper powder used. This application takes advantage of the ability to produce a component with controlled interconnected and surface-connected porosity. The production of metallic filters also takes advantage of this ability.

Copper Powders (often referred to as Electrolytic Copper Powder or ECP) are available in various grades of differing particle size, specific surface area, apparent density and morphology.

Product Specifications

Technical Specifications of Dendritic Copper Powders:

Product Group                    Chemical     Apparent   Particle                                           Composition    Density       Size                                                     %                g/cc           µm

Dendritic Copper (Heavy)      Cu>99.7           >2.0          <150

Dendritic Copper (Medium)   Cu>99.5      1.5 +/- 0.5    <150

Dendritic Copper (Light)        Cu>99.4           <1.0           <63

Dendritic Copper (Medium)   Cu>99.5      1.7 +/- 0.5     <45

•     Composition: minimum copper content of 99.5 / 99.7%

•     Apparent density: 0.65 g / cm3 up to 2.20 g / cm3

•     Particle shape: dendritic (extremely high specific surface)

•     Particle size distribution: 150 to 32 microns

Uses

Copper powders are used in very many applications, markets and technologies by virtue of the diverse range of physico-chemical properties. The Density and Melting Point of copper powders make them an ideal choice for blending with iron powder for pressed and sintered components as well as for sintered brake parts.

Copper powder is used in anti-fouling paints for boat hulls and in metallic pigmented inks for printing and packaging.

Other properties of copper powders such as electrical and thermal conductivity, morphology, chemical reactivity and alloying possibilities give rise to their use in catalysis, anti-fouling paint, conductive oils and greases, alloying with other metals, carbon brushes, resin-bonded brake parts, thermal management, electro-magnetic radiation shielding for electronic devices, surface engineering and diamond tooling, and many more.

Raw Material

     •  Copper Scraps

     •  Sulphuric Acid

Process Description

Copper Powder is produced from a dilute solution of copper sulphate and sulphuric acid using copper anodes and stainless steel and copper cathodes. The depositing conditions are so adjusted as to yield powdery or spongy deposits which are brushed down and removed from the cathodes.

Majority of powders undergo heat treatments prior to compaction like,

   (i)  Drying to remove moisture,

  (ii)  Grinding/crushing to obtain fine sizes,

(iii)  Particle size classification to obtain the desired particle size distribution,

  (iv)  Annealing,

   (v)  Mixing and blending of powders,

  (vi)  Lubricant addition for powder compaction,

(vii)  Powder coating current density (0.16A/cm2) be suitable for copper powder preparation in powdery form in which current efficiency higher than 65% could be obtained.

Cleaning of Powders

•        Refers to the removal of contaminants, solid or gaseous, from the powder particles

Electroplating

Electroplating is the process of applying a metallic coating to an article by passing an electric current through an electrolyte in contact with the article, thereby forming a surface having properties or dimensions different from those of the article. Essentially any electrically conductive surface can be electroplated. Special techniques, such as coating with metallic-loaded paints or silver-reduced spray, can be used to make nonconductive surfaces, such as plastic, electrically conductive for electroplating. The metals and alloy substrates electroplated on a commercial scale are cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, indium, iron, lead, nickel, platinum group metals, silver, tin, zinc, brass, bronze, many gold alloys, lead-tin, nickel-iron, nickel-cobalt, nickel-phosphorus, tin-nickel, tin-zinc, zinc-nickel, zinc-cobalt, and zinc-iron. Electroplated materials are generally used for a specific property or function, although there may be some overlap, e. g., a material may be electroplated for decorative use as well as for corrosion resistance

Uses

Potential customers for the services of an electroplating workshop are:

- The machinery industry

     -  The electrical industry

Process Description

The surface of a metallic article has to be first removed of impurities prior to electroplating, because the oil and fats, oxide, hydroxide and dirt are deposited on it during manufacturing treatment process, transportation or storage. Mainly pickling and degreasing are carried out as the preliminary treatment.

Polishing

The polishing improves the adhering strength of the final plating as well as the appearance. There are two polishing methods for the plating, namely the buff polishing and barrel polishing. The buff polishing breaks down to the belt type polishing and electromotive polishing. Excellent in cutting property, the belt-type polishing is suitable for polishing the surface of a metallic article. The electromotive buff polishing has separate steps of initial cutting, intermediate buff and finishing buff. The barrel polishing is used in a mass polishing for small component parts.

Pretreatment

In order to obtain a good plating surface, the Impurities deposited on the surface of a metallic article have to be removed, and the surface must be activated. Approximately 50 – 70 % of the defective plating is caused by the inappropriateness and negligence in the pretreating process. As such a pretreatment in the plating, the degreasing and acid treatment are mainly used.

The degreasing is an operation of eliminating the grease deposited on the surface of a metallic article, having such methods as solvent degreasing, alkali degreasing, electrolytic degreasing, emulsion degreasing and mechanical degreasing.

The object of the acid treatment is to remove oxides, hydroxides and salts on the surface of a metallic article, with the methods of pickling, acid etching and acid dipping mainly used.

Plating

On completion of the pretreatment, the metal is conveyed for plating, which is mainly electroplating and divided into the rack type and barrel type depending upon the form of component parts. At the cathode, the metal ions are reversed to metal and deposited on the metal surface in plating, while at the anode there ia s dissolving metal plate and replenishes the metal ions consumed. Each plating solution contains an appropriate lustering agent which improves the state of the surface plated.

After-treatment

On completion of the plating, the component parts are washed with hot water and then dried Depending upon the type of plating, some are subjected to an appropriate treating process for preventing changes in quality or hue.

Rubber Powder from Waste Tyres

Rubber is polymer of butadiene and one of the most important chemical ingredients, which is widely used in the different field of modern advance world. Rubber is specially used in the tyre Industry, which is used in the different type of vehicles. Rubber products require rubber as a raw material. Either natural rubber, which is often cultivated on large plantations – with all the problems associated with a monoculture or alternatively synthetic rubber, which is produced using crude oil. Both processes use a high amount of resources.

Waste tyre recycling technology is very cost effective and performs 100% wastage tyre recycling (No churn left after the process). In this process no chemical ingredients are used, therefore it is environment friendly. Raw material (wastage tyre) is cheap and easily available, Generate economically valuable products out of waste tyres and products have good market value and demand. Also each recycled ton of tyres preserves 10 tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) that is a major green house gas.

 


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