Profitable Cottage and Tiny Industries

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Profitable Cottage and Tiny Industries

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788190439824
Code: NI188
Pages: 320
Price: Rs. 475.00   US$ 50.00

Published: 2007
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
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Hundreds of thousands of people start their own businesses every year, and untold more dream about the possibility of becoming their own bosses. While entrepreneurship has its many potential rewards, it also carries unique challenges. Starting a business involves planning, making key financial decisions and completing a series of legal activities. To run a successful business, you need to learn all about your existing and potential customers, your competitors and the economic conditions of your market place. The Government has announced series of steps to promote industrial development by way of rationalization of the policies to encourage the new entrepreneurs as well as existing units. In both developed and developing countries, the Government is turning to small and medium scale industries and entrepreneurs, as a means of economic development and a veritable means of solving problems. It is a seedbed of innovations, inventions and employment. You do not need to be a genius to run a successful small business, but you do need some help. And that is exactly what this book is, a guide into the stimulating world of small business ownership and management. Entrepreneurship helps in the development of nation. A successful entrepreneur not only creates employment for himself but for hundreds. Deciding on a right project can lead you to the road to success.
The major contents of the book are electronic burglar alarm system for automobiles, chokes for sodium/mercury vapour lamps, heat treatment servicing unit, squashes and syrups, electronic, industrial timers, desk top publishing centre, castings for auto locks, ball pen ink, cashew nut shell liquid, automatic wheel alignment & wheel balancing workshop, neck ties, electric toaster, plaster of paris, transistor radio sets (am/fm), soya products, shuttle cocks for badminton, neon sign boards etc.
The industries covered in this book can be started with the investment of below ten lacs with the help of financial assistance provided by Banks, Financial Institutions, KVIC etc. This book will give you the better way to select an appropriate industry within your limit. The book covers project profiles of various industries, among which you can select one.
The book is a must read for any person who wants to make their life better by starting their own industry working for themselves.

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Related Books


Contents

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1. Electronic Burglar Alarm system for Automobiles
2. Chokes for Sodium/Mercury Vapour Lamps
3. Heat Treatment Servicing Unit
4. Squashes and Syrups
5. Electronic Industrial Timers
6. Desk Top Publishing Centre
7. Castings for Auto Locks
8. Ball Pen Ink
9. Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL)
10. Automatic Wheel Alignment & Wheel Balancing Workshop
11. Neck-Ties
12. Electric Toaster
13. Plaster of Paris
14. Transistor Radio Sets (AM/FM)
15. Soya Products
16. Shuttle Cocks for Badminton
17. Neon Sign Boards
18. Pickle Making
19. Electric Cables For Automobile Control
Directory Section

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Electronic Burglar Alarm system for Automobiles

Introduction

The Burglar alarm system attached to the automobile gives an alarm sound if anybody attempts to steal the automobile. The automobile alarm can be designed in different ways depending upon the type of the automobile and place where it is to be fixed in the automobile.

The alarm accepts signals from a variety of sources including special sensors and the standard switches in a car such as the door and ignition contacts. The circuit consists of timers triggering circuit, delay and conrol circuits which provides relay out-put that controls an acoustic transponder (loud speaker or buzzer). Switches are used for all control functions like setting alarm, energizing time etc.

Market Potential

The burglar alarm is used mainly in automobiles to avoid stealing. They are marketed by manufacturers, dealers and service centres for automobiles as additional automobile accessory for providing safety to the automobiles. There are very few manufacturing units of burglar alarm for automobiles in the country. Present manufacturers of the product are generally having tie up with branded automobile manufacturers and dealers of automobile parts. The cost of alarm depends on the type, features and appearance of the product.

With high quality and competitive price there is good scope for Burglar alarm for automobiles. The plant and machinery and raw materials required for the manufacture of Burglar Alarm are available indigenously.

Basis and Presumptions

(i) The basis for calculation of production capacity has been taken on single shift basis.

(ii) The maximum capacity utilization on single shift basis for 300 days a year.

(iii) The salaries and wages, cost of raw materials, utilities, rents, etc. are based on the prevailing rates. These cost factors are likely to vary with time and location.

(iv) Interest on fixed capital and working capital has been taken at the rate of 12% on an average. This rate may vary depending upon the policy of the financial institutions/agencies from time to time.

(v) The cost of machinery and equipments refer to a particular make/model and prices are approximate.

(vi) The break-even point percentage indicated is of full capacity utilization.

(vii) The project preparation cost etc. whenever required could be considered under pre-operative expenses.

(viii) The essential production machinery and test equipment required for the project have been indicated. The unit may also utilize common test facilities available at Electronics Test and Development Centres (ETDCs) and Electronic Regional Test Laboratories (ERTLs) set up by the State Governments and STQC Directorate of the Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, to manufacture products conforming to Bureau of Indian Standards.

Heat Treatment Servicing Unit

Introduction

Heat Treatment is generally used for hardening annealing tempering of Metal components/Mechanical products of Ferrous and Non-Ferrous origin to increase the life or mechanical properties. Steel in general, is supplied in annealed conditions having hardness between 140 to 280 BHN depending on the percentage of alloying elements which facilitate further mechanical operations. 15%-20% of the steel produced is tool steel which will be the raw material for manufacturing of gears, fixtures, shafts, cutting tools, blades and many more products. If these products are used in soft conditions, it will be worn out in a short period. Hence such products are to be hardened and tempered. Heat Treatment is a general term which consists of processes like Hardening, Tempering, Annealing and Case Hardening etc.

Market Potential

It’s market mainly arises from:

defence,

railways,

automobile,

ball & roller bearings,

general engineering,

fasteners and hardware,

machine tools,

The demand in the above depends upon the primary market, i.e., replacement and substitution market. Most of the general engineering units in SSI Sector offload the Heat Treatment jobs to servicing units because they don’t spend enough capital for an independent Heat Treatment section.

Squashes and Syrups

Introduction

In a country like India where there are so many seasons, the summer season is the one which leaves the pupil unperturbed. In the summer season each one feels thirsty round the clock. Nowadays so many thirsty quenching beverages are launched in the market. Carbonated soft drinks, fruit juices, squashes, syrups etc., they all fall under the category of aerated waters.

Pulpy fruits like banana, guava, apple, mango, and other can be successfully processed to liquid fruits by using pectic enzymes, by a process developed by CFTRI. The RTS beverages based on fruits are both refreshing and thirst quenching. These liquid fruit can be used as natural alternative to synthetic beverages.

They can be suitably diluted and carbonated as soft beverages. The pulpy fruits which can be utilized for clarified juices are banana, guava, cashew, apple, grapes, lime, jackfruits. The other raw materials, required are permitted preservatives, additives and colouring materials which are readily available in local markets.

For a long time, the use of flavoured thick sugar syrups has been very common. During the last few decades, the products like fruit juices, squashes, cordials, crushes, syrup and ready-to-serve beverages have been introduced in the country on commercial scale to a large extent. The rapid increase in the production of these items in different parts of our country is a proof of their rising popularity. The use of fruits by industry for the preparation of such products will not only reduce wastage of fruits during handling but also add nutrition and palatability to the drink.

Market Potential

With changing life style of human beings, the demand for easy-to-prepare drink is also increasing. Besides consumption in the households, it is served in hotels, restaurants, clubs, airlines, railways etc. There has been an appreciable increase in the export of these processed foods especially squashes and syrups. With the fast growth of the urban areas and the living standards of the Indian people growing higher, there is a good potential for product to be developed in the small scale sector.

Basis and Presumptions

1. The unit is considered to work for one shift of eight hours per day.

2. The labour wages have been kept at the prevailing rates.

3. Interest rate for fixed capital and working capital has been taken at 12% on an average.

4. Costs of machinery and equipments are based on the prevalent prices in the market at time of preparation of the project profile.

Electronic Industrial Timers

Introduction

The Electronic Industrial Timer is a device which finds it’s use in the industries to control the process of repetitive nature with in specified time interval. It is basically a time-clock with an arrangement for on/off operation at a pre-determined specified time-intervals. They have wide application in the control of sequential functions of industrial machinery at varying time intervals in plastic industries, pharmaceutical industries, petro-chemical industries, steel industries, power plants etc. Electronic timers are used in each and every complex function of industries.

The Electronic timer consists of

(a) Crystal controlled stable oscillator

(b) Sequencing logic circuits

(c) Driving circuits

(d) Digital display system

(e) Facility for connecting output to individual machinery so as to control the operation within specified time interval.

(f) Simple timer with an on/off arrangement to sophisticated electronic timers are manufactured today to meet the specification of the industry.

Market Potential

The Control, Instrumentation and Industrial Electronics sector of the Electronics industry plays vital role in the modernization through instrumentation and automation in India’s manufacturing, public utility services and infrastructure sector. The major manufacturing industries like Petrochemical; Cement; Steel; Fertilisers; Alcohol, Aluminium, Iron, Zinc, Chemicals; Textiles are some of the manufacturing sectors which are the beneficiaries of this technology for production improvement, cost efficiency, safety, quality control etc. Over the last few years, Indian industry in this sector has established its base, as such it is felt that the demand of industrial timers bound to grow faster in the coming years.

Basis and Presumptions

(i) The basis for calculation of production capacity has been taken on single shift basis.

(ii) The maximum capacity utilization is on single shift basis for 300 days a year.

(iii) The salaries and wages, cost of raw-materials, utilities, cost of land and rents etc. are based on the prevailing rates. These cost factors are likely to vary with time and location.

(iv) Interest on fixed capital and working capital has been taken at the rate of 12% on an average. This rate may vary as the policy of the Financial Institutions/Agencies from time to time.

(v) The cost of machinery and equipments refer to a particular make/model and the prices are approximate.

(vi) The break-even point percentage indicated is of full capacity utilization.

(vii) The project preparation cost etc. whenever required could be considered under pre-operative expenses.

(viii) The raw materials requirement vary with design and specification of equipment.

Desk Top Publishing Centre

Introduction

Desk Top Publishing (DTP) pertains to designing of documents. Page-layout programmes (such as Page Maker or MS Word) are basically used. The laser printer has the capability of printing the page that has text as well as graphics.

The DTP has so many advantages as comparable to the manual process. It is factual, it can quickly edit with minimum mistakes. Text and graphics can be merged into single file. Achieve higher productivity, efficiency and quality in printing and publishing. DTP is used for type setting, layout, printing, graphics and photographs etc. It has wide applications in designing and producing newsletter, reports, data sheets, invitations, certificates, brochures and catalogues etc. With the DTP software package ‘Page Maker’ and MS-Word, it is possible to undertake a variety of work in the printing and publishing field. The bilingual software package like ‘Venus’ and ‘Prakashak’ has enhanced the capacity of DTP for composing and printing text matter with graphics and combinations of text with different Indian languages.

Market Potential

The advantages of DTP over the traditional type setting, designing and printing has modernized the printing industry for quality, efficiency and productivity. DTP has replaced the old concept of letter setting and printing. DTP facility has ample opportunities for undertaking jobwork on sub-contract basis for printing and publishing houses, Govt. departments, educational institutions, business houses, industries, advertisement agencies and industrial. There is good scope for using DTP facility for designing and producing newsletter, certificates, data sheets, brochures and catalogues etc.

The electronics technology is undergoing rapid changes and there is need for regular monitoring of the national and international technology scenario. The unit may therefore upgrade with the new technologies in order to keep them in pace with the development for global competition. Quality today is not only confined to the product or service alone, it also extends to the process and environment in which the product is generated. The unit may adopt ISO 9000 standard for global competition. Use of Internet facilities may add to the quality of DTP standards.

Basis and Presumptions

(i) The basis for calculation of production capacity has been taken on single shift basis.

(ii) The maximum capacity utilization on single shift basis for 300 days a year.

(iii) The salaries and wages, cost of raw materials, utilities, rents, etc. are based on the prevailing rates. These cost factors are likely to vary with the time and location.

(iv) Interest on fixed capital and working capital has been taken at the rate of 12% on an average. This rate may vary depending upon the policy of the financial institutions/agencies from time to time.

(v) The cost of machinery and equipments refer to a particular make/model and prices are approximate.

(vi) The break-even point percentage indicated is of full capacity utilizaion.

(vii) The project preparation cost etc. whenever required could be considered under pre-operative expenses.

(viii) The essential production machinery and test equipment required for the project have been indicated. The unit may also utilize common test facilities available at Electronic Test and Development Centres (ETDCs) and Electronic Regional Test Laboratories (ERTLs) set up by the State Governments and STQC Directorate of the Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, to manufacture products conforming to Bureau of Indian Standards.

Implementation Schedule

The major activities in the implementation of the project has been listed

Sl. No.

Name of Activity

Period in Months (Estimated)

1.

Preparation of project report

1

2.

Registration and other formalities

1

3.

Sanction of loan by financial institutions

3

4.

Plant and Machinery:

(a) Placement of orders

1

(b) Procurement

2

(c) Power Connection/Electrification

2

(d) Installation/Erection of

2

machinery/Test Equipment

5.

Procurement of raw materials

2

6.

Recruitment of Technical Personnel etc.

2

7.

Trial production

11

8.

Commercial production

12

Notes

1. Many of the above activities shall be initiated concurrently.

2. Procurement of raw materials commences from the 8th month onwards.

3. When imported plant and machinery are required, the implementation period of project may vary from 12 months to 15 months.

Technical Aspects

Process of Manufacture

The DTP Software packages Page Maker, Corel draw, MS-Word, Venus and Prakashak are required for designing and producing printed matter using personal computer with peripherals. Laser printer is needed for printing the text and graphics. The DTP software has two sections. One for type setting program and the other for page maker program. As per the design the text is typed, composed and arranged in the form of blocks/columns, Headlines, captions, graphics, photographs, drawing etc. are inserted in the text as per the requirement. The whole text is displayed on CGA/VGA monitors for correction and addition. The edited page is then printed on plain paper or butter paper or page master using the laser printer as per requirement. For small volume the output from the laser printer can be Xeroxed for making the required number of copies. But when the volume is in the range of 200 to 40,000 impressions, the output from laser printer is taken to offset printing machine for making the required, number of copies.

Pollution Control

The Desk Top Publishing facility is not characterized as polluting industry and is free from pollution control.

Energy Conservation

With the escalating demand for energy sustainance along with the pace of economic development of our country, Energy Conservation is not only desirable but absolutely imperative.

Every user of energy is a potential saver of energy. It is obligatory for every user to use that efficiently, it is profitable.

The following steps may help for conservation of electrical energy:

(a) Proper selection and layout of lighting system.

(b) Timely switching on-off of the lights.

(c) Use of compact fluorescent lamps wherever possible.

Additional Information

(a) The Project Profile may be modified/tailored to suit the individual entrepreneurship qualities/capacity, production programme and also to suit the locational characteristics, wherever applicable.

(b) The Electronics Technology is undergoing rapid strides of change and there is need for regular monitoring of the national and international technology scenario. The unit may, therefore, keep abreast with the new technologies in order to keep them in pace with the developments for global competition.

(c) Quality today is not only confined to the product or service alone. It also extends to the process and environment in which they are generated. The ISO 9000 defines standards for Quality Management Systems and ISO 14001 defines standards for Environmental Management System for acceptability at international level. The unit may therefore adopt these standards for global competition.

(d) The margin money recommended is 25% of the working capital requirement at an average.

Ball Pen Ink

Introduction

Ball pen is a essential commodity for students, for office work etc. Ball pen ink is thus equally an essential commodity. It is a viscous and coloured fluid composed of reflux blue, varnishes, oil and drier. This is a mass consumption item.

Market Potential

Ball pen is the most common writing tool for all school, college and university going students. With the increasing emphasis on removal of illiteracy, the prospects of Ball pen ink industry are bright. Its demand is increasing continuously so the market prospects are fruitful.

Basis AND Presumptions

(1) Working in the production plant is considered to be in a single shift of 8 hrs. for 25 days in a month corresponding 300 days in a year.

(2) Interest rate for fixed & working capital is calculated at an average of 12% per annum.

(3) The cost of raw material, machinery & equipments as well as labour varies from place to place.

Implementation Schedule

Site

1.

Selection Site

2 months

2.

Collection of quotation

2 months

for M/c and Equipment

3.

Procurement of machinery

1 month

4.

Placement of order

½ month

for raw material

5.

Commercial production

½ month

Total

6 months

Technical Aspects

Process of Manufacture

Metal complex dyes and complexes in castor oil/stand oil, varnishes and driers are mixed together in suitable proportions in a mixing machine. The material so produced is called ball pen ink, which is viscous in nature. Metal complex dyes are chosen to get a shade to suit customer’s requirements. A list of metal complex dyes used for making ball pen ink is given at the end.

Quality Control and Standards

As per market demand.

Production Capacity (per annum)

Quantity 10 kilo literes

Value 28,00,000

Pollution Control

No liquid or gaseous effluents are released in the process, so there is no pollution caused during the process.

Additional Information

1. Machinery and equipments can be purchased from local market.

2. Taxes like sales tax, income tax, etc. are not included in the project.

Basic dyes for Ball Pen Ink

1. Basonyl Blue 636

2. Basonyl Brilliant Red X-4G 300%

3. Basonyl Green 830 Liquid

4. Basonyl Red 482

5. Basonyl Red 540

6. Basonyl Violet 600

7. Basonyl Yellow X-RL 300%

8. Methyl Violet base

9. Rhodamine GDN Extra

10. Vitoria Blue Base F 4 R

Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL)

Introduction

Cashew Nut Shell Liquid is a versatile by product of the cashew industry. Cashew is a versatile tree-nut presently cultivated in more than ten tropical countries & consumed almost all over the world. Botanically, Cashew is a wonder nut, because it is the only nut which appears outside the fruit.

Cashew nut is a store house of nutrients. The chemical composition of Cashew kernels is given below:

Table

Chemical Composition of Cashew Kernels

Constituents

Percentage

Proteins

21.00

Fat

47.00

Moisture

5.90

Carbohydrates

22.00

Fibre

1.30

Phosphorus

0.45

Calcium

0.05

Iron

5.0 mg/100 gm

Nutritionally it stands at par with milk, egg & meat. Most health conscious people think Cashew nuts are too full of fat to enjoy on a regular basis. Cashew nut contain a lot of fat. It contains 47% fat, but 82% of this fat is unsaturated fatty acids (good fat).

Traditionally nuts have been perceived as an unhealthy food because of their high fat content. However, recent accumulative evidence suggests that frequent consumption of nuts may be protective against coronary heart disease. About two-third of cholestrol in the body does not come from cholestrol in food but is manufactured by the liver, its production being stimulated by saturated fat.

The shell of nut is the about 1/8 inch thickness inside which is a soft honey comb structure containing a dark reddish brown viscous liquid. It is called cashew nut shell liquid, which is the pericap fluid of the cashew nut.

Properties & Applications

Cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) is reported to produce dermatitis in man. Clinical cases of allergic contact dermatitis have been reported from Europe but not from cashew workers of India, interpreting that European skin reacted to CNSL differently from Indian skin. It has been pointed out that a case of acute allergic contact dermatitis in a white man who was extremely sensitive to poison ivy, after eating cashew nut contaminated with CNSL. In the comparative study of irritant and allergic contact dermatitis results that in industrial settings the irritant dermatitis was more common than allergic dermatitis. Among cashew workers of Kollam, Kerala there are no any identified case of allergic dermatitis.

It is often considered as the better and cheaper material for unsaturated phenols.

CNSL has innumerable applications in polymer based industries such as friction linings, paints and varnishes, laminating resins, rubber compounding resins, cashew cements, polyurethane based polymers, surfactants, epoxy resins, foundry chemicals and intermediates for chemical industry. It offers much scope and varied opportunities for the development of other tailor-made polymers.

Market Potential

The use of this oil, at present, however is limited, an increasing demand has been noticed. U.K., USA and Japan were the large scale buyers of CNSL but due to variations in technology at present U.K. and USA have stopped buying this product from India. Presently, Japan and Republic of Korea buy a sizeable quantity of CNSL from India.

The production potential for the product is very high. The total production raw cashew nut in the country could be as much as 2.5-3 lakh tonnes and at 10% recovery by weight, the production potential for CNSL is as much as 25000-30000 tonnes. There is a good scope for the export of CNSL to other countries which at present is on the decline.

In view of the sustaining demand for CNSL from the indigenous as well as outside countries, we may encourage more SSI units in this line of activity.

Basis and Presumptions

1. The economic viability of the scheme depends upon the location of the unit. It is preferable to set up units in an area where there is concentration of raw cashew nut processing industry.

2. The yield of oil is calculated at about 10%.

3. The unit is proposed to work for 300 days on single shift basis of 8 hrs.

Implementation Schedule

Oil expeller and filter press are the major machines involved in the project. These machines are available from local suppliers. The project can be implemented within 8 to 12 months time.

Technical Aspects

Process of Manufacture

Cashew nut can be processed by two methods i.e.

(a) Roasting process, and

(b) Oil extraction process.

Some manufacturers use first method while others prefer second method from which the oil is obtained as a by-product.

Raw Cashew nut shell contains over 20% CNSL. In the oil extraction process about 10% of oil is recovered as a by-product. By using expellers for extraction, it is possible to extract a further quantity of about 10% more from the shells. From 1 tonne of cashew shells by using oil extraction process, upto 100kg of good quality CNSL is extracted by using oil expellers, so it is advisable that a small unit of the size given below for extraction and recovery of CNSL should be set up adjacent to each good cashew processing unit in view of the economic reliability and ready foreign as well as internal demand of the product.

Automatic Wheel Alignment & Wheel Balancing Workshop

Introduction

Balanced and Aligned wheel means a smooth running of vehicle. If the wheels are not completely balanced there will be bubbling of wheel & this leads a direct effect on stearing control.

For the process of wheel aligning & wheel balancing the machinery used are all micro processor controlled with measurement sensors. Advancements are made day to day. These machines are fully automatic and gives the printed details of the work. Both wheel alignment as well as balancing is very essential for the vehicles.

Wheel misalignment is the leading cause of premature tyre wear. The signs of misalignment are easy to spot. The tyre treads could be scuffed worndown, and in worst cases almost non-existent on the edges.

By the time, these signs are visible, it is too late save the tyre. What is really needed is per make sure that your wheels are in line we can do that for you quickly and accurately with out computerised alignment equipment.

Set up time, faster, easier readings, and quick, accurate adjustments are the keys of any a in actual side-by-side comparisons, FMC delivers unsurprised performance.

Benefits of 4-Wheel Alignment Service:

v Improve driver safety.

v Maintain steering wheel level.

v Proper return of the steering wheel on turns.

v Increase fuel efficiency.

v Minimise tire wear.

v Keep driving straight.

v Improve drive handling.

v Improve suspension parts life.

4 Wheel Alignment

Adjusts 4-Wheel alignment parallel to each other. The rear wheel are the geometric line of the vehicle. The deluxe 4-wheel alignment service is not avail vehicles whose rear Toe is not adjustable.

4 Wheel Compensated Alignment

Also called thrust angle alignment. Without adjusting rear wheels front wheels are aligned parallel to rear wheels or thrust angle. Thrust angle is the rear Toe difference. This method is used when rear Toe cannot be adjusted.

Front Wheel Alignment

Adjust only front wheels to the vehicle specification and ignores the rear wheels. Without referencing to the wheel, the steering wheel may not be level.

When do you need wheel alignment service?

v After 6,000 k.ms or 6 months of driving.

v Pull to left or right when driving straight.

v Need to hold on to steering wheel to drive straight.

v Need to keep steering wheel ulevel to drive straight.

v Single front or rear tire wear found.

v After changing set of tires

v After collision accident.

v Change of suspension and steering parts.

v After the first 6,000 kms. of driving a new car.

v Tran-axial repair on front wheel drive car.

Various machinery of wheel balancing and wheel aligning machineries along with the specifications are given below:

Microline 4000 wheel alignment computer

Highly precise multipurpose system, microprocessor-controlled, with CCD measurement sensors and 8-toe-sensor system, suitable for all cars and light trucks with a maximum wheel diameter of 20". Complete four-wheel alignment with a display comparing desired/actual values on a 14" colour screen with user guidance. PC-based system with integrated 64 MByte hard disk and 3.5 disk drive. Measurements are called up by digitizer pen on a graphics panel. Choice of 8 different languages. Integrated A4 printer for data printout. Approx. 5200 “Autodata” vehicle data and adjustment images entered by the equipment manufacturer. The system can be supplied in two different cabinet versions.

The compact version of the ml4000

Microline 3000 PC wheel-alignment computer

Microprocessor-controlled system for all cars and light trucks with a maximum wheel diameter of up to 20".

Complete four-wheel alignment using cableless analog measured-value sensors and data transfer by cable to PC monitor. PC-based system with integrated 64 MByte hard disk and update option via 3.5" disk drive. 8 different computer languages as standard. Data printout on integrated A4 printer.

This microline system can also be combined as a PC retrofit kit with older systems in the microline 1800/microline 3000 series.

Microline 4600 wheel alignment computer

Microprocessor-controlled, multipurpose system with CCD measurement sensors and 6-toe-sensor-system, suitable for all cars and light trucks with a maximum wheel diameter of 20".

Complete four-wheel alignment with a display comparing desired/actual values on a 14" or 20" colour screen with user guidance, PC-based system with integrated 64 MByte hard disk and 3.5" disk drive. Measurements are called up and operations performed on the MF keyboard.

Choice of 8 different languages.

Integrated A4 printer for data printout. This microline unit can be extended as part of a modular system to form an impressive row of wall cabinets.

Microline 4600-8 wheel alignment computer

A measurement system technically the same as our ML4000: CCD measuring system, 8 toe sensors that create a 360º measurement field around the vehicle. The benefits for you are; permanent calibration check, the horizontal toe beam is, by using a mathematical formula checked for accuracy, if this is found to be incorrect the message “Out of tolerance”, will appear on the screen. How often does the machine require calibrating? When the machine tells you! The data transfer to the PC is by cable, measurements are called up and operations performed on the MF keyboard with function mask. Technical details: 170 MByte hard disk and update option via integrated 3.5" disk drive. Standard software includes 6850 vehicle target datas, measurement data can be printed on the standard Din A4 printer.

All renowned Vehicle manufactures recommend the microline-system. That Beissbarth is the world-leader in wheel alignment technology, is easy to substantiate: In 1990 Beissbarth was the first manufacturer to produce a wheel alignment system with 8 CCD toe sensors, Infra red data transfer, and PC technology; the microline-system. BMW was the first automobile manufacturer to request Beissbarth to develop, on the basis of the microline principle a wheel alignment system for them, consequently supplying their service network world - wide with the KDS. Two years ago, VW/Audi started to supply their service network world-wide, with the VAG1813, also based on the microline system.

Truck wheel alignment system with optical or PC technology

P5 Wheel aligner

An optical system for complete wheel alignment on buses/coaches, trucks, articulated trucks and vehicles, trucks with two steered front axles, trailers and truck chassis. Toe values are calculated optically by halogen projectors. Values for camber, caster, kingpin inclination and toe out on turns are calculated mechanically using measuring scales. This system can be used universally on a level floor, over a work pit, on a hoist, or in an open/closed working environment. Mercedes Benz, Porsche, Peugeot, Mazda and other vehicle manufacturers recommend the microline system, in their own specific versions. The latest development in this area is for Opel. The Opel wheel alignment system is fitted with 6 toe sensors, CCD measurement technology, swivel mounted 14" colour monitor, 486 PC (100 Mhz) with integrated floppy disc drive. Beissbarth was the first Company to receive the world-wide approval from Opel. On the basis of the Opel system the engineers in Munich then developed a system for Vauxhall in England, also receiving a world-wide approval. Basically there is no other wheel alignment manufacturer world-wide that has as many automobile manufacturers approvals as Beissbarth.

Microline 3000 PC wheel alignment computer

For all trucks with a wheel base of up to 6.5m. Analogue measurement sensors with data transfer through cable to the PC unit. Complete four wheel alignment with target/actual value comparison on the 14" screen with user guidance. Measurements are called up and operations performed on the MF keyboard with function mask. 170 Mbyte hard disk and 3.5" disk drive (software updates made easy) are also standard. Standard software includes some 200 truck target data sets. Measurement data can be printed on the standard Din A4 printer. This system can be delivered with 2 or 4 sensor heads.

Microline 1800 wheel alignment computer

A versatile microprocessor-controlled system for all trucks with a wheelbase of up to 6.5m. Complete four-wheel alignment based on the geometrical driving axis. Actual values calculated for 18 measurements at the touch of a button. Measurements are shown on a front-panel duel LED graphic display in degrees or millimeters. Compact mobile cabinet with integrated pull-out platform for printer is standard. This system can be delivered with 2 or 4 sensor heads.

Market Survey

With the growing population of automobiles, it became absolutely essential for the vehicle-servicing sector to be equipped with sophisticated equipments for the upkeep, servicing and maintenance of these vehicles.

With the view to cater to this vast and fast-growing market of sophisticated automobile servicing and workshop equipments, too many entrepreneurs are venturing in this field, as the returns are very high.

Now a days, these workshops are very common in urban areas, and suitable for all passenger cars, light trucks and motorcycles (with special flange in case of wheel balancing). With the decline in passenger car prices and availability of easy finance for passenger and commercial vehicles, the demand for such computerized workshops is rapidly increasing coinciding with increase in number of vehicles.

Everyday new researches are being done to increase the comfort levels in the vehicles along with the accessories.

Apart from all the advancements, the field of aligning & balancing of wheels too is showing advances. Many of the modern equipments are made. Today new luxury cars are a visible sign of technical efficiency. But they also represent a major challenge in terms of servicing and maintenance.

Ultra-modern technology is essential: if the service requirements of drivers and automobile manufacturers are to be met now and in the future.

The recent development in the field, wheel alignment system is microline 5000. It has the ability to be controlled via simple voice commands, the operator can control the complete system, making the use of the keyboard and remote control during the alignment procedure unnecessary. The system is as a network capable, and has a remote diagnostic capability. In the future small steering wheel robots, will take over control of the steering wheel during alignment. This idea still requires time until it is ready for production.

Working process

The machinery used for the process of wheel alignment as well as wheel balancing are fully automatic.

a. Wheel Balancing Process: The wheel is loaded on turn table for balancing and sensor holders are attached to it. Calculations for all front and rear wheel are over/done in a single wheel alignment run. Everything is automatic and is also remote controlled, which enables the operator to operate the machine from the steering wheel. The machine has a display unit on which the alignment datas are displayed in figures & graphics too.

b. For Wheel Alignment: The measuring process in these machines is normally automatic. After the wheel data is entered by potential meters and the machine started, the measuring run is made automatically until the wheel comes to a stand-still at the point to be balanced. The degree of precision for measurements is determined fine, medium or average. The data of rim width, rim diameter, distance can be stored in the machine along with the method of compensation (weight). The computer automatically runs the standard programme for the two side balancing using hammer on weights. Special programmes for other type of balancing is also possible in the machine. The size of the weight required and the attachment point are calculated exactly and stored by the computer.

Electric Toaster

Introduction

Toaster is a electrical device which runs on electric power. Electric toaster as the name suggest is essentially a portable domestic appliance intended for toasting bread. The electric toaster is operated at 220 volts A.C., single phase and available in four different rated capacity such as 600 W, 750 W, 1000 W and 1250 W.

In the electric toaster the bread is inserted and heated at a regulated temperature till the colour of bread changes from white to brown. The heating time is self regulated according to the variation in the temperature of heating.

The toaster makes the work easier and reduces the time of process i.e. baking of bread pieces. The product has immense use in the household.

It saves labour and time, the maintenance is easy. The use of electric toaster keeps kitchen clean & tidy.

Uses & Applications

Electric Toaster is used oftenly in domestic needs. Now- a days when the two-work system where both husband and wife are working for bread, how can this easy bread toaster has to find a market. The product has a great demand, and is used mostly in each home. These also find the use at hotels & restaurants. Its use can’t be replaced by the use of electric Oven consumes more electricity in comparison to electric toaster. Oven has its variant uses but for the toasting process, electric toaster has its own importance.

Market Survey

Rapid expansion of electricity by starting up so many new products for electrical generation, has made electricity accessible to even remote villages. Thus more and more people are using electricity these days. Also, with the advent in electrical generation, the consumption is showing a growing trend by consumers using more & more electrical appliances so as to get comfort & save there time by the use of these appliances. Among these electrical appliances is a electric toaster which is convenient, time-saving and also a device that is portal and wens does not require a fixed space for placing it on kitchen rack. The use of electric toaster keeps kitchen clean & tidy. This by itself is bound to increase demand for electric toaster in future. And the entrepreneurs have a opportunity to venture into the manufacturing of this product.

Basis & Presumptions

(1) The calculation of production capacity are done on the basis of single shift basis.

(2) The No. of working days in a year are considered to be 300 days i.e., 25 days/month.

(3) The salary/wages, cost of raw material, utilities, rents, etc. are likely to vary due to the cost factors prevailing at different locations.

(4) The machinery & equipment used are standard ones.

(5) Interest rate on the capital has been calculated at 12% per annum.

(6) Depreciations on Machineries & office furniture are taken at the rate of 25% & 10% p.a. respectively.

Transistor Radio Sets (AM/FM)

Introduction

Radio is one of the effective media used to entertain and educate the masses about different aspects of life, cultural and languistic developments in the country like ours where literacy rate is so low. Considering the importance of the media, the Govt. have established a number of broadcasting stations throughout the country and introduced different programmes. The Govt. has also taken steps to reduce the cost of radio and abolished the radio licence to help the ordinary household possess a radio.

The production of radio receiver is an assembly based industry and the technology involved is very simple. The industry is labour intensive. The investment in Plant and Machinery is very low. The assembly of radio receiver is economical in small scale sector due to low overhead expenditure compared to the organized sector. Radios/Car Radios are reserved for manufacture in the small scale sector.

Market Potential

Transistor Radio sets are very common in India. These radio sets are generally being used by lower income group masses. It is the strongest means of entertainment for them. Present state of economy in our country depicts that a large section of the population especially in the rural areas can easily afford to buy cheap radio set for their entertainment as comparable to TV sets of minimum 8,000/- investment. The Government has already started the broadcasting of FM channels in the country which also has bosted the popularity of radio. Private FM broadcasting stations are channels to be established in near future further giving Philip to the market of Radio/Car Radios.

Basis and Presumptions

(i) Production capacity has been taken on single shift basis.

(ii) The maximum capacity utilization is on single shift basis for 300 days a year.

(iii) The salaries and wages, cost of raw materials, utilities, rents, etc. are based on the prevailing rates in and around Jaipur. These cost factors are likely to vary with time and location.

(iv) Interest on term loan and working capital loan has been taken at the rate of 12% on an average. This rate may vary depending upon the policy of the financial institutions/agencies from time to time.

(v) The cost of machinery and equipments refer to a particular make/model and prices are approximate.

(vi) The break-even point percentage indicated is of full capacity utilization.

(vii) The project preparation cost etc. whenever required could be considered under pre-operative expenses.

(viii) The essential production machinery and test equipment required for the project have been indicated. The unit may also utilize common test facilities available at Electronics Test and Development Centres (ETDCs) and Electronic Regional Test Laboratories (ERTLs) set up by the State Governments and STQC Directorate of the Department of Information Technology, Ministry of Communication and Information technology, to manufacture products conforming to Bureau of Indian Standards.

Soya Products

Introduction

Soyabean

Soyabean, designed as nitrate crop over 40% protein and 20% oil has now been recognised all over India, world as a potential supplementary source of edible oil and nutritious food. Currently the USA, Brazil and China are the three big soyabean producing countries.

Soyabean is not new for India. Black Soyabean is being cultivated for ages in low hills of Kumaon and Garhwal region as well as the foot hills of Himalyas and in some scattered pockets of Central India. However, strangely enough, the crop has never been popular in Indian sub-continent and other tropical countries. The importance of soyabean in Indian agriculture as a crop to narrow the oil and protein gap.

Soyabean is the most cheapest and best health food. Soya milk and related food products are becoming popular throughout the world due to their good nutritional values and medicinal qualities. Soya milk is high in protein, low in fat and carbohydrate and contains no cholesterol. It is an excellent food for babies, children, elderly people and pregnant and lactating women since it contains vegetable protein which is very nutritious and easy to digest. Besides possessing high nutritional values, Soya milk is best for people suffering from diabetes and lactose-intolerance. It can be said that Soyabean is a valuable gift of mother nature to human beings.

Nutritive Value of Soyabean

Studies carried out in India on the comparative nutritive values of pulses indicate that though rich in protein and fat. Soyabean is not superior to other Indian pulses. As addition the rich diet soyabean showed no advantage over other pulses in influencing the growth rate. In human metabolism experiments, soyabean protein is comparable to other pulses proteins in biological value and digestibility co-efficient.

The protein present in raw or uprocessed needs has low digestibility and biological values. The low digestibility is attributed to the presence of dike to pipe erasine rings in the protein molecules also the protein in the seeds is enclosed in a cellulose envelope which prevents the digestive fluids from readily acting on the protein.

Shuttle Cocks for Badminton

Introduction

Sports have always been considered essential in human society for entertainment and also for keeping the body fit to take-up a variety of activities, to increase endurance, flexibility and strength of muscles. Free & rapid breathing during performance of sports means greater consumption of oxygen which purifies the blood of the body. After strenuous labour in the play ground you really perform exercises which, in turn, improve digestive system, lungs function and remove mental tensions of all types. Games/Sports are also encouraged in order to infuse the sense of coordination to work as a team irrespective of body size, physical conditions, family or social status and any other differences. The inborn natural love for sports has enabled the human society to develop a large many types of games and athletics etc. some of the games are played outside the house while some others are indoor games. But some of the games have been so developed that they can be played outdoor & indoor both. Badminton is an example of the game which can be played in and out of the building. Badminton is suitable for all ages of people at large including males and females. That is why this game is popular all over the world.

Badminton is played with a shuttle cock which is tossed with a netted racket and placed in the opponents court. This game can be played with two or four players at a time.

Shuttle cocks are thus consumed in great numbers every year and there are 200 SSI Units engaged in the manufacture of shuttle cocks in India.

It is very simple to manufacture shuttle cocks in SSI or Cottage Industries. Ladies, Children and Uneducated lots can be trained for shuttle cocks manufacture at home. Meerut, Calcutta, Delhi, Jalandhar and various other cities are the well-known places where this industry has developed to a very great height. Exports of Indian Shuttle Cocks is very limited compared to its in-country consumption.

In view of the ever growing popularity of badminton in all strata of people, coupled with growing population & education, the demand for shuttle cocks is bound to grow fast. At present, shuttle cock is in short supply and many new entrepreneurs need to come up in order to meet the demand.

Four main types of feathers are used in manufacturing various types of shuttles. These are :-

(1) Broad feathers of duck & groose for first quality shuttle cocks.

(2) Goose bonda feathers for second quality shuttle cocks.

(3) First class hen feathers for 3rd quality shuttle cocks, and

(4) Inferior quality hen feathers for 4th class shuttle cocks manufacture.

The first two types of feathers are imported from U.K., Hong Kong etc. While hen feathers are procured from Indian poultries.

Bottom leather caps, thread & glue are selected as per the quality of the cocks used. Good quality cock is imported from Spain & Portugal & inferior quality cock is indigenously available.

There are three grades of shuttle cocks available :-

(1) Special Grade

(2) Grade – I, and

(3) Grade – II

Special grade of shuttle cocks have white, straight feathers of goose wing portion.

Grade - I shuttle cocks consist of white, straight duck’s wing feathers.

Grade – II shuttle cocks are made of white, slightly curred feather of duck/goose tail portion.

The shuttle cock may weigh 4.73 to 5.5 gms. Cork forms the base of the shuttle cock. It is 25 + 1 mm in length & 29 mm in diameter. On the top face of the cork base 14 or 16 holes are drilled in which feather shuttles are fixed with the aid of glue or sewing thread.

Each feather must go deep in the cork upto 12 mm minimum. The over all length of each shuttle may be 76 to 82 mm while the projected length is 64 to 70 mm.

Uses & Applications

It is well understood that shuttle cocks have the only use is i.e. in the game of badminton.

Larger shuttle cocks of weight 77 to 85 gram are used for outdoor games while smaller shuttle cocks of weight 68 to 75 grams are used for indoor badminton.

Marketing Survey

All types of sports are getting full boosting now-a-days all over the world. Games and Sports equipments are becoming highly specified & defined in clear terms. Now, every item of a particular sport is manufactured & tested according to a set technology in order to make sports equipments reliable throughout their life span and also to make them identical in all respects so that the player could train-up himself for the conditions required to play with the particular equipment of sports. Badminton is one of the most popular game in the whole world. All ages, class and part of people like this game which is played in outdoor or indoor court. A net is tied in the centre of the court and one or two players play from each side of the net at a time. The players strike a shuttle cock with the badminton racket and play as per the set rules of the game.

Looking at the growing popularity of the game, more and more demands are creating for badminton rackets, nets and shuttle cocks within the country and abroad.

The SSI, tiny and cottage industry units of India have been so far meeting the internal demands of shuttle cocks. But, according to a survey, the growth in shuttle cock consumption is expected to be so high that the existing 250 units can not meet even internal demands with their present level of productions, what to talk of exports demand. There exists a huge demand for shuttle cocks in Kerala, Karnataka, Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, MP, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, UP, North-Eastern States and also in other States. The demand for the shuttle cocks in West Bengal is also quite good during the winter season. Besides Jaduberia, Midnapore (West Bengal), the other major concentration of the shuttle cock manufacturing units are in the Northern part of India specially in Jalandhar, Meerut and Delhi. Some units in Kolkata are also manufacturing this item. The shuttle cocks with the duck feathers is in greater demand than that of the hen feathers.

According to government sources, the export obligations are becoming imperative for all sports & handicrafts industries of India in order to help the country come out of the prevailing forex crunch.

Under the existing circumstances, the new entrepreneurs have a bright scope and will find ready market for both local & inter state sales.

All schools, colleges, clubs, hotels, hospitals, organised colonies and various colonies and various government establishments are the potential purchasers of shuttle cocks.

Raw Material

Cock bottom, Feathers, Leather Bottom caps, Synthetic glue, Detergent solution, Ultramarine blue, Adhesives, Glue (animal), Ribbon (Silk), Thread, cloth (silk or cotton), Licofur and Soft soap are the required raw materials consumables.

Besides these main raw materials directly going into the manufacture of shuttle cocks, a variety of hardwares, packaging materials etc. are used for the purpose.


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