The Complete Technology Book on Candle Making & Designs


The Complete Technology Book on Candle Making & Designs

Author: NIIR Board
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8186623663
Code: NI40
Pages: 354
Price: Rs. 650.00   US$ 100.00

Published: 2004
Publisher: National Institute of Industrial Research
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Candles have been used for luminosity and to light up man's celebrations for more than thousand years. The ancient Egyptians have been credited with the honour of developing the first candle, who used rush lights or torches made by soaking the pithy core of reeds in melted animal fat. However, the rush lights had no wick like a true candle. The development of candle to the present stage went through several stages.
Candle making today has taken a shape of small scale industry. It has got attention of a lot of people. From celebrities to designers all are trying their hand in this emerging industry. One pertinent reason is that the use of candle now has not been confined only for devotional purpose or some special occasion. They are now a part of every single moment is it special or routine. They add a touch of warmth in the occasion and that does why have become largely popular.
Creativity has added a new spark to the candle making industry. Candle making is a very flourishing industry in modern times owing to the versatile use of candles on various occasions and ceremonies. Candles are prepared by well established methods in multifarious fascinating colours, designs and shapes. The book is one of the best seller and has chapters on: Thermometer Weighing scales ,Measuring flask or jug ,Dipping can ,Bowl ,Iron, Hairdryer ,Pouring jug Materials ,Wicking needle ,Wick ,Wax , ,Dipping ,How to   dipped candles Method ,More about dipping , Appliquéd candles ,Painting with wax ,Transfers ,Surface techniques Pressed flowers and grasses How to pressed flower candle Over dipping, etc.
This is one of its kind book which deals ostensibly with different candle making processes viz. Dipping, Pouring, Moulding or Casting and Drawing, delineating their technicalities in most illustrious manner with pictorial representations. The book will significantly add your knowledge if you are looking for comprehensive information on candle making industry to start their venture in said industry.        

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Contents

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Introduction
Equipment and materials
Equipment
Heat source
Double boiler
Thermometer
Weighing scales
Measuring flask or jug
Dipping can
Bowl
Iron
Hairdryer
Pouring jug
Materials
Wicking needle
Wick
Wax
Additives
Wax glue
Mould seal
Dyes and perfumes
Creating colour
Using perfumes
Common sense with wax
Working with heat
Fire safety
Working with wax
Preventing accidents
Cleaning up
How to begin
Working with heat
Priming wicks
How to     priming wicks
Method
Dipping
How to   dipped candles
Method
More about dipping
Over dipping
How to over dipping (blue on white)
Method
Hand finishing
How to plaited candles
Method
How to twisted candles
Method
Rolling
How to     flared spiral candles
Method
Beeswax sheet
How to tapered beeswax candles
Method
Hand modelling
Perfumed wax flowers
How to     floating rose
Method
Wax fungi
How to   fly agaric toadstool
Method
Common sense with candles
Fire Safety
Workshop Wisdom
Prevention
Cure
Dipped candles
Basic dipped candles
Overdipped candles
Spiral candles
Using templates
Floating candles
Beeswax sheets
Column candles
Spiral candles
Decorative candles
Sand candle
Stencilled candles
Surface texture
Appliqued candles
Painting with wax
Transfers
Surface techniques
Pressed flowers and grasses
How to     pressed flower candle
Method
Applique
Inlays
How to     bulls     eye candle
Method
Carving
Method
Dip and iron back
Method
Hammering
Painting
Novelty candles
Whipped wax candles
How to     ice cream cone
Method
Birthday cake candles
Balloon candles
How to     balloon candle
Method
Sand candles
How to     sand candle
Method
Water candles
How to     water candles
Method   Plunge
Method   Pour
Ice candles
How to     ice candle
Method
Burning down
Faults
Dipping
Casting in Moulds
Advanced Surface Techniques
Dip and carve
How to     dip and carve candle
Method
Peeled Banana
How to     peeled Banana Candles
Method   Fruit
Method   skin
Cutting corners
How to     basic techniques
Method   Dipping
Method   Cut and Curl Corners
Method     spirals
Snakes
Raw Materials
The Fuel
Paraffin Wax
Stearine
Micro   Crystalline Wax
Tallow
Beeswax
Vegetable Waxes
The wick
Candle Making Processes
The Dipping Process
Dipping
Equipment Required
The Pouring Process
The Moulding or Casting Process
Equipment Required
Moulding
The Candle Drawing Method
Drawing
Wax Melting
Methods
Heating Equipment
Chemical Colours Used in Candles
Candle Power
Waxes used in Candles
Selection of Good Quality Waxes
Effect of Blending with Stearic Acid on m.pt
Selected Formulations
Foreign Type Candles
Transparent Candles
Procedure
Milky Candles
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Procedur
Milky White Candles
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Procedure
Purification of Wax
Coloured Candles Manufacture
Perfumed Candles
Medicated Candles Mosquito Repellent Candles
Formulation of Mosquito Repellant Candle
Procedure
Magic Candles
Formulations for Coloured Flame Candles
Procedure to Prepare Saturated Solution
Petroleum Waxes
Processes And Applications of Petroleum Waxes
Introduction
Manufacture of petroleum waxes
Paraffin Wax
Microcrystalline Wax and Petrolatum
Composition of Petroleum Waxes
Paraffin Wax
Microcrystalline Wax and Petrolatum
Physical Properties of Normal Alkanes
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Waxes
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Toxicity of Petroleum Waxes
Methods of testing paraffin waxes,
Microcrystalline waxes, and petrolata
Melting and Setting Point
Colour
Odour
Oil Content
Penetration (for Waxes ASTM D 1321   65)
Tensile Strength (ASTM 1320   67; TAPPI T 644 os   67)
Viscosity
Industrial Applications of Petroleum Waxes
Paper Packaging Materials
*Waxed paper
*Folding cartons
*Corrugated board
*Flexible packaging applications
Application equipment for kiss coating and curtain coating
Candles
Polishes
Matches
Wax as a Base Material for the Chemical Industry
Testing of Waxed Paper Products
Water   Vapour Permeability
Resistance to Water
Blocking of Waxed Papers
Gloss and Gloss Stability
Scuffing Resistance/Flaking
Sealing Strength
The Mineral Waxes
Petroleum
Petroleum
Properties
Vaseline
Adulteration
Ozokerite
Properties
Uses
The Natural Waxes
Vegetable Waxes
Carnaoba Wax
Physical and Chemical Data
Chemical Composition
Adulteration
Technical
*Source
*Yield
*Method
*Refinement
*Grades
Candelilla Wax
Animal Waxes
Wool Wax
General and Analytical
Physical and Chemical Data
Chemical Composition
Technical
Properties and Uses
Beeswax
General and Analytical
Physical and Chemical Data
Chemical Composition
Adulteration
Preliminary Test
Technical
Source
Method of Obtaining Wax
Refinement
Spermaceti
Insect Wax
Bitumen Waxes
Refinement
Refinement by means of Nitric acid
Candle Making Plant & Machineries with
Photographs & Supplier Details
Product Catalogue
Directory Section
Suppliers of Raw Materials
A. Paraffinic Wax
B. Supplier of Stearic Acid
C. Crude Petroleum
Plants & Machineries Suppliers/ Manufacturer
Fractionating, Distillation Column : Reboilers
Condenser
Storage Tanks
Heat Exchanger
Filter Press
Boilers
Thermometer
For Moulding/Casting
Water Bath
Mixer 320

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Dipped candles

Dipping is the traditional way to make candles. Dipped candles have a beautiful tapered shape and can be made in a solid colour, or translucent effects can be created by adding a coating of dyed wax to a basic white candle. The technique is simple-repeating the wick priming process over and over again. By repeatedly dipping the wick in molten wax, you can build up any thickness of candle. The candles are dipped in a dipping can standing in a large pan of hot water-or you can use any tall metal or heat-proof glass container. Candles are usually dipped in pairs and separated when they are cool.

Basic dipped candles

The materials listed for this project are sufficient to make six candles, 250mm (10in) tall and 12-20mm (½-¾in) in diameter.

Overdipped candles

Dramatic effects can be achieved with this simple technique. Once you have dipped your candles, add a further 600g (1lb 5oz) of paraffin wax to the dipping can, heat it to 82oC (180oF) and add two dye discs.

Spiral candles

While dipped candles are still warm, they are malleable enough to model into other shapes. A spiral candle is simply a dipped candle flattened and then twisted.

Using templates

As an alternative to tradi-tional dipped candles, you can make your own wax sheets by dipping flat temp-lates into liquid wax.

Properly cut and smoothed 6mm (¼in) thick glass makes an excellent tem-plate, but good quality plywood of the same thickness can be used. Allow room for holding the template during dipping; attach a string loop at the top to hang it up with during the cooling process.

If you are using a wooden template, first soak it in water, then wipe off any excess.

The quantities given for this project are sufficient to make a large quantity of candles. This amount of wax is required so as to fill the dipping cans. Any wax that you do not use, may be reheated and used again at a later dated.

Begin by dividing the wax in half and transferring each half into separate dipping cans. Add chalky white dye to one of the cans, and a coloured dye to the other.Heat the wax .

Floating candles

Dip and carve wax can be made into beautiful floating candles. Add a little perfume to create a stunning scented centrepiece for a special occasion. First melt the wax and prime the wicks.

Beeswax sheets

These candles are made from preformed honeycomb sheets, which are beautifully textured. They are simple to make, and add elegance and a touch of class to any dinner table.

Beeswax sheets are approximately 300 x 200mm (12x 8in) in size. They are workable at room temperature, although in cold weather they may need to be held near a heater for a few minutes until they soften, or you could use a hairdryer. Natural sheets are available in creamy white to rich medium brown; and dyed sheets can also be bought in a variety of colours.

Column candles

Beeswax sheet candles are simple to make. A sheet of wax will make a candle 300mm (12in) high and 20mm (¾in) in diameter. This wax is best worked at a warm room temperature and candles should be rolled on a damp surface. You will need a beeswax wick, which is round, not flat like those used with paraffin wax candles.

Spiral candles

You can make a spectacular spiral candle by simply using a triangle instead of a rectangle of beeswax.

Decorative candles

Beautiful decorated candles can be made easily, using just a few simple techniques. The surface of a candle can be embellished by painting, stencilling, carving, or by inserting corrugated card into the mould. You can also cast candles in sand. The candle must be set and cool before applying any Decoration. Always follow the manufacturers' instructions when using any of the products for decoration. When using the spray paints, work in a well-ventilated area, and never use them near a naked flame.

Sand candle

Beautiful candles can be created from shapeless sand and wax-this is simple candlemaking at its very best. For sheer flickering, glowing effects, nothing compares with a sand candle, as the light soaks through the textured outer layer.

Stencilled candles

Use a repeat pattern to create delicate effects. Stencils are available from most craft suppliers and they can be used to create borders or motifs.

Before you begin, check that the stencil you have chosen will cover the surface of the candle, then fix the stencil in place with tape. Follow the manufacturer's instructions and lightly coat the surface with paint. Do not worry about a smooth finish-textured effects can be attractive, especially in candlelight.


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About NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES

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NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. Its various services are: Pre-feasibility study, New Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Preparation of Project Profiles and Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Studies, Market Surveys and Studies, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Reports, Identification and Selection of Plant and Machinery, Manufacturing Process and or Equipment required, General Guidance, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial projects and industry.

NPCS also publishes varies technology books, directory, databases, detailed project reports, market survey reports on various industries and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by Indian and overseas professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

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