Confectionery in a broader sense implies the preservation of sweet meat preparation in the form of candies, caramels, chocolate, processed cocoa products and traditional Indian confections. India is a country with a collection of wide range of different cultures and many festivals and occasions are being celebrated in different parts of the nation and confectioneries play a major role in those special occasions. Therefore, the confectionery industry in this country has got a huge potential and this sector has grown recently in the India with the entry of many foreign companies. Special emphasis has been made on describing the various process parameters and equipments used with the help of process diagrams wherever necessary.
This major content of this book are confectionery ingredients, flavour, gelatinizing agents, gums, glazes, waxes, traditional Indian confections, manufacturing processes and formulations of confections, nutritive value of confectionery products. This book also describes about the science and technology of chocolate and confectionery, packaging of confectionery products, quality control, future confectionery industry etc.
Apart from these it also contains details of cooking techniques, formulae, processes. The incorporation of flavours and essences, permitted colours used quality control aspects along with sources of plant, machinery and raw material. This book is an invaluable resource for research centers, professionals, entrepreneurs and end users in academic and industry working on the subject.
Future of Confectionery Industry
From all the above discussion, we can conclude that confectionery Industry is a vast and Rich Industry which had been there in the past and it would definetely be there in the future in a more refined. skilled and grand manner. It is one industry which keeps on growing and manufacturing lot of new food items with already available raw materials. For example-The source and quality of the basic raw material of all chocolate. Cocoa, has been changing dramatically over the period new regions such as Malaysia have expanded as place of manufacturing of chocolate industry. New regions have added new flavours to the chocolate products.
Many changes have occured in the area of processing also. In the field of roasting, the roasting of whole beans has been replaced by or even cocoa mass roasting. The thin film or batch devices developed to reduce the conching times or change the flavour of the chocolate.
The installation of advanced computer control and instrumentation has increased the output of food items. The public perception of the food value or harmful effects of certain products was considered a problem for the future of the industry.
The Marketing of Confectionery
To manufacture a better product than competitors; to distribute it widely; and to advertise it so that people know it is there.
With one notable omission, no better summary of the marketing function in confectionery terms has ever been stated.
No confectionery product will survive if it is not formulated to eat well. Given this, a product must be designed, or re-designed from time to time, fulfil the function or functions required by an identified market. Regular market research on the numbers and classes of purchasers and consumers, on the products they buy and eat, and on where and when the purchasing and eating takes place, will provide an overall information on which marketing decisions can be taken, from detailed changes to be made to formulation or price of an existing product to the choice of new markets and new products.
Within the firm a new product, or an improvement to an existing product can arise in two ways. In any from these are as fowls food chemist can bring forward a new combination of basic food materials, flavours, or colours, for which a potential set of consumers might subsequently be identified by product development specialists. These specialists can identify some market sector worthy of attention, for which the food chemist can attempt to formulate a product. To help in product development, it is standard market research practice to seek out those sectors of the buying and eating population in adequaely covered by existing lines, or where competition is non-existent or weak. By a succession of product tests on potential consumers the concept and formula can be revised, culminating in a full-scale test involvinv every aspect of commercial selling, including price, trade terms, and advertising, on which the final decision can be taken.
The final Product to be delivered will have resulted from consideration of a wide variety of factors, including:
- The fundamental rules on taste and texture related to the chosen market
- The primary function of the product : energy-giving versus hightaste/low-volume, own consumption, sharing, or gift, and preferably stardding two or more of these factors.
- Portion size or sizes, and the number of units to be offered in each pack size
- Price per unit weight and unit price.
The whole area of product style has to be kept in mind covering the individualized packaging, display charactereistics and advertising, each of which will have to be consistent with external requirements, such as:
- Relevant economic and social characteristics of the chosen market
- The efficiency of packaging in transit and store
- Legal requirements on formulation and labelling.
Costings of the very product will be made and related to expected selling prices, while the form, content and media to be employed for advertising will have been determined almost as early as the product design. One quite jfundamental decision in this area will have been taken-whether a generic product name or a collective house name.
For a product to be sold in many countries, developers have to be aware that no two national systems of distribution are alike either in numbers of outlets per head or in types of outlets selling confectionery. In most Western countries, jlarge self-service stores take a substantial proportion of the trade. Although not important in numbers, also common to advanced countries is the high class shop selling highly-priced, mainly chocolate confectionery Examples of types of outlets of local importance are :
- In the USA, small convenience stores, a growing number of which are attached to gasoline stations
- In Australia, the milk bar
- In Britain, the specialist shop retailing newspapers, periodicals, cigarettes, and greetings cards as well as chocolate and sugar confectionery.
In developing countries outlets for confectionery are usually spread out with decreasing density from the major commercial centres, with a large proportion of market stalls and itineerant vendors, as in Europe in earlier centuries.
In the case of products designed for mass consumption and for energy giving, a second strong influence on sales through retail outlets lies in the Advertising. Much research has been carried out in this field, and it is common ground that items should be on open display, ready to be picked up by the purchaser, that the number of display facings may be important, and that the facings should never be allowed to be empty. The sales effectiveness of display is also affected by finding the best situation for the display feature in the store-and of course, the style of the shop itself is important, its location, cleanliness, and general attractiveness. Each major manufacturer around the world will seek to influence retailers to construct and maintain displays to recommended standards.
Advertising plays an important part in the sale of confectionery. For mass production lines, television is the principal medium wherever it is available. It is expensive yet cost-effective, but prolonged campaigns cannot be mounted by medium-and small-sized firms, which must rely on other media like press or radio,or else allow for the imbalance by increasing the other elements of expenditure on marketing. Large-turnover confectionery brands are advertised more widely than most other foods, but except at the time of launch of a new product, the cost of advertising seldome amounts to more than 5% of turnover, and this is quickly balanced by the reduced costs which result from the effectivencess, both in awareness and propensity to purchase, which results from spending on advertising. For a branded product, advertising, packaging and display are all interlinked, each being planned to enhance the effects of the other two.
Confectionery Processes and Formulations
In the recent years, the confectionery industry has seen great changes. The process of manufacture have under gone many developments, Specifically in the methods of manufacturing small pieces and bars and their packaging, although the basic formulation remains the same.
The special solubility properties of sugar (sucrose) is used in many confectionery processes either on its own or combined with other sugars like glucose syrup (corn syrup) and invert sugar.
SUMMARY OF CONFECTIONERY PROCESSES
1. Rolling and Cutting :
This is probably the oldest method of producing bars and pieces, mostly from plastic products like caramel, fudge, nougat, and various pastes. The confection, in the right plastic condition, because of either its moisture, its fat content, or its temperature, is first fed through rollers to produce a slab of the required thickness. This slab is then fed to knife cutters to produce wide strips that are subsequently cut into narrow bars or small units. In a modern development of this principle, the hot product is fed to "iced" rollers enablingthe production of multiple-layered slabs. The slabs are continuously cut into strips that pass over a spreader and are then cut into bars or small pieces. An example of this process is the Sollich Conbar system.
(2) Casting or Depositing :
This method is applied to hard candy, fondants, jellies, some caramels and fudge, marshmallows, and other products that can be obtained in a liquid state.
(3) Hard Candy :
Certain types may be deposited as liquid at around 150oC (320oF) into metal molds the surfaces of which are coated with a "release agrnt."
Conbar Sheeting and Cutting System (Design is Regularly Updated)
The machine is provided with chilled rollers that permit direct feeding from the cooking unit to the slab forming units. The slabs, after forming and layering, are conveyed to a cooler and conventional cutters and spreaders followed by enrobing.
The machine is provided with chilled rollers that permit direct feeding from the cooking unit to the slab forming units. The slabs, after forming and layering, are conveyed to a cooler and conventional cutters and spreaders followed by enrobing.
Fondants, Jellies, Marshmallows-These are usually cast into starch molds. The principle is described under "Fondants." More recent developments have been the automatic depositing and release of fondants and some other confections from metal molds (Cadbury-Baker Perkins) and the depositing of caramels and toffees into silicone rubber molds (Baker Perkins). Silicone rubber has unique nonstick properties as well as being resistant to the relatively high temperatures of high boiled confections.
(4) Die Forming :
This method is applied almost exclusively to hard candy and some caramels and toffee. It includes normal, flavoured pieces, filled pieces (bonbons), and "pulled" candy.
The principle is to cool the boiled syrup under controlled conditions until it is plastic. In this state, it is reduced to a "rope," which is fed to machine dies that press the rope into pieces that usually have some special form or pattern. These pieces are immediately fed to a cooler and a wrapping machine.
A modification of this principle is applied to certain caramels and chewy candy. Here the rope is similarly produced but it is fed to a cut-and-wrap machine, which, by means of a high-speed rotary knife, cuts small pieces off the rope.
(5) Hard Candy :
Common hard candies are lemon drops, lollypops, china balls etc. Essential basis of these products are sugar. These candies can be identified by their hard brittle texture. A water solution mixed with sugar is boiled in an open bowl or under vacuum until the expected consistency is attained. Certain types may be deposited as liquid at around 150oC (302oF) into metal molds the surfaces of which are coated with a "release agent". Hard candies can be directly molded with a minimum of moisture.
The manufacturing process of this confectionery product remains same although there are various recipes of different varieties of candies.
First, the sugar is heated with water in a copper pan, stirring occasionally. After boiling syrup, glucose is added but stirred until it has dissolved. Then a cover is placed on pan and is allowed to boil in this way for about 5 minutes. The cover is removed and a thermometer is placed in the boiling sugar. When the thermometer records 149oC, it is removed. The pan is taken out of the stove and is stirred in the sliced butter. The pan is again replaced and is brought to boil. Again the pan is removed. Flavour is added and the baton is poured into frame of an oiled, water-cooled slab. It is
Stucj Candy Peppermint
cut into shape by frame cutters. In the open fire boiling process a certain amount of caramelisation takes place which imparts a characteristic flavour to the product. For mass production, the mix is passed as thin film over heated coils in a steam jacketed cooking tube, then to a revolving cooling table, wherefrom to drop rollers.
For making candies with the drop roller machine the above flavoured and coloured mass is made up into a number of lumps for easy handling. Each of the lumps are then flattened out to approximately uniform thickness, and the breadth of the sheet is kept about 7 inches which is equal to the length of the drop rollers. These warm and soft sheets are fed into the hand and as the sheet passes between the rollers, bearing the half models of the design, it is at once converted into a batch of symmetrical drops. The upper and lower half of each drop are molded by the corresponding hollows of the upper and lower rollers. Sheets of drops which come out of the machine are spread on the big tables and are allowed to cool. When cold these are slightly topped on the table when they break up into pieces and drops having perfect shaping will be obtained.
Formulations used for manufacturing hard candies are
How to Take Temperture
Power Operated Drop Roller Machine
<th colspan='2' align='center'> Formula A<th colspan='2' align='center'>Formula B
|Sugar||25 kilos||Sugar||25 kilos|
|Liquid glucose||5 kilos||Water ||25 kilos|
|Water||25 kilos||Cream of tartar ||6 tea spoonful|
|Cooking temp.||330oF||Cooking temp ||320oF|
Lollypops : Toy candies or lollypops are made with a small hand press having two or three dies, for different shapes. Manufacture of these candies is a time consuming operation and should only be attempted when a good demand exists. The soft mass is immediately wrapped in rubber sheets to conserve its heat and to keep in plastic form. While wrapping in rubber sheet, one end is kept open from which the operator takes small bits out of the mass, the bit kept in the die of lollypop machine, together with a small thin stick of bamboo and upper portion of the die is pressed. The mass forms into the shape engraved in the die and comes out with a portion of bamboo stick embedded in it.
|Citric acid||2 oz|
|Colour||2 tea spoon full|
Manufacturing Process-Sugar, water and glucose are heated in a copper pan till sugar and glucose are dissolved. When it starts boiling a cover is placed on the pan and a thermometer is fitted to it. When thermometer records 165oC, the pan is removed from the fire and allowed it to cool, and other ingredients are added with constant stirring.
China Balls-China balls are round ball shaped hard candies. Each ball having marble like streak of several colours.
Manufacturing Process :
Sugar syrup cooked to 320oF is poured on to greased cooling slab and edges are folded to make it somewhat colored. Several small umps are cut from it with a sharp scissors and a separate colour is mixed in each lump. Now a somewhat bigger lump is taken which is not coloured. The lump is pulled several times on a hook till it gets a white and shining surface. It is made into a rope like thread in hands, at the same time other colored lumps are made into thread-like shape and
Lolly Pop Press
joined with the above white rope, keeping same space between coloured threads. The whole is now rolled between palms to make a long rope taking care not to twist it. Now pieces of about one foot length are cut from the long rope. Three pieces are kept in the machine at equal distances and the upper portion of the machine is moved back and forth. Beautiful coloured china balls will come out of the machine.
Lozenges : Lozenges are prepared by cold mixing of icing sugar, gum Arabic, gelatin or stearingand flavouring materials. Two types of lozenges are produced. Plain lozenges are made by cutting pieces from a sheet of dough and drying them in air. Cut lozenges are made from mixtures are rolled or extruded into sheets, cut into required shapes and sizes, and hardened by heating. Colouring and flavouring materials are introduced at the time of kneading or during hardening. Compressed lozenges are
Sucker (Lollipop) Machine
prepared with steering and gelatin as binding agents. The same procedure is employed in the production of medicated products.
Lozenges should have good snap or bitterness for which thorough and intimate mixing of dough is essential. The drying temperature should not exceed 105oF, and lozenges should not be left longer than is necessary in the drying stores.
Chinaball Making Machine
Fondant : Fondant is a mixture of invert sugars prepared by heating sugar and water to a temperature of from 240o to 245oF and adding glucose or a weak acid to accelerate the inversion. Fondants have the same composition as hard sugar boiling such as sugar 60%; water 20%; and corn syrup 20%. The mixture of sugar, corn syrup and invert sugar (or cream of tartar) is cooked at 234-240oF. If the cooking is properly carried out, the syrup produced, when dropped into cold water, forms a soft ball which flattens on removal. The supersaturated solution from cooker is carefully cooled and whipped for 3-5 minutes to induce the formation of minute crystals of sucrose. It is then thinned with sugar syrup, cooking it all the time to remove the heat of crystallisation. The product is ripened or cured for 24 hours or more when the water present distributes itself uniformly throughout the mass. Acid fondants are obtained when acid is added to invert part of the sugar and glucose fondants are obtained when corn syrup is used.
Pepermint Lozenges Cutting Punch
Revolving Comeit Pan
The texture of the fondant varies according to the graining of the supersaturated sugar solution. The nature of the grains produced depends upon the degree of sucrose inversion, concentrations of dextrose and invert sugar present, cooking time and temp-erasure, manipulation of fondant mixture, addition of colloidal ingredients i.e., egg albumin and gelatin, and the period of curing or ripening.
Foot Press For Seamless Drops
All the sugar must be thoroughly dissolved before boiling. During boiling, the solution should be stirred to prevent caramelisation, it should not be stirred after boiling as it facilitates crystallisation.
VACUUM UNIT, WITH A PRECOOKING KKETTLE AND
OPEN TYPE CREAM BEATER
FORMULATINS OF MORE CONFECTIONERY ITEMS
1. Fruit and nut bars :
|Corn Syrup||3 lbs|
|Raw almonds||1 lb|
|Glazed cherries||1 lb|
|Sliced coconut||8 oz|
|Cinanminor pearls||2 oz|
Process-The slab is greased and lined with iron bars 3 feet long, 4 inches wide, and 1Â¼ inches high. The fruits and nuts and the coconut are mixed and filled into the spaces between the bars. the red pearls are sprinkled on top.
The sugar, corn syrup and water are placed in a copper pan on the stove until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, it is covered and allowed to steam for a few minutes. The sides are washed down and a thermometers placed in the batch which is cooked to 290 degree F. The candy is then poured out evenly on the fruits and nuts on the slabs and allowed to cool for a few minutes. It is then loosened with a large knife, sliced with a sharp knife, and after cooling wrapped in moisture proof cellophane. It is then packed into tins.
This batch will yield approximately 20 pounds of candy.
2. Fruit punch chocolates :
|Fresh 18% light cream||16 lb|
|Salt||2 tea spoonful|
|Malted corn syrup||3 lb|
|Marshmallow whip||3 lb|
|Melted Bitter chocolate||3 lb|
|Assorted Diced Fruits||2 lb|
|Chopped pecans||2 lb|
|Roman punch flavour||3 tea spoonful|
|Invertase||2 tea spoonful|
The sugar, honey, cream and salt are placed in a copper pan on the stove and stirred until dissolved. The sides are washed down and stirring is continued. The batch is cooked until it forms a rather soft ball, or until it registers 242oF. The melted corn syrup is stirred rapidly to about 100oF. The marshmallow and chocolate are added, the beater is set in motion, and the fruits, nuts, flavour and invertase are added. Operation of the beater is continued until the batch is creamed to a lump. It is then allowed to sweat back for 10 minutes and then kneaded until soft and put through a cut roll machine. The small centers are coated with high quality milk chocolate and after they are set, they are packed in the usual manner.
This formula will yield approximately 55 pounds of centers, or 75 pounds of hand dipped chocolates.
3. Butter Creams Chocolate
|Sugar||3 tea spoonful.|
|Salt||3 tea spoonful|
|Marshmallow whip||2 lbs.|
|Vanilla Flavour||2 tea spoonful|
|Invertase||2 tea spoonful|
|Melted Bitter chocolate||4 lbs.|
The sugar, water and cream of tartar and placed in copper pan on the stove and stirred until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, it is covered and allowed to steam for a few minutes. The sides are washed down and a thermometer is placed in the batch is stirred continuously while being roasted.
Continuous Process For Manufacture of Soft Candy
Soft candies are prepared by continuous process which comprises the following steps :
- Ingredients such as sugar, glucose, fat, gelatin and water were mixed and quickly concentrated to avoid formation of inverted sugar and was formed a homogeneous mass, which was free flowing at high temperature.
- The free flowing mass was cooled to a paste consistency.
- Mixing, further homogenization under pressure, and shaping into a paste web, was done.
- The paste web was cooled to an intermediate temperature below the temperature of the paste and the room temperature.
- The mass was further mixed and homogenized under pressure and was extruded into a shape of rod of suitable size for packaging.
- The rod was cooled substantially to room temperature and cut into suitably sized candy units.
Continuous Process for Manufacture of Soft Candy
Flow Sheet For Continuous Process of Soft Candy Manufacturing
Addition of colouring matter, flavouring agents and acidulating agent was done at any stage in the sequential steps, under such conditions that the product was satisfactorily distributed through the mass so as to provide a homogeneous paste.
Automatic soft Candy Manufacturing Process
|Code No.||Process Equipment|
|108||Volume metering system|
From the silo sugar is fed to dissolver along with water, glucose and steam. The solution from the dissolver is fed to stock tank. A solution of gelatin and water is prepared in the mixer and fed to stock tank as shown in figure. Bottom stock tank contains fat, and upper 3 small stock tank contains coloring matter and flavouring agent. The sugar syrup, glucose, fat, gelatin solution and the colouring and flavouring materials from the respective stock tanks are fed to volume metering systems which feed the required amount of each component to the subsequent portions of the system. A sugar syrup blend, gelatin solution and fat are fed to a tin film condenser. This condenser concentrates the mixture of components to a paste of desired concentration. Colour is added prior to concentration. To avoid the invert sugar formation excessively, it is necessary to concentrate the mixture in a short period.
The concentrated paste at 130oC temperature is discharged from the concentrator-and fed to a feeding chute, which discharges onto the external surface of a rotating drum. Cooling of drum is done by a flow of water through the interior. The paste is spread on the drum by a doctor blade, in order to cool the paste to approximately 70 degree C so as to provide a crystallization in the paste. On the other side of drum there is another doctor blade which strips the paste web from the drum and directs it to the mixer extruder. This mixer extruder preferably has a double wall and stirrer blade which is effective both for blending and stretching of the paste in the mixer. At this time this flavouring agent from metering system and acidulating agents from feeder are added. The paste temperature will increase to at least 70oC. The paste after the blending time is removed by the feed screw which homogenizes and pushes it through extruder. This extruder feeds onto a belt cooler, which is cooled by cold water. The web from the belt is stripped by blade and ed to further extruder. In this extruder paste is further homogenized and comes out in the shape of rod. This is then passed through cooler and is discharged to cutting machine. Thereafter the candy can be packaged and bagged.
Carbonated candy is a hard candy type containing carbon dioxide gas. It produces an entertaining popping sensation.
|Corn Syrup||8.700 kgs|
|Food colour||8 mgs|
|Artificial Flavour||31.5 ml|
Process of Manufacture :
A thick viscous melt is prepared by mixing sucrose, corn syrup, water and food colour in respective quantity in a kettle. This mixture is then heated to 320oF to remove water. This viscous mixture is charged to a preheated autoclave and desired flavour is added to it. After sealing the autoclave, carbon dioxide at a pressure of 600 Psi is introduced to the headspace of autoclave. An agitator mounted vertically through the top portion of the autoclave is to run for 4-5 minutes.
A jacketed cooling tube is vertically mounted adjacent to the autoclave and a jacketed line (1 inch) with a ball valve at its midpoints is connected to the bottom of the autoclave with the cooling tube. The ball valve is kept closed. The vessels are pressurized to 600 Psi with CO2 and is allowed to complete the mixing. The ball valve is opened. Then pressure in the autoclave is increased to 650 Psi and a needle valve which vents to atmosphere is slowly opened. So that all the viscous melt is transferred to cooling tube. Then ball valve and needle valve are closed. Cold water is circulated in the cooling tube jacket to reduce the temperature of product to 70oF. The product exists as the solid gas containing matrix at this temperature. The cooling tube is vented to atmosphere after cooling water and gas line are closed. This sudden pressure change in the tubes causes the matrix to shelter into granular particles of uniform size. This resultant granular product is a hard candy containing carbon dioxide gas.
SEED CONFECTIONS (POPCORN BALLS)
Popcorn balls are seed or nut type confection which can easily be stored, heated, handled and applied to the popcorn without adhering to the hands.
|Corn syrup (Glucose)||1Â½ Cups|
|Corn starch||30 gms|
|Vanilla extract||2 tsp|
|Citric acid and flavour extract may be added if desired.|
|Popped Corn||14 Quarts|
In order to prepare this confection gelatin is dissolved in water by heat treatment. To this solution sugar is added and is heated to bring the mixture to a rolling boil then removed from burner and glucose and corn starch is added.
This is mixed well and cooked at 200oF. To this margarine is added and allowed to cool. The remaining ingredients with flavour and colour are then added to it. The resulting confection is then packaged in heat resistant transparent envelopes and cooled for storage. Whenever required, the pouch confections are placed in boiling water up to melting and poured onto the freshly popped corn and stirred well to mix hot confection with the corn. Then popcorn is shaped into balls known as popcorn balls.
Machine for Making Cotton Candy
Cotton candy is a type of candy extremely light in weight, a portion of it is like a feather or a thin piece of cotton. Its production requires fully automatic machineries.
It is prepared by extrusion process. The molten sugar is extruded through small aperture in the cylindrical wall of a rapidly rotating extrusion head situated in the center of a collection pass. The sugar strands are collected and bundled onto a stick or rod by continuously twisting the stick and passing it around the interior of the pass. This strands stick together like cotton.
This automatic candy-making machine is accomplished by mounting one or more sugar spinning heads with collection pans adjacent to a conveyor bleat moving continuously. The bundle of sugar strands collected in the pans are fed onto the belt by rotating the collection pans. A plurality of sizing and compacting members are mounted near the top of the belt to compact the bundle of strands carried there through by the belt into a continuous bundle of previously determined cross sectional size and shape and then cutting of the compacted product into proper size and separating the sections by means of a rotating star blade cutter mounted above the conveyor belt. Then the product after cutting is automatically fed to an automatic packaging line.
Coated confections also known as pan coated confections, comfits or draggers consists of nuts or seeds, or boiled goods or chewing gum, coated with a hard glossy sugar covering. The nuts or other centers are placed in a rotating coating pan and given an under coat of gum arabic, or gelatin and sugar syrup, and a final coating of sugar. For the latter a supersaturated sugar solution is added in small quantities and the pan rotated until the moisture from the syrup evaporates and leaves a thin sugar coating on the centers. The coating process is repeated a number of times until the required size is built up. The material is dried after each coating by hot air; dusting with flour or other starchy materials facilitates drying. High grade products are covered with sugar only. The polish and smoothness of the coated goods are due to continual rubbing against one another and against the side of the pan. They are finished in a polishing pan lined with heavy wax coated canvas, dried and packed.
(a)Chewing Gum And Bubble Gum :
It is universally accepted that sucking and chewing is in fact a natural human instinct from infancy till old age. The habit of chewing in our country is mainly confined to betel and pan, whereas in western countries this instinct finds reflection in the common habit of chewing gum products. Chewing gum has proved to be a very aesthetic substitute for unaesthetic habits like smoking and chewing supari or betel nuts.
Gum chewing is also beneficial to teeth and jaw muscles and to the gums. Chewing gum has also been helpful in reliving the discomfort caused by varying air pressure during air travel.
Chewing gum and bubble gum are originally made of the prime raw material natural gum. Sugar and flavouring agents were added to make the chew more palatable. With the increase in demand for these products, and the short supply of this natural gum considerable research was undertaken and several substitutes are developed in the country.
Essential ingredients that are used in manufacturing chewing gum are the gum base either natural or non-toxic synthetic, cane sugar. The optional ingredients comprise of glycerin, malt, milk powder, chocolate, coffee, gelatin food grade, flavour permitted in PFA rules, antioxidants, preservatives and other nutrients.
Chewing gum consists of two major portions masticatory and non-masticatory. The masticatory portion usually called chewing gum lease and often includes fleer, while the non-masticatory portion consists mostly of sweetening and flavouring ingredients. For a long time natural water insoluble gums of vegetable origin, e.g., chicle, were used for the major portion of chewing gum base. Unfortunately the natural gums are subject to substantial price fluctuations as well as unpredictability of supply because of these reasons manufacturers have tried with varying degrees of success to duplicate the desirable properties of natural gums by means of synthetic resins, rubbers and other polymers. A typical chewing gum base is formulated for natural and/or synthetic gums or listeners, hydrophilic plasticizers, ester gums (elastomer solvent and hydrophobic plasticizers, oleagin plasticizer fillers, emulsifiers, pigments and additives such s antioxidants, stabilizers or preservatives. Examples of a natural gums or elastomers are belater, sorva, gutta purcha, lichi copse and eluting. Examples of synthetic gums or leastomers are polyisobutylene, isobutylene isoprene copolymer and butadiene styrene copolymer. The hydrophilic plasticizer is usually a synthetic resin)
Manufacturing process-The gum base is melted (temp 270oF) and placed in a standard dough mixer kettle equipped with sigma blades. The corn syrup and lecithin are added and mixed for 2 minutes at 200oF. At the time the mix is folding well, powdered free saccharin is added and the mixture is mixed for another 2 minutes at 200oF. Thereafter about 1/3 of the sucrose is added and the mixture is mixed for 2 minutes. The sorbitol and remaining sucrose are added, mixed for 1 minute, and then spray-dried flavour is added and the mixture is mixed for 1 minute. The gum is then discharged from the kettles, cut in 25 lb loves and allowed to cool to 90o to 120oF. is then rolled to a thickness of 0.178 cms on a standard gimped machine and scored into strips 7.26 cms wide and 41.9 cms. long, and cooled for 12 to 18 hours. The chewing gum product obtained is found to have pleasant sweet taste for up to 30 minutes and more without the bitter after taste normally associated with free saccharin acid.
|Ingredients||Parts by weight|
|2.||Corn Syrup 44o Be||17|
|3.||Powdered free saccharin and pulverized to pass through a U.S. 140 mes screen.||0.2|
|4.||Powdered sugar (sucrose)||50|
Formulation - II
(cherry flavour chewing gum)
|Ingredients||Parts by weight|
|Free Saccharin acid||0.2|
|Artificial cherry flavour||1|
|Gum Arabic coated cherry flavour||1.5|
(Spearmint flavoured chewing gum)
|Ingredients||Parts by weight|
|Gum Arabic coated flavour||1|
Formulation - IV
|Ingredients||Parts by weight|
|Corn syrup (44 dextrose equivalent)||90.0 |
|Poly oxyethylene (20)Sorbitan monostearate||0.2 |
Formulation of Sugarless Chewing Gum
|Ingredients||Parts by weight|
Formulation for Improved Shelf Life
|1.||Component||Percent by weight|
|Colour and flavour||0.7|
|2.||Component||Percent by weight|
|Colour and flavour||0.7|
|3.||Component||Percent by weight|
|Colour and flavour||0.7|
|3.||Component||Percent by weight|
|Colour and flavour||0.7|
|4.||Component||Percent by weight|
|Colour and flavour||0.7|
Center filled Gum containinga Humectant
|Cum base lb||210 lbs|
|Glucose (Corn Syrup) lb||160 lbs|
|Plasticizer lb||19 lbs|
|Sugar (A Ã—) lb||611 lbs|
|Oil of peppermint g||2,600 g|
|50% by weight glycerin and H2O mixture,g||2,725 g |
|Titanium dioxide, g||850 g|
Industry in India :
Though the confectionery industry had made considerable strides, the chewing gum industry is still in its infancy. Until 1970 there was no unit manufacturing chewing gum bases and the entire gum base was imported. However in the early 70s, two units started manufacturing the gum base with foreign technical know-how, and thereafter the chewing gum industry has made some progress in India. The supply of gum base is not adequate enough to achieve greater expansion and progress in the industry.
The chewing gum industry requires sophisticated plant and machinery such as mixers, extruders, rolling and scoring machines, coating equipments and wrapping and packaging machinery. The entire operations should be done under controlled temperature and moisture conditions, and naturally control and air conditioning is absolutely necessary.
The technical know-how and manufacturing process applicable in the chewing gum industry are entirely different from those of the confectionery industry though certain operations such as wrapping and packaging are common. The gum base, which is the basic raw material for the chewing gum industry, has to conform to strict technical specifications to make the products a "good chew". the gum base to be incorporated into the finished products should melt at body temperature; this essential feature makes gum products easily susceptible to climatic vagaries, and the packaging used should afford sufficient shelf-life to the product till it reaches the consumer. In addition to the common raw materials like sugar, liquid glucose and food colours, this industry requires special flavours which will linger as long as the product is chewed. Certain additional preservatives and chemicals have also to be incorporated.
Conclusion-The future of the chewing gum industry depends very much on a reconsideration of the policy of reservation of this industry for the small-scale sector.
The words "Toffee" and "Caramels" have no precise definitions. They include a variety of products varying from hard butterscotch to soft eating caramels. Caramels and toffee contain milk and butter in addition to the usual ingredients, the former being softer in the commoner varieties, butter is partly or wholly replaced by coconut or cacao butter or margarine. In the manufacture of caramels, butter or milk are emulsified in a homogenizer to a creamy product and added along with other ingredients, icing sugar, corn syrup, corn flour or cashew powder to the boiling pan fitted with mechanical stirrers.
PROCESS FLOW SHEET FOR MANUFACTURE OF TOFFEE
powder jto the boiling pan fitted with mechanical stirrers.
Adjustable Toffee Cutter
How to cut a Toffee by Toffee Cutter
The manufacture of toffee and caramel can be divided into four stages :
- Preparation of the raw materials.
- Cooking to the desired consistency.
- Coiling and cutting into shapes.
For preparation of the raw materials all the ingredients are mixed in a mixing machine. The chief function of this stage is to bring about emulsification of the fat.
Formulation for a quality toffee is :
|Liquid glucose||8 lbs|
|Salt||1 tes spoonful|
|Hardened coconut||4 oz|
|Malted milk extract||1 table spoonful|
The mixer used for this purpose generally consists of a horizontal cylindrical vessel. Inside which rotates a number of arms fixed along the length of a horizontal axies. Babbles are fixed to break the flow. For loading there is a lid on the top, and for unloading a large diameter hole in the bottom fitted with a closing plate. In some case, raw materials are prepared in the boiling pan prior to cooking.
In the boiling pan the mixture is cooked rapidly. The temperature of cooking is adjusted between (260o-280oF) The steam pressures required for toffee boiling is upwards of 90 bl.
The toffee from the pans is cooled by pitching on to rectangular (usually 3 feet by 6 feet) cast-iron table through which cold water can be circulated. its treatment on the tables varies according to the method of cutting to be adopted. In many cases the toffee is passed through rollers or by "leveling" he still liquid toffee on the tables. If it is to be made into slab toffee, steel frames are forced into the cooling mass and removed when the toffee has set.
The toffee can be brought to the correct thickness by the use of rollers. The machine used is called a 'break'. The toffee is poured on the tubes, not leveled, but allowed to cool until plastic, then passed through the "break" and treated exactly as described for leveled toffee.
In the case of roll pieces, the yare put into automatic cut and wrap machines which produce 400 pieces of toffee a minute, wrapped in over strip-aluminum foil laminated with waxed paper, cellulose film of waxed paper.
Formulation For Different Kinds of Toffee :
1. PLAIN TOFFEE
|Salt butter||1 kgs.|
Process-The sugar with water is heated in a boiling pan with occasionally stirring. Glucose is added when the solution starts boiling, with continuous stirring until it has dissolved. Then cover is placed on the pan.
It is allowed to boil in this way for about 5 minutes. Then the cover is removed and a thermometer is placed in the boiling sugar. When the thermometer records 149oC, it is removed and is placed in ajar or other vessel containing hot water which should be standing by the side of the stove. The pan is lifted from the fire and stirred in the sliced butter. The pan is again placed on the stove and is boiled. After some time the flavour and colour are added in to the pan and the whole mass is oared into a frame on an oiled slab. Then it is cut into appropriate size and wrapped in waxed paper.
2. BUTTER TOFFEE
|Sugar white||10 kgs.|
|Sugar brown||2 kgs.|
Rum Butter Toffee
3. COCONUT TOFFEE
|Sugar brown||12 kgs.|
|Coconut chips||3 kgs.|
|Essence coconut||15 c.c.|
4. MILKE TOFFEE
|Full cream sweetened Condensed milk||3 kgs. |
|Salted butter||1 kgs.|
|Butter milk flavour||15 c.c.|
The butter is melted in a pan, then gradually stirred in the milk to form a paste. In another pan sugar syrup is prepared by boiling sugar and glucose in watered to 151.50oC. The paste of butter and milk is added to the sugar syrup gradually with constant stirring, then the flavour is incorporated. Finally it is poured into slab to cool and is finished as for other toffees.
5. MALT TOFFEE
|Sugar brown||9 kgs.|
|Full cream sweetened Condensed milk||8 kgs. |
|Salt butter||3 kgs.|
|Malt extract||3 kgs.|
|Essence vanilla||15 c.c.|
6. PLAIN CHEWING TOFFEE
|Salt butter||1 kgs.|
|Full cream sweetened Condensed milk||4.5 kgs. |
|Sheet gelatin||80 gms.|
|Butter milk flavour||22 c.c.|
Generally a large pan is required in making chewing toffee, since the gelatin is apt to make the bulk forth and rise during the boiling process.
The gelatins soaked in the water until it is soft. Sugar is added to it. Then it is stirred over gentle heat until the sugar is completely dissolved. It follows the addition of glucose and butter and boiling to 121oC. Milk is incorporated gradually and is continued to boil with constant agitation until the temperature reaches 185o-188oC. Care should be taken of confectionery for which a moderate temperature is required. Then the mass is poured on to the slab to cool, flavour and colour are added when it is cool enough, the hook is pulled over as long as it is possible. Then it is removed to the slab Andes kneaded well to press out the air. It is rolled out to the desired thickness. When cooled, it is marked and cut into suitable sizes and packed in waxed paper.
|Full cream sweetened Condensed milk||3 kgs. |
|Cocoa Butter||2 kgs.|
|Cocoa powder||750 gms.|
|Essence vanilla||7 c.c.|
Process-Cocoa butter is melted and is worked out in the chocolate or cocoa powder to form a smooth paste using as little heat as possible. The sugar, glucose and water are boiled to 118.5oC. It is gradually added to milk with continuous stirring. The batch is allowed to boil before adding the chocolate paste. When the temperature reaches 135o-138oC, flavour is added and the whole mass is poured into the prepared slab and is finished as other toffees.
8. PISTACHIO TOFFEE
|Corn syrup||10 lbs.|
|Coconut butter||8 oz.|
|Salt||1 tes spoonful|
|18% fresh cream||qt.|
|Choppened pecans||3 qt.|
|Pistachio flavour Green colour||3 tea spoonful |
The sugar, corn syrup, coconut butter, salt, and fresh cream are placed in a copper pan on the stove and tired until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, butter is added. The batch is stirred constantly and cooked until it forms a ball when tasted in cold water. The batch is then coloured green, the nuts and flavour are stirred in, and it is then poured out on a greased, cold slab between ironbars. The edges are folded together and the batch is cooled rapidly until it is firm enough to handle. It is then cut the desired size and wrapped.
9. EVERTON TOFFEE
|Water||3 cup full.|
|Cream of tartar||Â½ tea spoon|
Taffy & Toffee Wrapping Machine
10. LICORICE TOFFEE
|Cane sugar||15 lbs|
|Licorice syrup||8 lbs|
|Cocoa butter||1 lb|
|Corn syrup||13 lbs|
11. MOLASSES TOFFEE
|Molasses (High grade)||1 gallon|
|Brown sugar||4 lbs|
|Cream of tartar||1 tea spoon|
12. MARMALADE TOFFEE
The chocolate industry in India is of comparatively recent origin. Handmade fancy chocolate confectionery prepared from imported chocolate covertures had earlier been catering to the sophisticated taste of European population and of well-to-do Indians for some years and quite a few confectioners became household's words in the big cities in India. However chocolate was made all the way from cocoa beans for the first time in India during World War II. A small beginning was made during the early part of the war when imports had come to a standstill and the requirement of cocoa powder as well as chocolate were met by indigenous products made in a small company in Pune. Though small, the factory was well equipped with a destroyer, ball roaster, winnowing triple stone mills, granite roller refiners, stone bed conches and molding plant. Quality, particularly as it relates to particle size, may not have been up to today's standards, but was certainly good and acceptable.
Chocolate is a flavour that is enjoyed the world over and India in no exception. The Indian industry does produce a high quality cocoa powder for use in other products and to impart a chocolate flavour to other confections, foods and medications. It produces a beverage-grade powder also which is sold as such or in its extended form of drinking chocolate. However, such production is limited by the extent to which the industry can consume cocoa butter in making chocolate and chocolate confectionery. A substantial portion of the cocoa powder produced is used to make chocolate-flavoured malted milk food.
Chocolate is a first class confection and at the same time a first class food. It is known that the Indian diet is deficient in energy content. The per capita consumption of fat is also very poor. In these circumstances the nutritive value of chocolate, which contains milk solid, sugar and native cocoa fat or cocoa butter, as easily assailable vegetable fat with a melting point of 29.5oC is
Chocolate Melting and Mixing Kettle
pointed up. Cocoa powder also, with the mildly stimulant action of the Theo bromine, the cocoa butter content and a high mineral value, is an excellent food beverage.
Assorted chocolates in fancy packages are very popular the year round. Chocolate centers consist mostly of creams, chewy and hard masses, fruit jellies, and marmalades. Fruits and nuts usually top the assortment. In making and preparing these centers the confectioner should be quality minded. Whether they are starch cast of hand rolled, all creams should be made of fresh and pure ingredients under sanitary conditions. Only pure flavour should be used in the centers. It is best to use pure extract rather than cheap imitations. In making cream centers, fresh fruit pulps supported by pure fruit flavours give best results. Hard and chewy centers should be made with fresh cream and butter and high-grade nuts flavoured with pure oil and extract. The finest glared and preserved fruits should be coated with the best dark sweet vanilla chocolate and the best pure milk chocolate.
Chocolate coating is a skilled practice. It takes endurance and patience. Time and long practice to learn how to do it properly.
1. CHOCOLATE TOFFEE
|Corn syrup||10 lbs.|
|Coconut butter||8 oz.|
|Salt||1 table spoonful|
|Fresh cream||2 qt.|
|Evaporated milk||2 lbs.|
|Bitter chocolate||2Â½ lb.|
|Vanilla flavour||3 tea spoonful|
Process-The sugar, corn syrup, salt, coconut butter, and fresh cream are placed in a copper pan on the stove and stirred until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, the evaporated milk is stirred in and the stirrings continued while the butter is added. The batch is cooked until it forms a medium ball when tested in cold water. The chocolate is then stored in and, while it melts, the vanilla is mixed in. The batch is then poured out on a greased, cold slab and the edges are folded together. The batch is cooled rapidly and, when it is firm enough to handle, it is cut and wrapped as usual.
2. CHOCOLATE COVERED BUTTER TOFFEE
|Dairy butter||3Â½ lbs.|
|Coconut butter||2Â½ lbs.|
|Salt||2 tea spoonful|
|Corn syrup||5 lbs.|
|Evaporated milk||5 lbs.|
|Oil of lemon||Â¼ tea spoonful|
The butter, salt and coconut butter are placed in a copper pan on the stove over low heat and stirred until melted. The sugar and corn syrup are added and stirred until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, it is covered and allowed to steam for a few minutes. The sides are washed down and a thermometer is placed in a batch, which is cooked to 290oC. The batch is then reduced with evaporated milk until it forms a soft ball when tested in cold water. The flavours are stirred in and mixed through well. The batch is poured out on a cold, greased slab between iron bars and spread out to about Â¼ inch thickness. Then it is allowed to cool and, when hard enough, it is sliced and cut into small oblongs. These are coated with dark sweet vanilla chocolate. After they have been allowed to set in the trays, they are packed in the usual manner. The batch will yield approximately 60 pounds of chocolates.
3. CHOCOLATE ANNEX CARAMELS
|Corn syrup||15 lbs.|
|Coconut butter||1 lb|
|Salt||1 table spoonful|
|Fresh 18 % light cream||49 qt.|
|Evaporated milk||8 lbs.|
|Caramel paste||5 lbs.|
|Bitter chocolate (cut up)||4 lbs.|
|Vanilla flavour||3 tea spoonfuls.|
|Dipping marshmallow||3 lbs.|
The sugar, corn syrup, salt, coconut butter, and cream are placed in a large copper pan on the stove and stirred until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, The evaporated milk is stirred in gradually. Stirring is continued while the batch is cooking. The caramel paste is added and the batch is cooked until it forms a medium ball when tested in cold water. The batch is then removed to stand, and the chocolate and flavour are added and stirred until completely melted. After adding the marshmallows and mixing well, the batch is poured out on a greased slab between iron bars and spread out evenly with a palette knife. It is allowed to cool until it is hard enough to handle. Then it is passed through a sizing machine, cut into square caramels and wrapped as usual. This batch yields 48 lbs of candy.
4. CHOCOLATE CARAMEL NOUGAT ROLL
|Corn syrup||13 lbs.|
|Salt||1 table spoonful|
|Coconut butter||1 lb.|
|Fresh cream||4 qt.|
|Evaporated milk||8 lbs.|
|Bitter chocolate||3 lbs.|
|Vanilla flavour||2 tea spoonful|
|Honey Nougat||12 lbs.|
Caramel Cutting Machine
Process-The sugar, corn syrup, salt, coconut butter and cream are placed in a copper pan on the stove and stirred until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, the evaporated milk is stirred in. The stirring is continued and the batch is cooked to a medium ball when tested in cold water. The chocolate and flavour are stirred in, and the batch is poured out on a greased slab and rolled out to about 1/8 inch thickness. The 12 pounds of honey nougat are rolled out quite thin and placed on top of the caramel sheet. The batch is folded up, shaped round, and rolled out in long stick on the table. It is then cut into small rolls and packed in bonbon cups on flat caramel trays lined with waxed paper. This amount would yield approximately 46 pounds of candy.
5. CHOCOLATE HONEY TABLETS
|Corn syrup||5 lbs.|
|Bitter chocolate||2 lbs.|
|Vanilla powder||1 g|
Process-The sugar, water, and corn syrup are placed in a copper pan on the stove and stirred until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, it is covered and allowed to steam for a few minutes. The sides are washed down and a thermometer is placed in the batch, which is cooked to 332oF. The heat is turned off. After the hone, chocolate, and flavour are stirred into the batch, the heat is turned on again, and the batch is stirred and cooked for another minute. Then it is poured out on a greased slab, and the edges are folded together, while the batch is cooling. The kneading is continued until the batch is cool enough. Then, it is taken over to the spinning table in from of the batch warmer. It is then passed through a tablet roller machine and allowed to cool on the table. The tablets are broken apart and put through a sieve and packed in tins.
This batch will yield approximately 27 lbs.
6. CHOCOLATE COVERED COCONUT CARAMELS
|Corn syrup||18 lb.|
|Coconut butter||1 lb.|
|Macaroon Coconut||16 lb.|
|Vanilla flavour||4 tea spoonful|
Process-The sugar, corn syrup, coconut butter, and water are placed in a large copper pan on the stove and stirred until dissolved. When the batch begins to boil, the sides are washed down and the batch is cooked to 232oF. The flavour is added and the coconut is stirred in gradually in order to form a thick paste. The batch is then turned out on a greased slab between iron bars and spread out evenly to about Â½ inch thickness. it is allowed to cool until hard. Then it is sized, sliced and cut into small squares. These are coated with a dark vanilla sweet chocolate. After setting the caramels are packed in the usual manner. The batch will yield approximately 75 pounds of chocolates.
7. CHOCOLATE COATING CARAMELS
|Clean chocolate scrap||25 lbs.|
|Corn syrup||15 lbs.|
|Fresh light 18% cream||4 qt.|
|Evaporated milk||12 lbs.|
|Salt||1 table spoonful.|
|Vanilla flavour|| 4 tea spoonful.|
Process-The chocolate scrap and the cream are placed in a copper pan on the stove over low heat and stirred until all the chocolate scrap is dissolved. The scrap is then strained into another large copper pan, which is placed on the stove over medium heat. The batch is stirred continuously while the corn syrup and the evaporated milk are added. The batch is cooked until it forms a medium ball when tested in cold water. It is then removed from the stove and the salt and flavour are stirred in. The batch is poured out on a greased slab between iron bars and spread out evenly to approximately Â¾ inch thickness. It is allowed to cool overnight. The caramel is then sliced and cut into small squares, which are coated with milk chocolate.
8. SPECIALITY CHOCOLATES
(i) Dietetic Chocolate-This chocolate candy is prepared from the ingredients such as whole powdered milk, skimmed powdered milk, ground cocoa beans, added cocoa butter, sorbitol, flavouring agents especially vanilla, lecithin and a sweetening agent cyclamate or saccharin which provides a milk chocolate composition.
Milk Chocolate has following composition
|Whole milk powder||15|
|Skim milk powder||7|
For preparing dark chocolate, the ingredients such as cocoa beans, cocoa butter, soy flour, sorbitol, synthetic sweetener and lecithin etc. are added. The major constituent should be maintained in approximate amount as in the following formulation.
(ii) Hypoallergenic Chocolate-They hypoallergenic chocolate is prepared from cocoa powder by treating it so as to denature substantially all of the protein allergens which cause chocolate allergies. The cocoa powder with its denature protein allergen is then mixed with sugar, cocoa butter and desired flavouring additives and further heated to produce the hypoallergenic chocolate.
|Ingredients||% by weight|
These ingredients are mixed and heated for 2 days at 180oF. This is then centrifuged at 6000 g and analyzed. It will be found that most of the chocolate protein has been denatured up to the point where all of the protein allergens are denatured.
This chocolate is helpful to those persons who are allergic to chocolate. This is to be used in chocolate bars and for use as a flavouring ingredient in many food products.
CARAMELS, TOFFEES, BUTTER SCOTCH, FUDGE
These confections owe their character mainly to the presence of milk, butter and certain vegetable fats.
The principle of extrusion, developed for many nonfood products, has been applied very successfully in the confectionery industry. Atwater (1974) (Bepex-Hutt, Germany), has studied the application of the process to a variety of products, ranging from soft materials such as marsh malicious and fondant to very plastic nougats and caramels. In the process, the material to be extruded is fed to the orifice by means of multiple rollers or screws. The cross-sectional design of the orifice determines the shape of the final unit and many extruders have a series of orifices producing ropes that can be cut into either bars or small pieces. Figure 19.3 shows the cross section of a Werner-Lehara extruder with a mechanism for cutting small pieces from the ropes, and Fig. 19.4 shows a design by Desert-Loser for the extrusion of chewing gum and chewable candies.
A somewhat different form of extruder is the N.I.D. Bar Former (Fig. 19.5). The fluted roller feed is similar to other extruders but the material to be formed is delivered to a second, channeled roller. The channels are Teflon coated to ensure easy release and are shaped to give the form of bar required. Fingers help to release the ropes onto a continuous belt.
Multiple bars can be made in which two layers are extruded simultaneously. Alternatively, a bar with a center of a different confection can be made. Extrusion allies itself to other continuous methods of cooking and enrobing.
Certain precautions must be observed in the extrusion of confectionery :
1. Temperature :
The temperature of extrusion is critical, particularly with caramel and nougat where texture is closely related to temperature, and quite small changes can cause large differences in extrusion pressures. For a fairly soft caramel, temperatures ranging between 35o and 38oC (95 and 100oF) are usual but obviously a lot depends on the type of product and the exact conditions must be determined by trial. Low temperatures and high pressures will cause the safety plugs, usually provided on extrusion machines, to be ejected.
Werner Candy Extruder-Side View
2. Fat separation :
If fat separates during extrusion, it is an indication of poor emulsification. Improvement is obtained by the inclusion of an emulsifier, such as lecithin or preferably glycerol monostearate, in the recipe.
3. Collapse after extrusion :
Some products lose their shape after extrusion and strip of near-cylindrical cross sections may flatten appreciably after it has been on the belt for a short time. There are several reasons for this :
- The moisture content is too high.
- The fat has not been emulsified and possibly is too soft.
- The protein of any milk ingredient is not properly dispersed.
- In fudge or pastes, the crystal structure has not formed or may have broken down by excessive mixing after forming the crystals. This can be a very elusive defect and in continuous fudge manufacture is related to the time at which the crystallizing fondant is added prior to extrusion. Only experiment will determine the optimum conditions for particular equipment. Companies specializing in extrusion equipment have done a great deal of research into the design of machines for extrusion of confections of different consistencies. For some products, such as chewable candies and chewing gum, the roller extruder has given way to the multiple screw extruders. These processes are described elsewhere in the book.
Milk solids, when heated in the presence of water and sugars (sugar, invert, glucose), developed a characteristic flavour due to the reaction between the milk proteins and the "reducing" sugars. This is known as the Millard reaction and is described as a particular kind of "caramelization. Caramelization of a different type also occurs in sugar, glucose, and invert sugar when syrups are boiled to temperatures of 149 to 157oC (300 to 315oF). A stronger type of caramelization with yet another flavour is obtained by alkaline treatment, for example, by the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with boiling syrup at about 300oF.
The action of ammonia on certain reducing sugars also gives "caramel colour."
Butter when added to high boiled syrup is subject to some decomposition and gives a characteristic and attractive flavour. No vegetable fat used in its place gives the same result, although certain fats have been developed that go some way toward attaining the butter flavor.
Brown sugars, golden syrup, and molasses have a flavour that goes well with caramelized milk and these sugars are used a great deal in caramel recipes.
The flavour produced by heating milk solids with sugars is related to the method and time of cooking and on this point great arguments have arisen with the introduction of mechanization. Continuous processes for caramel cooking invariably resulted in loss of caramel flavour compared with batch processes. However, this lack of flavour was over come by the introduction of "caramelizes" where the continuously made caramel is held at just below cooking temperature in containers with slowly moving paddles until the extra flavour has developed. The process is still continuous, there merely is more caramel in the system.
The distinctions among caramel, toffee, and butterscotch are those of milk and fat contents, the type of fat, and the moisture content determined by degree of boiling. There are soft and hard caramels, toffees are usually hard and slightly chewy, and butterscotch is hard and brittle.
Continuous cooking and lack of flavour may be an advantage if fruit or mint-flavored caramels are produced. With these, excessive caramelization will overrule the delicate flavors.
In all the products described above, the sugars are wholly in solution in supersaturated form with the fat and milk solids fully dispersed.
Fudge, however, and certain "grained" caramels resemble fondant and a proportion of the sugar in the form of small sugar crystals is dispersed in the remaining syrup with the fat and milk ingredients.
The Milk Ingredient :
The properties and composition of milk products are discussed in a separate chapter. Their behavior in caramel manufacture is closely related to the condition of the milk proteins and dispersion of the milk fat. Changes do occur in processing liquid milk into condensed milk or milk powder.
Liquid milk is rarely used for caramel manufacture, mainly because of the large amount to water to be removed. In the manufacture of evaporated milk, this water is more efficiently removed by multiple-effect evaporators.
If liquid or evaporated milk is used for caramels, stabilizers in the form of sodium carbonate (or, where permitted, sodium phosphate or citrate) are added. This raises the pH to a level above the coagulation point (is electric point) of the milk protein.
The pH of fresh milk will drop from about 6.5 to 4.5 as it ages and surs. At the lower pH, the protein rapidly precipitates on heating (curdling).
Sweetened condensed milk is favoured by most caramel manufacturers and it can be either whole or skimmed.
Whole sweetened condensed milk contains the milk fat that adds to flavor, but sweetened skimmed condensed milk makes good caramel and vegetable fats with suitable emulsifiers can be used in place of the milk fat. Whole and skimmed milk powders are also used, but it is essential to make sure that the powder is properly dispersed before being incorporated in the caramel boil, or rough particles will appear in the finished product and the caramel will lose a lot of its "stand-up" properties due to incomplete dispersion of the protein.
The recipes for these reconstituted milks may be tailored to suit the caramel being made and it is advantageous to incorporate in the milk the entire vegetable fat ingredient of the caramel followed by good emulsification. It is useful to make these reconstituted milks with higher moisture content than standard condensed milk. They emulsify better, and it aids the solution of milk powder and assists the caramel boiling.
Reconstituted milks with high moisture content must not be stored as they will be susceptible to microbiological deterioration.
There are various procedures for milk powder reconstitution but a spray-dried powder of good solubility always must be used, whether whole milk or nonfat milk. Roller process powder is not satisfactory.
Reconstitution of Milk Powder :
The following is a typical recipe and process :
|Water||25 kg (55 lb) (35 kg (77 lbs) alternative)|
|Nonfat-milk powder (spray process) ||22 kg (48.5 lb)|
|Sugar||45 kg (99 lb)|
|Vegetable fat (melting point 32oC approx. ||8 kg (17.5 lb) or increased amount depending on caramel recipe |
|Lecithin||400 g (14 oz)|
|Sodium bicarbonate (or equivalent sodium phosphate) ||100 g (3.5 oz) (or an amount to give pH 6 to 6.5)|
Mix vigorously the water (cold), milk powder, and sodium bicarbonate. Then add the sugar and continue to mix while heating to not more than 70oC (158oF).
The fat is melted and lecithin dispersed in it. This-is then added to the milk/sugar portion and again well mixed to a temperature of 70oC.
The mixture is then put through an emulsifier or colloid mill to ensure complete dispersion. This mixture contains a high proportion of water, especially if the higher recipe amount is used. It should be used within 24 hr. Utensils or equipment used for this product must be thoroughly washed and sterilized after use.
The true confectioner maintains that there is no replacement for butter in toffees and caramels, and from a flavour standpoint this is certainly the case. It will also emulsify more readily than vegetable fats.
Many good caramels are made with vegetable fats and for many years the recognized toffee butter was hardened palm kernel oil, but with the uncertainties of fat supplies and prices, many other vegetable oils are now used. These are described under "Confectionery Fats." Most fats now purchased are well refined and it rests with the user not to spoil them by overheating during melting. This reduces their stability and may cause oxidative rancidity later. Heating the fat alone in the presence of copper will accelerate rancidity yet it is a remarkable fact that in caramel boiling with the sugars present copper pans are used successfully. However, carefully controlled tests using copper and stainless-steel pans with the same formulation do show that stainless-steel gives a product with superior shelf life.
The properties of the various types of sugar are described under "Confectionery-Sugars." The brown sugars and syrups are used in caramels to give additional flavour and can be added to replace some or all of the white granulated sugar as required.
Syrup Dissolving and Cooking :
The sugar, glucose, invert (and sometimes "scrap" syrup) may be metered into continuous dissolvers. These provide a supply of syrup of constant composition to the cooker
- Granulated Sugar Feed
- Metering Wheel
- Water Feed
- Water Pump
- Mixture of Sugar and Water
- Glucose Feed
- Feed of Other Ingredients
- Parboiled Solution of Sugar and Glucose
- Intermediate Container
- Boiling-Vapor Dischare
The cookers may be thin-film batch or vacuum. The Microfilm cooker has already been mentioned in the production of fondant. It operates with a steam pressure of 120 to 150 lb/psi. The principle of this cooker is for a thin film of syrup to be spread mechanically over the inner surface of a cylinder heated by the high-pressure steam. The rapid heat exchange to the thin film evaporates the water very quickly from the syrup and the cooked syrup is then discharged onto a water-cooled rotating table with an aperture in the center that removes the partly cooled syrup. This cooled mass is conveyed on steel belts and through automatic kneaders where the acid, flavours, and colors are continuously incorporated. The flavoured plastic mass is then fed to forming machinery as follows :
Batch former. This consists of ribbed conical rollers that revolve and oscillate. The plastic sugar mass is placed in the top end of the machine where the rollers are widest. By means of the movement of there roller, the mass is reduced to a rope 2 to 3 cm (0.8 to 1.2 in.) in diameter.
Hard Candy Production Line
Rope seizer. This takes the rope from the former. The seizer consists of four pairs of channeled "wheels" through which the rope must pass, thereby making the rope of precise diameter. In both the former and rope seizer, it is obvious that the temperature and plasticity of the sugar mass must be correct and even throughout. The forming rollers may be of variable dimensions according to the size of candy required.
Sweet forming die head. The rope, still in a plastic state, is fed into this machine and is subjected to a series of die plungers that press the rope into individual pieces. The pattern of these pieces of determined by the impressions on the surface of the die (Fig. 4).
"Uniplast" Sweet former
Method of operation. :The sugar rope arriving from the batch former and rope seizer is fed into a pair of sizing rollers and then runs on into a rotating die head fitted with plungers and guiding cams for the stamping and forming of the individual candies. The formed candies are then delivered onto the narrow top belt of the 71E cooler, which is driven by the uniplast.
Cooling conveyor/wrapping machine. The candies from the die head are then delivered to cooling conveyors to prevent deformation. These are of metal netting, which, with air circulation, provide the necessary dissipation of heat.
Center filling. It is possible to deliver a filling to the center of the rope by means of a hopper and feed pipe. The filling may be fatty pastes or concentrated fruit preserves, and these are introduced into the rope while forming in the batch rollers (see later "Soft-Center Bonbons").
Packaging. There are numerous types of packaging machines but it is always desirable to wrap the pieces while they are still slightly warm and preferably the packing room should be air conditioned to a relative humidity of 45 percent. This prevents sticky surfaces and subsequent "graining."
Water Activity (ERH) :
There is a great difference between the water activity of boiled sugar "glass" and the same composition when crystallized (0.25) compared with 0.75).
The no crystalline sugar is very hygroscopic and will readily pick up surface moisture. If this is allowed to happen, relatively dilute syrup is formed on the surface. This will crystallize and the dilute syrup generated will set up a type of chain reaction, and eventually the whole sweet will crystallize. Hence, it is important to wrap the candies immediately after forming.
Most boiled sweets are now made with sugar and glucose syrup. Invert sugar is rarely used, except in countries where sugar is grown and glucose is not readily available.
The ratio of sugar to glucose varies according to the method of boiling-open pan, thin film, or vacuum. However, it is also related to the type of glucose used, for example, the low conversion glucoses are very viscous, less hygroscopic, and less sweet.
In any composition, the sugar ingredient is subject to breakdown into the two monosaccharides, dextrose and fructose. The fructose causes the candy to be more hygroscopic and liable to become sticky when exposed to the air.
Vacuum cooking reduces inversion because temperatures are lower and boiling time shorter. The inclusion of "acid scrap" will bring about considerable inversion. Such scrap should be dissolved, neutralized, and decolorized before use.
The longer the boiling and higher the temperature, the more the colour changes toward yellow or light brown. Fruit drops, clear mints, and similar products need to be free from this defect.
These are summarized, with possible causes, as follows :
The candies have become sticky. They have picked up moisture from the air and causes are :
Too much "invert" content.
Relative humidity of forming and packing room too high. Packing room should be 45 percent relative humidity or below. Candy should be wrapped warm at about 32oC (90oF).
Unsuitable packaging material-moisture vapor transfer of candy wrap and bag wrap too high.
Humid conditions at point of sale [also related to (3)]
The candies have "grained"
- Sugar/glucose ratio too high.
- Moisture content too high.
- Addition of solid "scrap".
- Humid storage.
- Warm storage.
With reference to (5), it should be understood that warm conditions have the effect of softening the hard amorphous candy. This will make the very concentrated syrup more mobile and liable to crystallize.
Lauric fats (coconut and palm kernel oil), which are often used, are vulnerable to soapy rancidity, from lipase action, and it is better to use nonlauric fat if the texture is acceptable. When adding fats to aerated products, use the minimum mixing time in keeping with dispersion. Fat Destroys aeration.
Example of Formulation and Processes
Using planetary beater :
|1.||Egg planetary beater :||0.25 lb |
|Icing sugar||5.0 lb|
Dissolve egg in water. Add icing sugar. Beat at high speed with wire whisk.
|Glucose syrup||20.0 lb|
Dissolve sugar in water. Add glucose syrup. Boil to 127oC (260oF).
Add syrup in a thin stream to the whip using low speed and the flat beater.
|3.||Cocoa powder (10 to 12 percent fat) ||2.0 lb|
|Malt powder (diastase free)||2.0 lb |
|Nonfat-milk powder||2.0 lb|
|Icing sugar||1.5 lb|
Mix powders dry and stir gradually into 1 plus 2.
Melt at low temperature and add to mixture with slow mixing and minimum time for dispersion. Spread onto cooling table and cut when set.
Cocoa may be dispersed in fat as mentioned previously.
Preparation of Agar Jellies, Fruit Slices :
|Glucose syrup (42 DE)||20 lb|
|Sodium citrate||5 oz|
Soak the agar in the water for 2 to 4h, and then add the citrate. Bring to a boil and keep at this temperature for 5 to 10 min (simmer) until the agar is in solution. Fibrous material is usually present, especially in the strip agar, so it is necessary to pass the solution through a fine siev
Add the sugar and, when dissolved, the glucose. Boil to 107oC (225oF). Pour into another pan to cool to 75oC (167oF) and remove any scum. Mix in
|Citric acid||3 oz dissolved in 3 oz water |
|Essential oil, orange or lemon||20 ml|
Cast without delay into dry starch (6 to 8 percent moisture). Do not hold the hot mixture for a long period after acid addition. The jellies should remain in starch overnight in a dry, warm room.
Small jelly pieces may be made in this way, or for fruit slices the liquid mixture is deposited into semi cylindrical impressions. These, when set, are removed, cut into slices, moistened, rolled in caster sugar, and dried.
To imitate the outer "rind" of the fruit slices, a paste may be prepared of the following composition.
|Glucose syrup (42 DE)||8 lb|
|Icing sugar||12 lb|
|Citric acid||1 oz dissolved in 1 oz water |
The gelatin must be soaked and dissolved in 12oz of water and then mixed into the heated glucose. After cooling, add citric acid. Mix the icing sugar and cornstarch dry, and then add the syrup gradually, kneading the mixture continuously.
COCONUT PASTE, COCONUT ICE
Coconut is a very popular ingredient in confectionery. Coconut ice is one of the traditional sweets made at home.
The main ingredient of most coconut lines is desiccated coconut, although some confectioners claim that only fresh coconut gives the true flavor and a juicy tender texture. Coconut is also available in other forms, such as sweetend desiccated, tenderized, and canned in syrup.
Desiccated coconut, being prepared from a natural product, may contain microorganisms. There had been some news in the past for being responsible for outbreaks of salmonella poisoning and typhoid, due to unhygienic methods of preparation in some parts of the world. Lack of proper drying procedures also have caused the presence of lipase, resulting in soapy rancidity developing in the final confections.
To avoid these dangers, methods of sterilization of all supplies were introduced and at the same time delegations from user countries advised on improved methods of processing in the growing areas.
Coconut Ice :
Coconut ice was originally prepared from boiled sugar syrup to which coconut was added together with some color and flavour, the sugar being allowed to crystallize with the coconut as result of stirring.
This home-made sweet had a relatively short shelf life-it dried out, developed a coarse grain, and sometimes fermented because, with sugar along, the minimum syrup phase concentration of 75 percent could not be obtained.
Modern recipes contain glucose and often condensed milk, honey gelatin, and various flavours. Texture varies from soft pastes grained off with fondant creme to semihard caramel-like Japanese desserts.
Some typical recipes are given below :
|Sugar||4.53 kg (10 lb) Dissolve and boil to |
|Glucose syrup||1.36 kg ( 3 lb) 121oC (250oF) |
|Water||1.81 kg ( 4 lb)|
|Sweetend condensed milk||0.68 kg (1Â½ lb) |
|Fondant creme (80/20)||0.90 kg (2 lb)|
|Fine desiccated coconut||1.80 kg (4 lb)|
Add the condensed milk to the hot syrup and mix well. Then stir in the desiccated coconut and follow this with the fondant creme, which should assist the crystallization of some of the sugar in the syrup. Flavor and color can be added as required. Texture may also be adjusted by the addition of a small amount of honey or invert sugar.
The paste is cooled on a table, rolled, and cut into bars, to it may be extruded. This type of paste has the best texture when the moisture content is 11 to 12 percent and the coconut then appears less tough and fibrous. Adjustment of moisture content can be obtained by altering the syrup's boiling temperature or by adding invert sugar. By using sweet end condensed milk, some milk fat will be included, which may affect shelf life. Nonfat milk is preferable.
|Sugar||2.26 kg (5 lb) Dissolve and boil to |
|Glucose syrup||3.17 kg (7 lb) 115oC (240oF). |
|Water||0.68 kg (1Â½ lb)|
|Fine desiccated coconut||2.7 kg (6 lb) |
Stir the coconut into the hot syrup and add flavors as desired. Dried or preserved fruit pieces may be added to improve the character of this sweet. It is cooled on a table, rolled and cut.
CREME AND LOZENGE PASTES, CACHOUS, TABLETS
Lozenges, Cachous :
Lozenge pastes are used a great deal for the manufacture of medicated sweets, cachous, and the like. They are relatively simple recipes consisting of icing sugar kneaded into a paste with a gum mucilage, gelatin solution, or both, and then rolled, shaped, and cut, followed by drying.
Since these are made from gum solutions and sugar only, the formulation of the mucilage is important. Gum Arabic, gum tragacanth, and gelatin are used.
For machine-made lozenges, some manufacturers say that mucilages prepared from a mixture of gum tragacanth and gelatin are more easily managed than gum Arabic solution, which is reserved for hand-made recipes.
The following is a typical formula for mucilage :
|1. ||Gum Arabic ||1.81 kg (4 lb) |
|water (cold)||4.1 kg (9 lb) |
Soak with occasional slow stirring for 24 hr. Sieve through a fine mesh to remove foreign matter.
|2. ||Gum Water (could)||141 g (5 oz) 4.1 kg (9 lb) ||Soak first using 5 lb of water for 6 hr and then add the remainder of the water and soak for a further 18 hr. |
|Gelatin Water (cold)||198 g (7 oz) 2.26 kg (5 lb)||Soak until the gelatin is soft, then warm to dissolve, and cool.|
The mucilage consists of a mixture of equal amounts of these solutions. The gum solutions must be used fresh as they will deteriorate on keeping, due to bacterial action, and they must be used cold.
The mucilage is mixed with powdered sugar to give the required texture, flavor and color being added as necessary.
With larger-scale batches, a "Z"-arm kneader is used. Judgment of the texture of the mixed paste is visual unless the particle size distribution of the sugar can be guaranteed. The condition of the sugar dough must be correct for the stamping machinery to give good shapes without sticking or collapse of the pieces.
After forming, the pieces must be dried slowly, first with slightly warm air, 24oC (75oF), preferably humidity controlled at about 50 percent relative humidity. This can be done on wide, moving belts. The lozenges are turned over automatically by transfer from one belt to another, and this process may take up to 4 hr to ensure even drying.
The lozenges are then sufficiently firm for drying in a stove or hot room, which is usually done in trays. Stoving is at 38oC (100oF) for 24 hr.
Flavour. The procedure of drying is responsible for the loss of flavor in some formulations. Some flavors are particularly volatile, peppermint, for example.
Loss of flavour can be reduced by a premix with fine sugar or cornstarch or by the use of encapsulated flavors.
Creme Pastes :
Creme pastes are made in a manner similar to lozenges but with the inclusion of glucose syrup to give a softer finished product. The following is a representative formula and process.
|Fine sugar (icing, Caster or mixed)||4.53 kg (10 lb)|
|Glucose syrup||1.58 kg (3Â½ lb)|
|Gelatin||56.7 g (2 oz)|
The gelatin is soaked until soft and then mixed into the glucose syrup, which has been warmed until fluid. A little water may be added to increase fluidity. The sugar is placed in a mixer, usually of the trough type with horizontal spindle and carrying paddles, and while in motion the glucose/gelatin syrup is added slowly until a fairly stiff paste is produced. This is flavored, colored, rolled, and shaped and the finished pieces are allowed to dry and set.
Lozenges and pastes have many applications in the confectionery and pharmaceutical industries. The formulation is simple but the production needs care and understanding of the kneading and drying processes. Incorrectly prepared paste will not form correctly; it will stick to the cutters or deform after cutting. Uneven drying will also give poor shapes and uneven texture.
There are several types of liqueur chocolates.
Chocolate Liqueurs :
Chocolate shells are preformed and the alcoholic liqueur is deposited into the shells. For this type, the shells are usually bottle shaped.
Another type of chocolate shell, used for assortments, resembles the shape of an enrobed chocolate. The "liqueur," not necessarily alcoholic, is deposited into the shell, followed by spraying with cocoa butter and backing with chocolate.
Sugar Crust Liqueurs :
This liqueur piece consists of a crystalline sugar shell containing a liquid center and is chocolate covered. This liqueur in the center may be alcoholic or merely a flavored syrup.
The principle of preparation, whether or not alcohol is involved, is to deposit the syrup mixture into starch impressions at a concentration that will form a crystal layer at the surface in contact with the starch.
The interior must remain liquid. Crystal formation is aided by the cooling and slight loss of moisture to the starch, which should have a moisture content of 5 to 7 percent and a temperature of about 30oC (85oF). After depositing is completed, a starch layer is dusted over the surface. The syrup remains in the starch for 2Â½ to 3 hr during which time crystallization occurs, mostly on the lower surface.
At this stage, the semi-crystallized pieces are turned over. This requires skill and the operation involves passing a shaped wire through the starch and beneath the crusted shapes.
In the process of manufacture, great care must be taken to avoid unwanted or poor crystallization. High-grade sugar must be used and vibration avoided at all stages.
The following are typical formulations. They all need practice before good results are obtained.
Sugar Crust Liqueurs with Alcohol
|Sugar, high grade||100 lb|
Cook to 113oC (236oF). Cool to 70oC (158oF). Add the following alternative liqueurs by very carefully pouring them, in a thin stream, into the syrup at a temperature between 60 and 70oC :
1. Proprietary liqueur, 60 percent alcohol, 25 lb
2. Rectified spirit, 96 percent alcohol, 15.6 lb
Water, 9.4 lb
Flavour as required.
3. With red wine, 12 to 14 percent alcohol
Cook syrup above to 118oC (245oF)
"Red wine," 28.5 lb
Add warm to dissolve.
Fine wine, 8.5 lb
Then deposit in starch [5 to 7 percent moisture, 30oC (85oF)].
Sugar Crust liqueurs Without Alcohol
|Sugar, high grade||100 lb|
|Water||40 lb Cook to 110oC (230oF) Cool to 60oC (140oF)|
|Add citric acid ||0.5 lb (in 0.5 lb water) |
Fig. 1 Sugar Crust Liqueurs with Alcohol
Fig. 2 Sugar Crust Liqueurs with Alcohol
Deposit in starch at this temperature.
Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the sequence of operations.
In the preparation of sugar crust liqueurs with alcohol, two factors must be realized :
- Sugar solubility is depressed by the presence of alcohol as is shown in table 1.
- Alcohol and water contract in volume on mixing, as shown in Table.
Table Percent Alcohol in Solution by Weight
Table Mixture of Water with Alcohol (96%).
Percentage by Volume
Licorice confections are very popular, particularly the "Allsorts" type where licorice pastes are sandwiched with other confectionery pastes. Manyf other products make use of the medicinal properties of licorice, as in throat lozenges and gums and for aperients.
The licorice plant, botanically, is Glycyrrhiza and there are many species. Clycyrrhiza glabra being the most well known. It grows wild in the subtropical areas of Europeand Asia and is a leguminous weed. The root will, in favorable circumstances, extend to 25 ft below ground and varies in thickness from thin fibers to several inches in diameter.
Manufacture of Licorice Confectionery :
Ingredients-The important ingredients of licorice paste are :
- Licoric block juice (or other prepared licorice as mentioned previously).
- Flour-preferably a strong wheat flour.
- Brown sugar-the various brown grades described under confectionery ingredients are all suitable. Molasses, treacle, and golden syrup may also be included.
- Glucose syrup. High DE glucose is preferable or dextrose hydrate may be used.
- Gelatin. This gives body to the final product and acts as a binder. A medium-grade gelatin is satisfactory and no advantage is obtained by using high-grade, light-colored material.
- Color. Caramel color is generally used in addition of food-grade black dye, as it softens the intensity of the dye and imparts luster to the product.
- Emulsifier. Glyceryl monostearate is usually added to prevent the licorice from sticking to the teeth. About 0.1 percent is adequate and sometimes 2 to 3 percent of fat (hardened palm kernel oil) is emulsified into the mix. This acts as lubricant and will aid extrusion.
Manufacture-The fundamental part of the process is to gelatizine completely the starch in the flour ingredient-this applies to all confectionery-but in licorice bad dispersion and cooking will show as white flecks or lumps in the end product.
Some countries that have strict laws regarding chocolate composition do not permit the return of rework as an ingredient of the chocolate but insist that it must be used only in centers. It is regarded as an adulterant of chocolate, which must be made from pure cocoa nib, sugar, and, if milk chocolate, milk solids in addition.
While there may be some reason for such argument in the case of solid chocolate bars or blocks, it is difficult to substantiate if the chocolate is mixed with nuts, raisins, cookies, or cereals, or is used as a covering for various confectionery centers.
This is a useful cost saving by the inclusion of rework and quality control checks have shown that no deterioration is detectable when rework not exceeding 5 percent is incorporated and the chocolate used for covering or recipe mixtures.