Herbal Cosmetics Handbook

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Herbal Cosmetics Handbook

Author: H Panda
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8178330806
Code: NI35
Pages: 752
Price: Rs. 1,500.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2004
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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Cosmetics have been in utilization for more than thousands years. More commonly known as make- up, it includes a host of skin products like foundation, lip colors etc. The international market for skincare and color cosmetics surpassed a sale of 53 billion dollars in 2002. The quantity and number of latest products brought to market both nationally and internationally continues to develop at a fast pace. Cosmetic chemists all the time are looking for attractive and striking material that enhances skin's appearance and healthiness. A huge collection of compounds is required to supply these products. The newest edition of the Cosmetics Toiletries and Fragrance Association (CTFA) Dictionary displays more than 10,000 raw materials and the list continues to increase with every year hundreds of new ingredients being added. The cosmetic chemistry has encompasses a vast area of study and one such is Herbal Cosmetics.
Herbal cosmetics are the product of cosmetic chemistry, a science that combines the skills of specialists in chemistry, physics, biology, medicine and herbs. Since cosmetics are applied mostly to the skin, hair and nails, a brief description of the anatomy of these is desirable. Herbal cosmetic major users are girls and women who are very much peculiar about their skin type and requirement. Synthetic cosmetic being harsh and prone to more side- effects, herbal cosmetic is quickly replacing it and gaining a lot of popularity. As a result it has created an enormous market for itself both domestic as well as export market.
Herbal Cosmetics Handbook has been featured as best seller. The book contains formulae, manufacturing processes of different herbal cosmetics like cosmetics for skin, nails, hair etc. It also covers analysis method of cosmetics, toxicity and test method.
Some of the chapters of the book are: Classification of cosmetics Economic aspects, Cosmetic Emulsions, Cosmetics for the skin, Cosmetic Creams, Lubricating or Emollient Creams-Night Creams, Skin Protective and Hand Creams, Vanishing Creams-Foundation Creams, Liquid Creams, Cosmetic Lotions, Hand Lotions, Skin Toning Lotions-Skin Fresheners, Astringent Lotions, Hair Tonics and many more.

The book will render useful purpose for new entrepreneurs, technologists, professionals, researchers and for those who want to extend their knowledge in the said field.

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Contents

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1. Introduction
1.1 Classification of cosmetics
1.2 Economic aspects
2. Cosmetic Emulsions
3. Cosmetics for the skin
3.1 Cosmetic Creams
3.2 Lubricating or Emollient Creams-Night Creams
3.3 Skin Protectives and Hand Creams
3.4 Vanishing Creams-Foundation Creams
3.5 Liquid Creams
3.6 Miscellaneous Creams
3.7 Cosmetic Lotions
3.8 Hand Lotions
3.9 Skin Toning Lotions-Skin Fresheners
3.10 Astringent Lotions
3.11 Bleaching and Freckle Lotions
3.12 Medicated Lotions
3.13 After Shaving Lotions
3.14 Deodorants
3.15 Sunscreens
3.16 Sunburn ExternalMedicines
3.17 Make-Up Preparations
3.18 Variations of Face Powders
3.19 Toilet Powders
3.20 Lipstick
3.21 Mascara-Eyebrow Pencils-Eye Shadow
4. COSMETICS FOR BATH PRODUCTS
4.1 Bath Products
4.2 Soaps
5. Cosmetics for Nails
5.1 Cosmetics for the Nails
6. Cosmetics for the Hair
6.1 Hair Preparations
6.2 Shampoos
6.3 Rinses and Conditioners
6.4 Oily Scalp Hair Tonics
6.5 Hair Dressings
6.6 Fixatives
6.7 Bleaches
6.8 Depilatories
7. Cosmetics for Oral Products
7.1 Dentrifices and Mouth washes
7.2 Toothpastes
7.3 Cosmetics for Teeth and Mouth washes
7.4 General Cosmetics
7.5 Machinery and Equipment for Cosmetics
7.6 Emulsion Making Machinery
7.7 Packaging Creams and Pastes
7.8 Cream Equipment
7.8 Handling of Liquids
7.9 Filters and Filteration
8. Machinery of Manufacture of Cosmetics
9. Analysis of Cosmetics
9.1 Analysis of Cosmetics
9.2 Lipsticks
9.3 Nail Enamels
9,4 Shampoos
9.5 Hair Sprays
9.6 Sunscreens
9.7 Creams and Lotions
9.8 Aerosols
9.9 Hair Dyes
10. Toxicity and Test Methods
10.1 Animal Studies
11. BIS Specifications
12. Directory Section
12.1 Major Manufacturers of Cosmetic Products
12.2 Address of Raw Material Suppliers (Indigenous)
12.3 Address of Machinery Suppliers (Indigenous)
12.4 Address of Raw Material Suppliers (Imported)
12.5 Distillation Plants (For General Purposes of Chemical and Allied Industries)
12.6 Address of Machinery Suppliers (Importers)
12.7 Distillation Plants (For General Purposes of the Chemical and Allied Industries)

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(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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COSMETIC EMULSIONS

Herbal cosmetic lotions and creams are emulsions of water-based and oil-based phases. An emulsion is two-phases system consisting of two incompletely miscible liquids, the internal, or discontinuous, phase dispersed as finite globules in the other. Special designations have been devised for oil and water emulsions to indicate which is the dispersed and which the continuous phase. Oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions have oil as the dispersed phase in water as the continuous phase. In water-in-oil (o/w) emulsions, water is dispersed in oil, which is the external (continuous) phase.

Properties of Emulsions: The properties that are most apparent, and thus are usually most important, are: ease of dilution, viscosity, colour, and stability. For a given type of emulsification equipment, these properties depend upon: (1) the properties of the continuous phase, (2) the ratio of the external of the internal phase, (3) the particle size of the emulsion, (4) the relationship of the continuous phase to the particles (including ionic charges), and (5) the properties of the discontinuous phase. In any given emulsion, the properties depend upon which liquid constitutes the external phase, i.e., whether the emulsion is o/w or w/o. The resulting emulsion type is controlled by: (1) the emulsifier: type, and amount, (2) the ratio of ingredient, and (3) the order of addition of ingredients during mixing.

The dispersibility (solubility) of an emulsion is determined by the continuous phase; thus if the continuous phase is water-soluble, the emulsion can be diluted with water; conversely, if the continuous phase is oil-soluble, the emulsion can be diluted with oil.

The ease with which an emulsion can be diluted can be increased by decreasing the viscosity of the emulsion. The viscosity of an emulsion when the continuous phase is in excess is essentially the viscosity of the continuous phase. As the proportion of internal phase increases, the viscosity of the emulsion increases to the point that the emulsion is no longer fluid. When the volume of the internal phase exceeds the volume of the external phase, the emulsion particles becomes crowded and the apparent viscosity is partially structural viscosity.

An emulsion is stable as long as the particles of the internal phase do not coalesce. The stability of an emulsion depends upon: (1) the particle size; (2) the difference in density of the two phases; (3) the viscosity of the continuous phase and of the completed emulsion; (4) the charges on the particles; (5) the nature, effectiveness, and amount of the emulsifier used; and (6) conditions of storage, including temperature variation, agitation and vibration, and dilution or evaporation during storage or use. The stability of an emulsion is affected by almost all factors involved in its formulation and preparation. In formulas containing sizable amounts of emulsifier, stability is predominantly a function of the type and concentration of emulsifier.

Emulsifiers: Emulsifiers can be classified as ionic or nonionic according to their behaviour. A ionic emulsifier is composed of an organic lipophilic group (L) and a hydrophilic group (H). The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) is often used to characterize emulsifiers and related surfactant materials. The ionic types may be further divided into anionic and cationic, depending upon the nature of the ion-active group. The lipophilic portion of the molecule is usually considered to be surface-active portion.

Nonionic emulsifiers are completely covalent and show no apparent tendency to ionize. They can, therefore, be combined with other nonionic surface-active agents and with either anionic or cationic agents as well. The nonionic emulsifiers are likewise less susceptible to the action of electrolytes than the anionic surface-active agents. The solubility of an emulsifier is of the greatest importance in the preparation of emulsifiable concentrates.

Emulsifiers, being surface-active agents, lower surface and interfacial tensions and increase the tendency of their solution to spread.

O/w emulsifying agents produce emulsions in which the continuous phase is hydrophilic; hence, such emulsions are generally dispersible in water and will conduct electricity. The surfactants that are capable of producing such emulsions usually have and HLB of more than 6.0 (preferably 7), the hydrophilic portion of their molecules being predominant. (Between HLB 5 and 7 many surfactants will function as either w/o or o/w emulsifiers, depending on how they are used.

O/w emulsifiers HLB

P.E.G. 300 distearate nonionic 7.3

Sorbitan monolaurate nonionic 8.6

P.E.G. 400 distearate nonionic 9.3

Triethanolamine streate anionic 12.0

P.E.G, 6000 monolaurate nonionic 19.2

W/o emulsifiers produce emulsions in which the continuous phase is lipophilic in character (oil, wax, fat, etc). Such emulsions are not generally dispersible in water and do not conduct electricity. The surfactants capable of producing such emulsions usually have an HLB of less than 6.0 and preferably below 5. The lipophilic portion of their molecules is predominant.

W/o emulsifiers HLB

Lanolin alcohols nonionic ca 1.0

Ethylene glycol monostreate S/E nonionic 2.0

Propylene glycol monostreate S/E anionic 3.2

Sorbitan monooleate nonionic 4.3

P.E.G. 200 dilaurate nonionic 6.0

CHAPTER 3

COSMETIC CREAMS

Materials used in creams may be prepared in o/w or in w/o emulsions. The esthetic effect and degree of emolliency depend to a great extent on the emulsion type as well as on the emulsion composition. O/w emulsions produce a cooling effect on application to the skin owing to water evaporation. W/o emulsions do not produce this effect since water evaporation is slowed by the film of the oil in the continuous phase.

The classical example of a cream was prepared from 3.0% beeswax, 11.8% spermaceti, 40.2% sweet almond oil, and 45.0% rose water. In 1890 the formula was changed to 12.1% beeswax, 12.6% spermaceti, 55.4% sweet almond oil, 0.5% borax, and 19.4% rose water.

This was the basic formula for the familiar cold cream that is now made with mineral oil instead of almond oil. Its occlusive action aided in rehydration of the corneum when allowed to remain on the skin for an appreciable length of time. Because the solvent action of mineral oil tends to remove skin surface lipids when the cream is applied for short period of time, partial replacement with a vegetable oil is needed. These emulsions are w/o, the emulsifier is sodium cerotate formed by reaction of borax and free cerotic acid in the beeswax. If the water content is raised to approximately 45% or more the composition changes to an o/w emulsion.

Nonionic emulsifiers, such as glyceryl monostreate, propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol esters of fatty acids, sorbitol, and ethoxylated sorbitol esters of fatty acids, are used to prepare creams that have stability at acid pH as well as alkaline pH.

Anionic emulsifiers, such as the amine soaps prepared by reaction of fatty acids with various amines (e.g., triethanolamine), are popular in preparing slightly alkaline creams. Most of these creams are of the o/w type. W/o creams can be prepared with anionic soaps with as calcium and magnesium soaps of fatty acids formed in situ.

Cationic emulsifiers are used in the preparation of emulsion systems of increase deposition of the emulsion on negatively charged surfaces such as skin and hair. A popular cream prepared with cationic emulsifiers has the following composition; 0.10% antioxidant, 3.00% cetyl alcohol, 3.00% dew axed lanolin, 3.00% mineral oil, 0.15% N-(colaminoformylmethyl) pyridinium chloride, 1.20% N-(colaminoformylmethyl) pryidinium chloride stearate, 0.15% preservative (methyl and propel paraben (5:1), 4.00% isopropyl myristate, 6.00% propylene glycol, 76.05% distilled or deionized water, and 0.35% perfume.

Vanishing Cream: Vanishing cream can be considered to be an emulsion of a free fatty acid (usually stearic acid) in a nonalkaline medium. The basic ingredients are: 65-75% water, 15-20% stearic acid, 8-12% glycerol, 0.5-1.5% alkali (KOH), qs (as needed) preservative, and qs perfume. Of the stearic acid used, about 15-20% is specified; the rest remains as free acid. All the ingredients are based on lime flower.

Manufacture: The oils, waxes, emulsifiers, and other oil-soluble components are heated to 75°C in a steam-jacketed kettle. The water-soluble components (alkalis, alkanolamines, polyhydric alcohols, and preservatives) are dissolved in the aqueous phase and heated to 75°C in another steam-jacketed kettle. To allow for evaporation of water during the heating and emulsification, about 3-5% excess water (based on formula weight) is added.

The procedure for preparing o/w and w/o emulsions is to add the warmed inner phase very slowly to the outer phase (also at 75°C), stirring constantly and homogenizing to assure efficient emulsification. Finely dispersed o/w emulsions can also be prepared by adding the aqueous phase to the oils. Initially the low concentration of water forms a w/o emulsion according to the phase-volume relationship. The slow addition and emulsification of the water increase the viscosity of the system while the oil phase expands to a maximum. At this point, the continuous oil phase breaks up into minute droplets as emulsion inversion occurs, characterized by a sudden decrease in viscosity. This emulsification technique proceeds smoothly at the critical inversion point in a well-balanced, low oil-wax system, but it frequently causes coagulation in high oil-wax emulsions. The conventional procedure of adding the inner phase to the outer is preferable for creams and lotions.

The rates of addition and mechanical agitation of the dispersed phase are critically important in determining the efficiency of emulsification. The product formed may vary from a completely dispersed inner phase in a well emulsified system, to a mixed emulsion in a poorly emulsified system, the latter owing to excessive rate of addition of inner phase and to inadequate stirring. This in turn affects the consistency viscosity, and stability of creams and lotions.

Total stirring times and cooling rates are important to lotion viscosity, cream consistency, and emulsion stability. Experimental formulas are often developed in vessels that are not equipped with a heating and cooling jacket. Under these air-cooled conditions, longer stirring times are necessary. The transition to full-scale production in jacketed equipment introduces a variable in the physical factors contributing to emulsion preparation. If cooling is started too soon after emulsification is complete, crystallization of the higher melting waxes may occur.

The temperature at which the perfume oils are added to the cream or lotion is another factor contributing to emulsion instability. The addition of perfume to a w/o emulsion proceeds smoothly owing to its solubility in the external phase. In o/w systems, the oil must break through the continuous aqueous phase to be emulsified.

If the cream is to be hot-poured, it is stirred to 5°C above the congealing point, any required colour solutions are added, and the cream held at that temperature with occasional stirring during the filling procedure. If cold-filling is preferred, the cream is stirred to 35°C, any colour solutions are added, and filling proceeds at room temperature.

Some of the newer type cold creams, developed to compete with the old types, are made in combination with absorption bases, with herbal bases, emulsifying waxes and triethanolamine or other additions.

The manufacturing procedure for making cold creams is as follows:

Dissolve the borax in hot water. Melt the various waxes together and add any fatty substances like lanolin, lard, petrolatum, if desired, and run into the oils, keeping the temperature at about 70°C. Pour in the borax solution at the same temperature with constant stirring. Mix without heat for about one hour and one-half. When cool (about 45°-50°C.) add the perfume.

It is a necessary precaution in making cold creams, to have the molten fats and water solution at the same temperature before mixing them, because the addition of cold water to hot waxes is likely to result in partial solidification of some of the wax, in the form of minute particles that will impart grittiness, an unpleasant defect, when applied to the skin.

In making variations of the usual cold cream with triethanolamine, melt the waxes, fats and oils together, bringing the temperature to about 80°C. Then into a separate kettle put the water, glycerin and triethanolamine and bring the solution almost to the boiling point. Add the melted fats to the triethanolamine solution. Stir rapidly until an emulsion forms and when the temperature drops to about 45°C., add the perfume and herbal base.

When making cold cream, containing lanolin absorption base, melt the waxes, add the absorption base to the almond oil and bring the temperature of the mixture to about 80°C. Then slowly add water heated to the same temperature, stirring until thoroughly emulsified. When cool, add the perfume.

The manufacture of cold cream containing glyceryl monostearate is very simple. All the ingredients in the formula are put into a kettle and heated to the boiling point with constant stirring until all of the glyceryl monostearate has melted. Stirring is continued until cool enough to perfume.

The consistency of any of the following formulas can be adjusted by increasing or decreasing the wax content. Although it is not indicated, the keeping qualities of all creams containing vegetables oils is assured by the addition of 0.15% of a good preservative, such as methyl or propyl parahydroxybenzoate. Borax also exerts a preservative action but only a very mild one. In all cases mineral oil of 65-75 viscosity (say bolt) can be substituted for vegetables oils.

Various formula follow.

No.1 Cold Cream by weight

White beeswax 7.0

Paraffin 10.0

Ceresin 3.0

Almond oil (65-75) 44.0

Borax 1.0

Water 34.5

Perfume 0.5

100

No.2

Spermaceti 5.0

White beeswax 15.0

Almond oil (65-75) 55.0

Borax 0.8

Distilled water 23.7

Perfume 0.5

Perfume 100

No.3

White beeswax 20.0

Almond oil (65-75) 50.0

Distilled water 28.8

Borax 0.7

Perfume 0.5

100

No.4

White beeswax 20.0

Almond oil (65-75) 50.9

Rose water 29.5

Borax 0.5

100

No.5

Spermaceti 8.0

White beeswax 12.0

Sweet Almond oil (65-75) 55.0

Distilled water 23.5

Borax 1.0

Perfume (Herbal base) 0.5

100

No.6

Spermaceti 5.0

White beeswax 15.0

Lanolin 3.0

Peanut oil, refined 51.7

Distilled water 24.0

Borax 0.8

Perfume (Herbal base) 0.5

100.0

No. 7

White beeswax 22.0

Bitter almond oil (65-75) 50.8

Distilled water 26.0

Borax 0.8

Perfume 0.4

100.0

No. 8

White beeswax 15.0

Vegetable lard 50.0

Lanolin 9.0

Distilled water 24.5

Borax 1.0

Perfume 0.5

100.0

No. 9

White beeswax 15.0

Vegetable lard 10.0

Sesame oil 20.0

Almond oil 20.0

Borax 1.0

Rose water 34.0

100.0

No. 10

Spermaceti 10.0

White beeswax 12.0

Almond oil 56.0

Rose water 21.0

Borax 1.0

100

No. 11

Sesame oil 42.5

Lanolin 4.5

White beeswax 15.5

Spermaceti 6.0

Borax 1.0

Water 30.0

Perfume 0.5

100.0

No.12

Lanolin absorption base 20.0

Vegetable lard (65-75) 40.0

Water 24.5

White beeswax 15.0

Perfume 0.5

100.0

No.13

Paraffin 6.0

White beeswax 12.0

Vegetable lard (65-75) 54.0

Stearic acid 1.0

Borax 1.0

Water 25.5

Perfume 0.5

100.0

No. 14

Beeswax 25.0
Neem oil 25.0
Water 48.75
Borax 1.25
100.0

No. 15

Beeswax 25.0

Neem oil 37.5

Water 36.25

Borax 1.25

100.0

No. 16

Beeswax 16.67

Chandan oil 33.33

Water 49.17

Borax 0.83

100.0

No.17

Beeswax 14.28

Rakta chandan oil 57.14

Water 27.87

Borax 0.71

100

No. 18

Beeswax 25.0

Aonla oil 50.0

Water 23.75

Borax 1.25

No.19

Beeswax 20.0

Turmeric oil 40.0

Water 39.0

Borax 1.0

No.20

Beeswax 16.67

Ushira oil 60.0

Water 32.5

Borax 0.83

No. 21

Beeswax 14.28

Chandan oil 42.84

Water 42.13

Borax 0.75

No.22 Cold Cream 905

Egg yolk 20.0

White wax 4.0

Ceresin 10.0

Tulsi oil 10.0

Glycerin 5.0

Water 51.0

100.0

In making a cream solely from beeswax, mineral oil, water, and borax, the following general factors should be considered: Borax should not be less than 5 percent of the beeswax used; not more than 8 percent, depending upon the acid number of the beeswax. As the proportion of beeswax increases, the cream becomes harder.

Almond/Mineral oil, in relationship to water, has stiffening, rather than a softening effect upon the cream as the proportion is increased. Above 60 percent of mineral oil, the cream shows signs of instability.

Increase of water softens the cream until the product becomes definitely liquid. When water is too low, the cream may be of the water-in-oil type rather than the customary oil-in-water. Increasing amounts of water seem to lead to fine grained and more lustrous creams. A good balance seems to be reached when water and oil are present in approximately equal amounts but good products results when the water-oil ratio, varies from 1:2 to 2:1.

No. 23 Theatrical Cold Cream

By weight

Beeswax 15.0

Aonla oil` 60.0

Rose water 24.0

Borax 1.0

100.0

To make this, melt the wax, add the paraffin oil and continue to heat with constant stirring until they are well mixed. Use indirect heat to avoid overheating. Dissolve the borax in the rose water with the aid of heat and while still warm gradually add to the melted wax and oil, stirring constantly until cold. If desired distilled water may be used in place of the rose water and any desired herbal perfume added.

No. 24 Theatrical Cold Cream

By weight

Spermaceti 12.0

Honey 10.0

Stearic acid 2.0

Chandan oil 55.5

Water 20.0

Borax 0.5

Perfume oils to suit

100.0

Melt the solids together in a jacketed kettle; add the oil and mix well. Then add the hot water in which the borax has been dissolved, proceeding as directed in the formula for theatrical cold cream. This cream has a peculiar granular structure, quite different from ordinary cold creams.

No.25 Semi-greaseless Cold Cream

By weight

Beeswax 15.0

Spermaceti 1.5

Turmeric paste 9.0

Neem oil 46.0

Cocoanut oil 1.5

Powdered borax 0.5

Powdered white Castile soap 0.5

Water 26.0

100.0

Melt the solids by indirect heat, add the oils and stir well. Dissolve the soap and borax in the water by means of heat and while still hot add the solution gradually with constant stirring to the wax and oil mixture. Continue to heat for five minutes, stirring all the time, then remove from the fire and stir until cold. As with other creams, this one may be made heavier by adding more wax.

No. 26 Whitening Cold Cream

White vegetable lard 14.0

Beeswax 12.0

Spermaceti 4.0

Titanium dioxide 10.0

100.0

Heat oil and waxes to 140°F. in agitator. Dissolve borax and ultramarine in hot water and adjust temperature to 140°F. in jacket kettle. Pour water solution into wax, melt and agitate for one hour. Draw out little from bottom of the kettle to assure proper mix. Fill at once.

No. 27 Cold Cream

White rose oil 110 gms

Paraffin (refined M.P. 133°F.) 15 gms

Spermaceti (block) 12.5 gms

Water 55gms

Borax (gran.) 30 gms

Ultramarine 30 grains

Cold cream perfume 22 gms

Melt the wax with the spermaceti and petrolatum as usual and while cooling rub up with the titanium dioxide, mixing evenly. Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and stir into the mixture. Pass through an ointment or roller mill before filling.

The above formulas, while typical, do not include all the variations of cold creams that are possible. Many other combinations may be made. In some cases, borax is omitted and the beeswax and oil are melted together, cooled to the point at which solidification begins and warm water is added by beating it into the mixture. Such creams are not as white, of as high luster, nor of as smooth a texture as those containing borax. They are also less stable.

Cold creams made with borax are far superior to those without it, since the emulsion is whiter, smoother, and more stable. Creams of this type are oil-in-water in character if enough water (about 30 percent or more) is present. Borax in excess of the amount required for neutralization makes the cream more alkaline without contributing to appearance or stability, while too little borax does not lead to the desired smooth cream.

Other alkalies may advantageously be used in place of all or part of the borax, but few formulas of this type have been given in the literature.

As the proportion of beeswax increase, the cream becomes harder; below 15 percent beeswax, no other hardening material being present, creams are liable to be too soft. Mineral oil as compared to water has stiffening rather than a softening effect on the cream as the proportion is increased. The cream becomes unstable if more than 60 percent of oil is present. Increase of water makes a softer cream until the cream becomes liquid. With too little water, the emulsion may be of the water-in-oil instead of the oil-in-water type. Larger amounts of water within the set limits make finger grained and more lustrous creams.

Cleaning creams are presumed to lead the sale of all other creams in sales volume. Dirt on the skin may consist of residues of skin secretions as well as deposits from the surroundings. This dirt is bound by oily substances, is very adherent, and requires special methods of removal. Emulsification, as exemplified by soap, is very efficient. Since soap, even of high quality, may have excess alkali and may be too drying to the skin surface, women prefer a cream of some sort. Creams do not work by emulsification. For the most part they depend upon the solvent action of mineral oil on the oily substances binding dirt to the skin. Creams containing water are rubbed on the skin in a thin layer and the water they contain is, to a large extent, lost by evaporation. Even when a substantial proportion of the water originally present still remains, emulsion inversion of the water originally present still remains, emulsion inversion may take place leading to a water-in-oil type of emulsion in which solvent action on the binding oil is facilitated. Yolk of egg may be added to control viscosity.

The requirements of a cleansing cream are as follow:

(a) It should liquefy at body temperature.

(b) Its viscosity should be low enough to permit easy spreading but high enough to retain in suspension particles of dirt and insoluble foreign matter.

(c) It should penetrate the epidermis (via natural openings) and contain enough light oils to permit flushing the pores.

(d) It should be an emulsion type with a small percentage of water

(e) It should possess a mild bleaching action.

(f) It should leave the skin smooth, relax, refreshed, non-greasy and clean.

(g) It should contain no chemical that would be quickly absorbed by the skin.

Almond/Mineral oil is the essential ingredient of all cleansing creams. The oil itself can be used for cleansing purposes and, as a matter of fact, is the important constituent of baby oils. Oil alone, however, is not a satisfactory cosmetic and must be combined with other herbal materials to provide a preparation that can easily and conveniently be applied to the skin and has an attractive appearance.

Two general types of cleansing creams are in common use, namely, liquefying creams, so-called, which do not contain water and emulsified creams with a large proportion of mineral oil. For the first type of preparation, manufacture is extremely simple, components being melted together, mixed until homogeneous, and the mixture then poured into jars where it is permitted to set. The preferable method of filling involves first filling the jars half full, permitting the contents to solidify, then filling the jars to the proper level with more of the melted mixture. The temperatures should be low enough so that a crater will not be formed in the cream surface on cooling.

The product itself must be solid and remain so under ordinary temperature; it must rapidly and completely melt on the skin to a liquid which is thick enough not to flow of the skin; it should not leak oil. This last may be assured by the incorporation of about one-half percent of carnauba wax in the melted mixture.

If a translucent product is desired, components must be limited to paraffin, petrolatum, and mineral oil; a white opaque mixture results from the use of ceresin, beeswax, or zinc oxide.

The problem in the formulation of creams of this type lies in the production of a mineral oil gel, which is solid at normal atmospheric temperatures. Mineral oil may be solidified by the addition of sufficient paraffin; a mixture of this sort does not hold oil firmly and “bleeding” will soon occur. Petrolatum holds oil in the mixture, and enough to accomplish this purpose should be present. Too much, however, will prevent the preparation from liquefying completely on the skin. Ceresin also has this power of holding oil in the gel. Emollients are useful in cleansing creams, since they counteract the effect of too great removal of natural skin oils by the cleansing cream.

Different persons may get varying results with the same formula. It is important that each of the compositions presented by carefully checked and be tested for shelf life before offering these creams for sale. Consistency of the creams may be varied between hard and soft by increasing or decreasing the wax content.

No. 1 Emulsion, Quick Melting Type

By weight

Vegetable lard 27.0

Almond oil (6575) 45.5

Beeswax 18.0

Hydrogen peroxide 17 vols. 3.0

Lanolin 3.0

Water 3.0

Perfume 0.5

100.0

Melt the beeswax and petrolatum, add lanolin and oils. Mix, cool, and the peroxide and finally the jelly.

No.2 Quick Melting, Mineral Jelly Type

By weight

Almond oil (65-75) 43.0

Petrolatum 38.5

Ceresin 12.0

Stearic acid 6.0

Perfume 0.5

100.0

Melt waxes and petrolatum, add oil and perfume when cool.

No.3 Cold Cream Type

By weight

Beeswax 15.0

Vegetable lard 10.0

White oil (65-75) 45.0

Water almond 28.75

Borax 0.75

Perfume 0.5

100.

Melt wax and petrolatum, add oil. Dissolve borax in hot water. Add to above with stirring. Perfume at 110°F.

No. 4 Absorption Base Type

By weight

Beeswax 13.0

Vegetable lard 8.0

White oil (65-75) 20.0

Water almond 39.75

Borax 19.5

Perfume 0.5

100.0

Melt the waxes and add the oils. Warm the absorption base to 40°C. and the water likewise; then slowly add the water with steady but not violent agitation. Then add the melted waxes. A variation of this can be made by reversing quantities of oil and water, i.e., oil 39%, water 19.5%.

No.5 Lemon Cleansing Cream

Vegetable lard (refined) M.P. 133 20 kg

Beeswax white 25 kg

Petrolatum onyx 5 kg

Rose oil 100 kg

Heat the above to 140°F. and add in mixer:

Water dist. (heated to 140°F.) 50 kg

Borax 1.4 kg

Lemon type perfume (herbal) 1.8 kg

Additional Formulas

No.6

By weight

Almond oil 65.0

Petrolatum 15.0

Paraffin 20.0

No.7

Almond oil 65.0

Petrolatum 12.0

Paraffin 18.0

Cetyl alcohol 1.0

Spermaceti 4.0

100.0

No.8

Beeswax 8.3

Paraffin 6.0

Petrolatum 7.4

Coconut oil 43.5

Borax 0.3

Water 34.5

100.0

No.9

Coconut oil 62.5

Petrolatum 18.75

Paraffin 12.5

Beeswax 6.25

No. 10

Beeswax 8.0

Paraffin 7.0

Cetyl alcohol 1.0

Coconut oil 49.0

Borax 0.4

Water 34.6

100.0

No. 11

Beeswax 4.0

Paraffin 12.0

Petrolatum 12.0

Neem oil 39.8

Borax 0.2

Water 32.0

100.0

No. 12

Beeswax 6 gms

Paraffin wax 3 gms

Ceresin white 3 gms

Chandan oil 45 gms

Water distilled 20 gms

Petrolatum (superla white) 2 gms

Borax 12 gms

Perfume 6 gms

No.3 Soft cold Cream Type

By weight

Beeswax 6.0

Paraffin 12.5

White petrolatum 8.0

Ushira oil 58.0

Water 15.0

Potassium carbonate 0.3

Borax 0.2

100.0

The waxes, petrolatum, and oil are melted together and brought to 65°-75°C. The water containing the potassium carbonate and borax in solution is run in at the same temperature. Stirring is continued until cool. After adding perfume, the cream is allowed to stand over night and filled by warming slightly until just liquid.

The above is a smooth, stable white cream of medium soft consistency, which liquefies fairly readily and makes an excellent cleansing cream for dry skins.

No.14 liquefying Emulsion cream

By weight

Beeswax 4.0

Paraffin 10.0

Vegetable lard 10.8

Neem oil 55.0

Water 18.0

Borax 1.2

Glycerin 1.0

100.0

No. 15 Cleansing Cream

Paraffin wax refined 20 kgs.

Beeswax white 25 kgs.

Rose oil 105 kgs.

Water dist 50 kgs.

Borax (granular) 1.4 kgs.

Belle de nut cream and talc perfume 1.12 kgs

Heat waxes and oil in jacketed kettle to 140°F. Dissolve borax in water at 140°F. in another vessel and pour into waxes etc. Drop mixer and stir for the hour. Pour into jars at 120°F.

No.16 Liquefying Cleansing Cream

Ceresin 36 gm.

Sup. white pet. 40 gm.

Rose oil 124 gm.

New cream perfume 1.25 gm.

No.17

By weight

Protegin X 15

Ceresin 20

Neem oil 50

Water 15

100.0

Just as cold creams may be divided into oil-in-water (beeswax-borax) types and water-in-oil creams (beeswax with additional alkali), cleansing creams may be beeswax-borax (and another type of oil-in-water cream to be discussed later) and water-in-oil. This last group of cleansing creams differs from water-in-oil cold creams in that beeswax is not the emulsifier used. Where beeswax is the sole emulsifying agent in a water-in-oil cream, the latter is likely to be relatively unstable and will not be the fine textured white cream required for cosmetic application.

Cleansing creams/cold creams

(1) (2) (3)

White beeswax 120 gm

Sweet almond oil 500 ml 50 50

Rose water 50 ml

Borax powder 5 gm

Bitter almond oil 50 ml

Sodium benzoate 5 gm 5 gm

Honey dew soap 30 gm

Ground almond 120 gm

Egg yolk of 4 eggs

Honey 250 gm

Mix all the ingredients except sodium benzoate over a low flame. When the mixture cools down add sodium benzoate. Keep it in a bottle under refrigeration.

Oatmeal cleansing cream

Buttermilk 25 ml

Oatmeal 60 gm

Sodium benzoate 5 gm

Buttermilk is the residue liquid from which butter has been separated. Mix sodium benzoate in the buttermilk and add oatmeal to the mixture. Make a fine paste.

Chamomile cleansing cream

Chamomile flowers 50 gm

Distilled water 500 ml

Lemon juice 5 ml

Sodium benzoate 2 gm

Put chamomile flowers and water over a low flame for 10-15 minutes. Strain and let it cool. Add lemon juice and sodium benzoate and keep it in refrigerator.

Face packs or face masks

These are required to supplement the primary phase of skin care, i.e. cleansing. Masks stimulate the blood circulation, tone the muscles and maintain the elasticity of the skin. Also they draw out impurities from the pores. Followings are some of the face packs:

FACE PACKS FOR NORMAL SKIN

Apricot Face Pack

Honey 10 ml

Apricot extract 10 ml

Almond oil 2 ml

Lemon juice 2 ml

Mix all the ingredients and apply this paste on the face

Bail Fruit face pack

Bail fruit powder 10 ml

Date extract 30 ml

Honey 15 ml

Face packs for dry skin

Yoghurt 15 gm

Multani mitti powder 15 gm

Mint powder 5 gm

Egg face pack

Egg white 1 egg

Multani mitti 5 gm

Peppermint extract 2 gm

Water 15 ml

Soak multani mitti powder in the water. Beat the egg and blend in all the ingredients together.

Face pack of oily skin

Cucumber face pack

Cucumber juice 20 ml

Peppermints extract 2 ml

Mint juice 20 gm

Face pack for patchy skin

Brewer’s yeast 125 gm

Witch hazel extract 5 ml

Peppermint extract 5 ml

Lemon juice 5 ml

It is a soothing pack for effective blood circulation.

Red Elm face pack

Red elm bark powder 5 gm

Yoghurt 100 gm

Honey 5 gm

Peppermint extract 2 ml

Sodium bicarbonate 1 gm

Skin toning lotions

Toning removes greasiness remaining from cleansing preparations, closed pores and refine the skin. They freshen the skin and stimulate the blood supply to the skin.

Sunflower skin toning lotion

Lanolin 50 ml

Sunflower 50 ml

Wheat germ oil 5 ml

Witch hazel extract 25 ml

Sodium benzoate 5 gm

Melt lanolin in a pan over a low flame and stir in sunflower oil. Remove from the heat and stir wheat oil and witchhazel with sodium benzoate.

Absorption bases are to be recommended for the preparation of water-in-oil emulsions that are stable, white and fine-textured, and have emollient value. These products consist of a special grade of petrolatum containing a concentrate derived from lanolin, which has great water holding power. These bases can hold almost five times their weight of water and when properly used lead to fine products.

Water-in-oil creams are generally made by melting together the oily components of the mixture and then allowing the mixture to cool to about 40°C., or to incipient solidification. Water at this temperature is then stirred in a little at a time until the required amount has been added. These water-in-oil creams will separate if remelted and must therefore be filled cold into jars. Lanolin creams are made in the same way and the same precautions must be observed in filling them.

No.1

Lanolin anhydrous 25 kgs

Paraffin 130°-2° M.P. 112 ½ kgs

Beeswax 193 ¾ kgs

Almond oil 119 ¾ kgs

White petrolatum 425 kgs

Water dist 475 kgs

Tegosept 350 kgs

Boric acid 4.11 kgs

Emulsifier 6 ¼kgs

Perfume 3.2 kgs

Melt waxes in oils to 140°F. and strain through cheesecloth. Dissolve freedom in 50 kgs. hot water, cool with 50 kgs. water. Dissolve tegosept and boric acid in same quantities of water. Strain into waxes while mixing. Add balance of water. Temperature now about 140°F. Fill at 100°F.

No.2 Cream Cholesterin Type

Hydrocerin 24 kgs.

Neem oil 20 kgs.

Lanolin 30 kgs.

Vegetable lard 250 kgs

Beeswax 20 kgs

Spermaceti 24 kgs.

Glycerin 50 kgs.

Water 572 kgs.

Magnesium sulfate 5 kgs.

Perfume 5 kgs.

Add ½ of 1% of benzocaine

The hydrocerin should be completely melted with the fatty constituents on a water bath. If done over an open flame care must be taken as excessive temperature causes foaming and discoloration. Add the water and glycerin after the mass is completely melted and the mixture should then be left to stand until it reaches a temperature of 60°C.emulsification is started. To obtain a stable product a homogenizing machine should be used. Complete emulsification is usually obtained in about one-half hour. The benzocaine is best added by dissolving it in the perfume oil. This can be done by warming the oil slightly.

The terms “All Purpose Cream” “Three Purpose Cream” and “Four Purpose Cream” bear more weight as far as their names are concerned than through carrying out these purposes when applied to the skin. It is questionable whether one cream can be designed to accomplish the same purposes as four different creams will accomplish. In some cases, the very claims made are illogical and contradictory. Just as an example, the addition of sufficient emollient to a cleansing cream to actually soften the skin reduces, in most cases, its cleansing power.

As a general statement then almost any cold cream or cleansing cream may be termed an all purpose cream. This is actually what is done by cosmetic manufacturers many times in order to simplify their line of creams. An all purpose cream is a cream which combines the properties of specializes creams as far as is possible. In some cases the consumer, through weight of advertising, believes the claims, but the more discriminating users prefer specialized individual creams, for special effects upon the skin.

We present some formulas for All Purpose Creams. From the manufacturing standpoint any good cold cream or cleansing cream may be assigned additional or extended uses to designate it as an all purpose cream.

No.1 All Purpose Cream

Cucumber juice 35 kgs.

Borax 1 kgs.

BIS beeswax 8 kgs.

Iso beeswax 6 kgs.

Ceresin 3 kgs.

Absorption base 3 kgs.

Mineral oil vis. 75/80 S.G. 910 44 kgs.

Perfume ¾ kgs.

No.2 All Purpose Cream

Mineral oil 75/80 91 ¼ kgs.

Paraffin (133° M.P.) 12 ½ kgs.

Spermaceti 10 kgs.

Cetyl alcohol 2 ½ kgs

Beeswax 21 kgs.

Marigold water 125 kgs.

Cholesterol 1 ¼ kgs.

Protein X 3 ¾ kgs.

Hydrosol 1 ¼ kgs

Tegosept 1 kgs.

Methyl cellulose ½ kgs

Perfume 0.15 kgs.

1. Dissolve methylcellulose by adding 10 kgs. water. Stir to wet. Cool and stir occasionally.

2. Melt waxes together.

3. Add white rose oil, cholesterol, protegin and hydrocol.

4. Strain into kettle and heat to 140°F.

5. Add dissolved methyl cellulose to water and heat to 140°F. Add gradually.

6. Mix at high speed until temperature is 105°F.

7. Fill at this temperature.

No. 3 Citrons All Purpose Cream

By weight

Hydrosol 12.0

Water 78.0

Glycerin 1.0

Almond oil 2.0

Cetyl alcohol crude 5.0

Satiric acid 2.0

Lemon juice 0.25

100.0

CHAPTER 7.1

DENTRIFICES AND MOUTH WASHES

Dentifrices and mouthwashes which are generally produced by cosmetic manufacturers are really not cosmetics. They fall more properly into the field of hygienic products. Just as soap is used to cleanse the surface of the body so are these items necessary to the proper cleansing of the oral cavity. Both products have more or less the same functions, which are to cleanse, to counteract bad breath and to leave a refreshing clean taste in the mouth. It may also be argued that properly cleaned teeth add to personal appearance and good health.

There are various classes of tooth powders on the market. These comprise the most common or foaming, abrasive type, those that contain charcoal, the dedicated type and the dissolving type. Two common formulas for foaming type of tooth powder are as follows:

No.1

Saindhara 160 kgs.

Calcium sulfate (chrysalba) 20 kgs.

Neutral white soap powder 30 kgs.

Saccharine 5 gm

Flavor 3 kgs.

No.2

Akarakara 44 kgs.

Precipitated chalk, light 20 kgs.

Silica air-floated (000 grade) 25 kgs.

Zinc chloride 1 kgs.

Castile soap powder 5 kgs.

Borax 5 kgs.

Saccharine (soluble) 4 gms.

Flavor 1 kgs.

A tooth powder which contains charcoal may be made by this formula:

No.3

Ground willow charcoal 100 kgs.

Akarakara 90 kgs.

Neutral white soap powder 30 kgs.

Saccharine 6 gm

Flavor 4 kgs.

There are many variations of medicated tooth powders possible but the most popular ones on the market today are those that base their claims on their peroxide content. Formulas for this type are as follows:

No.4

Akarakara 100 kgs.

Precipitated chalk, dense 100 kgs.

Powdered sugar 10 kgs.

Sodium carbonates 25 kgs.

Flavor 4 kgs.

No.5

Akarakara 150 kgs.

Magnesium, carbonate 25 kgs.

Saccharine 5 gms

Flavor 4 kgs.

Calcium 25 kgs.

The dissolving types of tooth powders consist of combinations of entirely water-soluble substances like borax, salt, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate. Sodium carbonate, which was used in the pure state several years ago, has been quite generally criticized because it is claimed to be deleterious when used in the mouth.

Since this tooth powder field is one in which many formulas may be devised, additional composition of these products are presented.

No.6 Oxygenated tooth powder

Tricalcium phosphate 35.0

Akarakara 40.15

Pulverized neutral white soap 10.0

Sodium carbonates 14.0

Flavor (oil of wintergreen) 0.75

Saccharine 0.1

No.7 Antacid Tooth Powder

Purified zinc peroxide 10.0

Saindhava 46.0

Tricalcium phosphate 20.0

Bicarbonate of soda 6.5

Pulverized neutral soap 6.0

Confectioner’s XXXX sugar 11.0

Flavor to suit 0.5

100.0

No.8 Sodium corroborate Tooth Powder

Magnesium carbonates 24.0 (50:50)

Tomer beej kapoor 35.0

Sodium perborate 14.5

Sodium bicarbonate 13.95

Soap 4.0

Sugar 7.5

Methyl salicylate 0.75

Menthol 0.1

Oil of cinnamon 0.2

100.0

No.9 Antacid Tooth Powder

Sodium carbonate 10.0

Pipli garlic powder 66.0 (50:50)

Tricalcium phosphate 12.0

Soap 3.5

Sugar 8.0

Flavor 0.5

100.0

No.10 Antacid Tooth Powder

Tejbal Tonrbeez 48.0 (50:50)

Magnesium hydroxide 6.5

Tricalcium phosphate 9.5

Soap, powdered neutral while 6.75

Talc 19.0

Sugar 9.5

Flavors 0.75

100.0

No. 11 Acid Tooth Powder

Cream of tartar 24.0

Milk sugar 18.0

Calcium sulfate 47.25

Titanium dioxide 10.0

Flavor 0.75

Colour if desired

100.0

No. 12 Acid Tooth Powder

Tartaric acid 2.0

Sodium benzoate 4.0

Calcium sulfate 25.0

Talc 42.0

Colloidal clay 25.1

Honey 1.0

Colour 0.1

Flavor 0.8

100.0

No. 13 Foamy Powders

Neem/akhrot/babul 65.0 (33:33:33)

Powdered sepia 4.5

Powdered castile soap 18.3

Powdered orris 9.0

Saccharine 0.2

Oil of wintergreen 3.0

No. 14

Badan/Lavang/Triphala 63.0 (33:33:33)

Powdered myrrh 5.5

Powdered sugar 21.0

White castile soap 10.5

Oil of wintergreen Sufficient

100.0

Tooth Powders with Magnesium Peroxide

Magnesium peroxide 30% 25.0

Kali mirch/Pudina salva 50.0 (50:50)

Precipitated magnesium carbonates 15.0

Bentonite 10.0

100.0

No. 16

Magnesium peroxide 30% 25.0

Silica gel 10.0

Vajradanthi 50.0

Soap powder 10.0

Milk sugar 5.0

100.0

Tooth powders

Formula No. 17

Rumi mastilki 2.5%

Yavani sattva 2.5%

Sphatic puspa 5.5%

Majuphal 5.5%

Lavang 5.5%

Saindhava 20%

Akarakara 41%

Harida 2.5%

Sonth 2.5%

Pippali 2.5%

Kali mirch 2.5%

Formula No. 18

Pudina salva 0.240%

Lavang Ka Tail 1.152%

Tomer Breez 3.040%

Karpoor 4.76%

Kalamirch 6.080%

Pippali 6.080%

Sunthi 6.080%

Tamal patra 6.080%

Garlic powder 6.080%

Formula No. 19

Rumi mastilki 1.5%

Akarakara 4.5%

Tikatu 6%

Kapur 2%

Yavai Satva 3.5%

Swarna gairik 8%

Neem 5.5%

Sphatic puspa 5.5%

Majuphal 7.5%

Akhrot 5.3%

Babul 5.5%

Tejbal 26%

Saidkhava 5.5%

Triphala 6%

Samudra jhag 7.5%

Formula 20

Rumi mastaki 3.5%

Mortutta 3.5%

Chalk 80%

Jaiphal 1.5%

Badam 1.5%

Vajradanthi 1.5%

Eucalyptus telc 10%

CHAPTER 7.2

TOOTHPASTES

The composition of toothpastes varies considerably. They can be classified in different ways, but the simplest method to classify then for our purpose is according to their foaming or lathering ability. We can, by this method, put them into three cases, those with no foaming properties, those with slight foaming properties and those with high foaming qualities. The amount of foam produced during use is, of course, dependent upon the amount and kind of wetting agent or soap used in the product. A typical formula for a toothpaste made with out soap or foaming ability follows:

Formula 1

Simple syrup 5 kgs.

Lavang oil 5 ½ kgs.

Glycerite of starch 11 ½ kgs.

Saidhara 83 kgs.

Magnesium carbonate 2 kgs.

Calcium sulfate 5 kgs.

Milk of magnesia 36 kgs.

Saccharine 2 ½ kgs.

Gum tragacanth 2 kgs.

Flavor 4 kgs.

As a premise to all directions in making tooth paste, it is pointed out that all the tooth paste ingredients which we will consider, and this applies particularly to liquid ingredients, are taken by weight and not by volume for the obvious reason that temperature changes will increase and decrease the volume of liquids.

The formula which we have selected may be classed as a milk of magnesia type of dental cream. It includes more ingredients than are usually found in toothpaste and has been particularly selected for this reason. The steps in putting this formula together follow this procedure:

1. The simple syrup, glycerite of starch and milk of magnesia are prepared beforehand. It is good policy to make these up in sufficient quantities to take care of as many batches as conditions dictate. These are all made according to the USP

XI directions or variations may be desirable in the making of the milk of magnesia by more facile methods than those outlined in the Pharmacopoeia.

2. The gum tragacanth is mixed with part of the hot water employed in making glycerite of starch, and is filtered into this as the glycerite is cooling. To blend the ingredients, the simple syrup, mineral oil, glycerite of starch, milk of magnesia and flavor are weighed and put into the mixer. The saccharine is pre-mixed with the calcium sulfate. This mixture is first added to the liquids while the agitator is running. Then the rest of the abrasives are gradually added and the mixing is continued until the mass is homogeneous. It is then passed through an ointment mill, after standing over night, run to the storage tank which feeds directly to the filling machine, tested for consistency and other properties and filled.

It is quite simple to convert this formula into a foaming type of tooth paste by the addition of alkyl aryl sulfate by merely replacing a part of the chalk with these wetting agents. These may be incorporated anywhere from one percent to five percent, depending upon the amount of lathering quality desired. The incorporation of wetting agents in dental creams does not offer the same difficulty as the addition of soap.

Two formulas for toothpaste made with medium quantities of soap follow:

Formula 1.

1. Make up a mucilage paste in a glass-lined or stainless steel jacketed kettle, equipped with a mixer by charging it with 75 ½ lbs. glycerin USP, start the agitator and gradually add in small quantities 4 ½ pounds powdered Irish moss, ground to pass at least 120 mesh. Continue to mix at room temperature until the mass is uniform. This takes about half an hour. Turn the heat onto the jacket and heat to 212 degrees F., with the mixer running until all the Irish moss is dispersed.

Dissolve 6 ½ oz. soluble saccharine and any colour if desired in two pounds of distilled, hot water. Stair this well with a paddle and add to the glycerin-Irish moss mixture above.

Add 25 pounds distilled water and keep the temperature at 212 degrees F. continue the mixing, shut off the heat and agitate while cooling. Cool down to about 120 degrees F. and strain off the mucilage through a muslin cloth or suitable filter.

2. Make up a soap mixture by following these directions:

First dissolve 7 ¾ pounds sodium carbonate USP in 47 ½ pounds of distilled water by heating to about 180 degrees F. Melt 7 ¾ pounds stearic acid XXX in a glass-lined vessel.

Transfer the sodium carbonate solution to a suitable mixer and add the molten stearic acid in a thin steady stream, stirring the soap well, but slowly to prevent aerating it too much. Continue the mixing until it is uniform, keeping the soap hot. Then with the agitator running, gradually add 12 pounds 13 ounces of neutral white soap and when the soap mixture is uniform and smooth, it is ready for use.

3. Transfer the strained mucilage base to a pony or other suitable type mixer. Add the soap mixture and stir the two together.

With the mixer running, gradually add 116 ½ pounds light precipitated chalk. Reduce the speed of the mixer and add 307 pounds of water distilled. Continue to mix until the mass is homogeneous, scraping down the sides of the mixer and the agitator blades occasionally. When uniform, remove the finished paste to tubs or small tanks. Let it stand over night and the next morning pass it through an ointment mill, after which the product may be examined for consistency and other characteristics. Then fill it.

Formula 2

1. In a tinned-copper, jacketed kettle heat a mixture of 20 pounds of propylene glycol and 51 ½ pounds of glucose (sweetsop type) to about 220 degrees F. Dissolve 4 ounces of salt in 8 ½ pounds of distilled water and then stir in 9 pounds redried starch. Stir well to wet the starch and add this mixture gradually to the hot glycol glucose mix, continuing the agitation with a wooden paddle if it is so desired. Continue to heat at boiling temperature until the mass is transparent and smooth.

2. Make an Irish moss mucilage by adding 6 pounds of Irish moss, picked free from extraneous material. In 384 pounds of boiling hot distilled water. Stir well to extract the moss and permit the temperature to drop to about 100 degree F. Strain the mucilage through a muslin cloth and dissolve 12 ounces of benzoic acid therein. Bring the yield up to exactly 360 pound with cold distilled water. This batch represents sufficient Irish moss mucilage for five batches of toothpaste.

3. Transfer 72 pounds of Irish moss mucilage into a suitable mixer. Add the glycol-glucose solution above while it is still warm and sift in while agitating:

Neutral white 13 ¾ kgs

Benzoic acid 3 ¼ kgs

Saccharine 1/2 kgs

Stir until smooth and add the flavor. If menthol is used be sure to dissolve it in the flavoring oils before adding. About 4 pounds of flavor are used for a batch this size. Continue the mixing, then add gradually in 25 pounds lots, stirring between additions.

Akarakara 115 kgs

Calcium sulfate (chrysalba) 8 ½ kgs

When this has all been mixed in, finally add 45 pounds magnesium hydroxide paste (hydro magma paste); mix until uniform after all the ingredients have been added. This takes about one-half an hour. Let stand over night and then cool and fill.

It will be noted that the above formula contains no glycerin. If it is desired to use this, glycerin may be used in amount equal to the sum of the weight of the propylene glycol and glucose indicated. The methods of making are exactly the same.

A toothpaste with a high soap content and containing no water has the following composition:

Neutral white soap 96 ½ kgs.

Akarakara 82 kgs.

Alcoho0l specially denatured 31-A ( 20 lbs. Neutral

White soap not over 5% moisture and 100 lbs.

Glycerin add to 100 gallon ethyl alcohol) 80 kgs.

Glycerin USP 35 gms

To put together this type of dental cream, first make an essence of the alcohol, glycerin, benzoic acid and flavor. Charge into a mixer, preferably covered, the soap and the chalk and blend them by mixing. Add the essence gradually to this soap-chalk mixture and continue stirring until the mass is smooth. Cool the paste and fill as soon as possible.

Additional formulas follow:

No. 1 Inexpensive

Triphala/Jaiphal 44.0

Colloidal clay 3.0

Gum tragacanth mucilage (2%) 3.0

Glucose 4.0

Honey 15.0

Water 30.3

Flavor 0.5

Methyl parahydroxybenzoate 0.2

Put hot water, glucose and mucilage into a hot mixer. Sift the dry ingredients and slowly add them to the liquids while mixing. Mix until smooth paste is obtained, then run through an ointment mill or a roller mill. Add preservative and flavor.

No. 2 High Grade

Swarna gairik 46/0

Powdered gum tragacanth 1.0

Pulverized neutral white soap 4.1

Honey 24.5

Water 18.7

Powdered soluble saccharine 0.1

Methyl parahydroxybenzoate 0.1

Flavor 0.5

Alcohol 5.0

100.0

Mix alcohol and the gum; add hot water, glycerin, soap, saccharine, preservative and flover. Mix one-half hour. Mix and sieve the dry ingredients and slowly add them to the liquid. Mix until a smooth white paste is obtained. Mill. The consistency of this paste is slightly heavy. It can be reduced by adding water.

No. 3 Acid-Reacting Tooth Paste

Titanium dioxide 7.0

Talc 35.0

Honey 28.0

Water 16.0

Tartaric or citric acid solution (10%) 8.85

Pectin from citrus fruits 0.75

Flavor 0.75

Sugar (milk) 3.5

Sodium benzoate 0.15

100.0

Disperse the pectin powder in the acid solution. Heat the glycerin and water; add the sugar. Mix well. Add the preservative and flavor and mix again. Sift in the dry material, mix thoroughly and mill.

No. 4 Alkaline Tooth Paste

Tikatu 25.0

Maganesium carbonate 14.0

Borax 5.0

Honey 25.0

Water 28.4

Powdered neutral white soap 2.0

Saccharine 0.1

Flavor 0.5

100.0

No. 5 Milk of Magnesial Tooth Paste 24.0

Magnesium carbonates 10.0

Yavani satva 18.0

Soap, powdered neutral white 1.75

Glycerite of starch 12.0

Honey 12.0

Water 20.0

Flavor 0.1

Methyl parahydroxybenozate 1.0

Mineral oil, heavy 1.5

Saccharine 0.15

100.0

To boiling water add glycerin, preservative, milk or magenesia, and the glycerite. Mix for a half hour and then add the dry materials very slowly. Finally add flavor and mineral oil. Mix for another hour and mill. The glycerite of starch is made as follows:

Glycerite of Starch

Corn starch 40.5

Water 24.0

Honey 35.5

100.0

Mix the foregoing into a smooth paste. Then, to twelve parts of this paste, add eighty-eight parts of glycerin, heated to 180°F. Mix continually, to avoid discoloring the glycerite, with constant heat for about an hour or until a smooth translucent paste is formed. Great care must be exercised in making this preparation. This product can be purchased ready made form chemical supply houses.

No.6 Soapy Tooth Paste

Pulverized neutral white soap 20.0

Sonth/pipli 35.0 (50:50)

Colloidal clay 3.0

Saccharine 0.3

Water 10.7

Honey 25.0

Alcohol 5.0

Flavor 1.0

100.0

Make a hot excipient of the glycerin and water. Slowly stir in the soap. Add the flavors mixed with alcohol. Finally stir in the sifted dry ingredients. Adjust consistency to suit with chalk. Mill. T his makes a very foamy paste. A small amount of gum tragacanth powder may be added.

The following formula will give a dental cream of fair consistency and is simple to manufacture:

No.7

Pudina 0.0

Tricaicium phosphate 6.0

White soap powder 2.0

Gum tragacanth mucilage (2%) 5.0

Saccharine (soluble) 0.1

Preservative 0.1

Majuphal 1.0

Honey 15.0

Water; distilled 30.3

Flavor 0.5

100.0

Soak gum tragacanth in one-third of the water, then place in mixer with the remainder of the water and glycerin. Heat, stir thoroughly and add the sifted powders containing the saccharine; then add the flavor, preservative and mineral oil. Mix until the paste is smooth, the larger the batch, the longer the mixing should be continued. Mill through an ointment mill. Allow to stand and then tube in the regular way.

No.8

Tamal patra 42.0

Neutral soap powder 10.0

Benzoic acid 1.0

Saccharine 1.0

Honey 25.0

Alcohol 20.0

Flavor 1.0

100.0

Dissolve the saccharine and flavor in 50% of the alcohol in one container and the benzoic acid in the remaining 50% of alcohol in another container. In the mixing machine place all of the glycerin into which the alcohol containing the benzoic acid is added through a strainer. Now add the alcohol containing the saccharine and flavor in the same manner. There liquids should be well agitated. Add about one-half of the precipitated chalk and mix well. Carefully add the soap powder, mix, and then add the remainder of the chalk. Continue the mixing for two or three hours. Mill in the usual way.

This dental cream when used will give large quantity of suds. In pastes of this type the benzoic acid sets free a portion of the fatty acid used in manufacturing the soap while the remainder of the soap acts as the binder and producers a satisfactory cream.

No.9

Tricalcium phosphate 23.0

Calcium sulfate 35.0

Honey 25.0

Water (distilled) 10.0

Glycerite of tragacanth 4.0

Lavang oil 1.0

Acid 0.1

Sodium lauryl sulfate 0.4

Methyl hydroxy benzoate 0.1

Flavor 1.4

100.0

The glycerite of tragacanth should be made beforehand. Using the hot method, and it is important that the glycerite be well prepared. The glycerin and glycerite of tragacanth are placed in the mixer and mixed until a smooth, even consistency is obtained. Add the water, tricalcium phosphate and calcium sulfate, mix well and add the sodium lauryl sulfate. Then add the flavor in which the saccharine has been dissolved. The mineral oil should be added last. All the powders should be free from carbonates, as the addition of the acid will liberate CO2 which will cause the cream to become spongy, and, when packaged, will cause the tube to swell and sometimes burst.

Milk of magnesia toothpastes are quite popular and one manufactured along the lines of the following formula will be found to give good results.

No. 10

Milk of magnesia 24.0

Kalamirch 32.0

White powdered soap 2.0

Glycerite of stragacanth 10.0

Honey 10.0

Lavang oil 1.0

Water (distilled) 20.0

Saccharine (soluble) 0.1

Methyl hydroxy benzoat 0.1

Flavor 0.8

100.0

Mix glycerite of tragacanth (tragacanth 10%) glycerin 78%, water 12%. Mix with heat). Glycerin and water together, add one half of the chalk, mix, add the milk of magnesia, mix; then the soap and the rest of the chalk. Finally add the saccharine and preservative dissolved in the flavor. Mix well for two hours and mill. In making the milk of magnesia, time can be saved by buying pulverized magnesium oxide and hydrating it with hot water, then passing it through a colloid mill. The finished product should contain the required 7% of magnesium hydroxide.

No. 11 Magnesia Tooth Paste

Part I

Magnesia honey mixture;

130.0 parts milk of magnesia

110.0 parts honey

Mix and evaporate to 130.0 parts

Part II

Giycerite of starch

158.0 parts glycerin

74.0 parts milk of starch

(Milk of starch consists of 34.0 parts cornstarch, 20 parts water and 30 parts glycerin mixed.)

Heat the glycerin to 140° C. and add the milk of starch with constant agitation. Maintain the temperature for one hour.

Part III

Toothpaste:

130.0 parts magnesia honey mixture (part I)

70.0 parts glycerite of starch (special) (Part II)

30.0 parts honey

20.0 parts corn sugar

Part IV

Mix for 15 minutes and add:

65.0 parts precipitated chalk, light

90.0 parts dicalcium phosphate

5.8 parts powdered neutral white soap

17.0 parts magnesium carbonate, light

There powdered materials should be mixed dry and then added gradually, a process which will require approximately one hour after which the paste should be mixed at least one hour and then the following added:

Part V

3.2 Parts flavor

8.0 parts lavang oil

Note: The above tooth paste has an MgO content equivalent to approximately 53% milk of magnesia.


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