Coal is one of the world's most plentiful energy resources. Coal is one of the fastest growing forms of energy after renewable sources and its share in the global primary energy consumption increasing rapidly. Lignin is the most abundant natural raw material available on Earth in terms of solar energy storage. Lignin is a complex chemical compound, cross linked polymer that forms a large molecular structure. Lignin can be used as a green alternative to many petroleum-derived substances, such as fuels, resins, rubber additives, thermoplastic blends and pharmaceuticals. Rosin is a complex mixture of mainly resin acids and small amount of non-acidic components.
Energy markets are evolving with technological advancements supporting rapid growth in renewable energy capacity. The coal market is set to witness great boost in near future because of the rising government initiatives.
Coal is one of the main power generation sources all over the world. The factors that are favoring the market growth include rising electricity demand and rapid industrialization. Presently the global coal industry market is valued at $9.4 with CAGR of 11.21 % is poised to reach $22 billion in coming years. Asia Pacific has the larger demand and emerging as a larger supplier of Coal. The present global lignin market demand is estimated at $ 4,222.1 million and is expected to reach $6,190.5 million in future.
The Major contents of the book are coal, analysis of coal and coke, cotton, lignin and hemicelluloses, degradation of wood, CCA-treated wood, wood-polymer composites, lignocellulosic-plastic composites from recycled materials, chemical modification of wood fiber, delignification of wood with pernitric acid, rosin and rosin derivatives, polymerizable half esters of rosin. It describes the manufacturing processes and photographs of plant & machinery with supplier’s contact details.
It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area and others interested in the field of these industries.
Coal carbonization byproducts (coal tar
and coke-oven gas) were
the main sources for the production of organic chemicals till the
War. However, the abundant availability of cheap petroleum and natural
caused a major shift from coal to these raw materials. After the Second
War, there was a consistent increase in the consumption of
the last 10 years, with the continuing rise in oil prices, and scarcity
uncertainty regarding assured supplies of natural gas and petroleum
attention towards achieving self-sufficiency in chemicals and
fuels has been focussed on exploring alternative feedstocks like coal
biomass. In this context, there is a need for reassessing the
obtaining organic chemicals from coal. It is anticipated that it will
cheaper to make liquid and gaseous fuels from coal than from oil before
of this century.
The use of coal as a source of chemicals
is at present confined
mainly to high temperature carbonization (HTC) through the recovery of
products. A part from the traditional coking route, concerted efforts
made to obtain various chemicals by other coal conversion processes,
direct hydrogenation or solvent extraction of coal followed by
hydrotreating or hydrocracking of the products and by synthesis of
via synthesis gas produced by coal gasification.
is an important basic
building block of the petrochemical industry. The production and
large quantities of olefins from petroleum refinery off-gases first
with the advent of catalytic cracking. Rapid growth in the demand for
petrochemicals necessitated the setting up of plants to produce
other olefin monomers by thermal cracking of a wide range of petroleum
routes considered for the
production of ethylene from coal include: (i) Fischer-Tropsch
direct conversion of synthesis gas, (iii) conversion of coal-derived
(iv) homologation of methanol to ethanol followed by dehydration, (v)
of dimethyl ether which again is derived from synthesis gas or
(vi) cracking of synthetic liquids produced in direct liquefaction
– Tropsch Synthesis for
Tropsch (FT) synthesis for the
production of fuels from coal has been in operation on a commercial
1955 in Sasolburg, South Africa. It is known that through proper choice
reactor, catalyst and operating conditions, the product pattern can be
in FT synthesis. The dilute fluid bed or Kellogg type of reactor
shifts the product spectrum to lower hydrocarbons. It gives an ethylene
of 4.4% and also C3 and C4 olefins. Ethane produced in
the process can
also be converted to ethylene. The cost of ethylene from the recovery
is about 30 cents/lb compared to 18-19 cents/lb from the conventional
cracking. In the steam cracking of FT product, the cost of ethylene is
estimated at 30 - 50cents/lb. In the Sasol 2 plant in South Africa, the
production of 1.5 million tones of automotive fuels, 1,60,000 tonnes of
ethylene and 50,000 tonnes of chemicals, 1,00,000 tonnes of ammonia,
tonnes of sulphur and 2,00,000 tonnes of tar products, including tar
Direct Conversion of Synthesis Gas to
Direct conversion of synthesis gas from
coal to ethylene and
ethanol is now attracting attention. Efforts to get ethylene by passing
synthesis gas (CO: H2 ratio,
74:24:8) in a copper tube at 550ºC resulted in 5.6% ethylene in the
gas, whereas when synthesis gas containing 0.6% ethylene was passed
over a CuO
(3%) – Al2O3 catalyst
at 250ºC and 20 – 40 atm pressure, the ethylene content increased to
the other hand, Peters used a four-component catalyst system to convert
synthesis gas (46.4% CO, 42.5% H2 and 11.1% inert) to
ethylene. Several iron and
cobalt-based FT catalysts have been evaluated for the conversion of
gas to C2 – C4 olefins. As the copper and
the alkali contents
were increased in iron-copper-kieselguhr-K2O
product distribution shifted towards lower molecular weight
activity and selectivity of Ni- or
Co-based bimetallic catalysts containing several other metals as
been evaluated. The bimetallic catalysts give a somewhat different
distribution compared to Ni or Co catalysts. The addition of Re to Ni
the formation of ethane (22% at 185ºC), that of Ru favours the long
hydrocarbons, while addition of lr favours the formation of dimethyl
210ºC (40% at 190ºC). Co - Mn gives products containing a higher
olefins which is higher at lower temperatures and lower H2 - CO ratios.
favourable olefin selectivity
obtained on the addition of basic promoters to the conventional iron
suggests that metal interactions with basic or electron-donor sites in
may have an important influence on selectivity. A marked increase in
selectivity of ruthenium is observed as sodium ions in the zeolite are
by potassium or caesium ions.
The work done at Pittsburgh Energy
Research Center indicated that
a fused iron catalyst is particularly effective in giving high yields
olefins. Experiments were conducted in a microreactor with temperature
250 - 350ºC, pressure range 20 - 68 atm, synthesis gas having
1:1, 2:1 and 3:1 of H2:
CO and also mixtures containing CO2 and hourly space velocities
Ethanol from Synthesis Gas
Synthesis gas has been converted to
ethanol at 250-290ºC, 50 atm
and a space velocity of 1000-4000 hr-1 in a bench scale unit using
a special rhodium
cluster catalyst. The conversion of CO was 10% and the reaction product
contained 75-80% ethanol. The activity of the catalyst during one month
of operation (8 hr-a-day) remained almost constant. Work done at the
Carbide Corporation showed that addition of Fe to Rh increased the
ethanol at 68 atm. On the other hand, large proportions of ethane and
ether were obtained with alumina-supported platinum.
Olefins from Methanol
Conversion of coal-based methanol to
ethylene and propylene
offers an attractive route to the use of coal as a basic raw material.
formation of C2 - C5 olefins (1.6 mole%) was
noticed by Mattox
during methanol dehydration over NaX zeolites. Similar results have
reported by several investigators using various catalysts. The product
distribution suggests that an a-elimination
is occurring in the methanol adsorbed on the zeolite surface.
The carbene methylene species so formed can polymerize to form simple
molecular weight olefins.
Methanol cannot dehydrate to form an
olefin unless recombination
of one-carbon fragments takes place. Aromatics are produced by
cyclization of C3,
C4 and C5 olefins.
Laboratory scale experiments were
conducted using tungstic acid
impregnated on zeolites, MgO or Al2O3.
with rare earths gave higher yields ranging from 16 to 30% ethylene and
30% propylene with methanol conversion of 80 – 90%. Dimethyl ether
the process can also be converted to olefins using the same catalyst.
reaction mechanism involves three consecutive surface reactions.
methanol is dehydrogenated to formaldehyde followed by dimerization of
formaldehyde and dehydration of the dimer to give adsorbed ethylene.
The possibilities of producing ethylene
and propylene from
coal-based methanol on a laboratory scale have been explored by BASF.
BASF constructed a pilot plant with 15 tonnes per month
capacity at a cost
of $ 1.5-1.6 million at Ludwigshafen, West Germany to produce olefins
methanol. In this process, 3-4 lb of methanol is catalytically
(catalyst, ZSM-5 zeolite) to give 1 lb of olefins. Methanol is first
to dimethyl ether, which, in turn, gives ethylene by dehydration.
olefins are also produced in varying amounts, depending on
The best potential approach to the
production of ethylene from
synthesis gas appears to be through its reaction with methanol to form
and subsequent dehydration of ethanol to ethylene. Wender showed that
reacts with synthesis gas in the presence of dicobalt octacarbonyl [CO2(CO)8]
catalyst to give ethanol, but higher alcohols, including ethanol, are
relatively unreactive in this system. The reaction was carried out in
autoclaves at 183 – 185oC
and 275 atm at 75% conversion to
give about 40% of ethanol in the product. About 4% propanol was formed
with 0.3% butanols.
methanol homologation reaction as
catalysed by Co2(CO)8 is a very complex one,
highly dependent on a
variety of reaction parameters and variables. The initial carbonylation
product, acetaldehyde, is obtained in high selectivity by proper ligand
modification. A selectivity of 62.3% was obtained at 200oC
and 270 atm
for 3 hr process time using a cobalt-iodine catalyst. High
lead to undesirable reaction by products and catalyst deactivation. The
form of Co in the iodine – promoted system is Co(CO)4–,
as indicated by high pressure IR spectroscopy.
Methanol to Acetic Acid
phase carbonylation of methanol
has become an important industrial process which uses iodide or
cobalt as a catalyst and an organic or inorganic iodide, such as methyl
hydrogen iodide or potassium iodide, as promoter.
carbonyl and some other nickel
compounds are also effective at low pressures of about 50 atm in the
of iodide in the liquid reaction media of some organic amines of
the process developed by Monsanto,
a new iodide-promoted rhodium catalyst which exhibits high activity for
methanol carbonylation even at atmospheric pressure is used. The yield
acetic acid is 99% based on methanol and 90% based on carbon monoxide.
with a current annual capacity of 143 million kilograms is now
40% of the world’s capacity for acetic acid is based on Monsanto
The most promising route to ethylene
glycol involves direct conversion
of synthesis gas using rhodium catalyst.
yields of ethylene glycol were reported. The reaction takes place at
and 1400 - 3000 atm over a rhodium carbonyl catalyst, but comparatively
pressures of the order of 400 atm may be sufficient to achieve a
degree of conversion. Such a low pressure process using a more specific
catalyst promises to be a commercial success. In the work carried out
Carbide, a solvent having a high dielectric constant to ensure ion
and/or complex the cations to prevent pairing with a anionic centers
International has nearly
completed the development of a methanol carbonylation route to vinyl
In this process, methanol is reacted with recycled acetic acid to make
acetate; the methyl acetate is reacted with synthesis gas to produce
diacetate, which is subjected to cracking to produce vinyl acetate and
acid for recycle.
Monsanto reported a method for the
alkylation of toluene with
methanol over modified zeolite catalyst to produce a mixture of
and styrene. At
present, the product
concentrations are very low (5 mol% of styrene and ethylbenzene) and
catalyst regeneration is necessary. Both BASF and Rohm and Haas have
investigating the base catalysed addition of formaldehyde (as acetal)
propionate to form methyl methacrylate.
Coal Pyrolysis Processes
Coal tar is an inevitable byproduct in the
metallurgical coke. Important chemicals, such as benzene, toulene and
(BTX), can be produced from the benzole recovered from coke oven gas as
from the light oil obtained by the distillation of coal tar. The other
constituents of high temperature coal tar are naphthalene (10%),
(1.8%), phenanthrene (5.0%), fluorine (2.0%), fluoranthene (3.3%),
(0.4%) and pyridine (0.02%). Bulk products, such as creosotes and
also produced from coal tar.
With the exception of limited quantities
produced in USA through
dealkylation of aromatic petroleum fractions, naphthalene is almost
obtained from coal tar. Methyl naphthalene and dimethyl naphthalenes
present in the heavier coal tar fractions (250 – 3500C).
dealkylation of these methyl naphthalenes can yield further quantities
The Coalite and Chemicals Products Ltd,
UK, are processing the
tar from LTC into valuable chemicals (pure phenols, chlorinated
chemical intermediates for plasticizers, pharmaceuticals and adhesives.
phenol-free middle oil fraction was processed into diesel oil till 1965.
The pyrolysis of tars or vapours from LTC
of coal is considered
as a possible route for producing olefins. Laboratory scale
conducted on cracking of vapour and tars obtained by LTC of Texas and
Dakota lignites. When Texas lignite was carbonized at 5500C
and the tar vapours were cracked at 8000C,
the yields of ethylene,
propylene and benzene were 40, 7.6 and 6 lb respectively per tonne of
However, the process was not considered economically viable. LTC of
coals from West Virginia in the presence of superheated steam followed
of the vapours at 800 – 9000C
gave 191-245 lb of ethylene, 20-41
lb of propylene and 21-47 lb of benzene per tonne of coal (MAF).
Acetylene is an important chemical
intermediate for the
production of acetaldehyde, vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride,
It is generally obtained by high temperature pyrolysis of natural gas
naphtha fractions in addition to the conventional calcium carbide
process to make acetylene by pyrolysing coal in an electric arc has
developed by Avco Everett Research Laboratory, Everett, Mass. In this
pulverized coal is injected into a stabilized arc, the pyrolysis
quenched and acetylene is separated from the product. Pyrolysis is
hydrogen atmosphere, which increases the yield of acetylene. The
been tested in a unit that operates at 75-100 kW producing 0.15-0.20
acetylene. A pilot plant to process 10 tonnes/day of coal that would
3-3.35 tonnes/day of acetylene has been proposed.
Production of Chemicals by Coal
Several investigations have been made to
study the possibilities
of producing chemicals from coal liquefaction products. Dow Chemical
studied the feasibility of producing chemical feedstocks from
liquids from COED, Synthoil, H-Coal and Solvent Refined Coal (SRC)
In the Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) process,
which provides a
technically feasible route to the production of liquid products from
types of coal, the byproducts form a potential source of petrochemical
feedstock. The major source of ethylene and propylene is derived by
the light gas product blend containing ethane, propane and mixed
Coal and Coke
is a readily combustible rock containing more than 50% by weight and
70% by volume of carbonaceous material, formed from compaction or
variously altered plant remains similar to those of peaty deposits.
in the kinds of plant materials (type), in degree of metamorphosis
range in impurity (grade) are characteristic of the varieties of coal.
form, coal appears to be black or brownish black. The luster, fracture,
texture vary according to type, rank, and grade. Chemically, coal
mainly of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with minor amounts of nitrogen,
silica, alumina, iron, and trace amounts of fifty-three other elements.
composition varies to such an extent that Hendricks states that no two
are absolutely the same. Some of the elements are inherent in the
plants; others have been incorporated during the coalification process;
others have been picked up as extraneous matter in mining, preparation,
types, ranks, and grades of
coal are dependent on the characteristics of the original plants and
chemical, biological, and physical processes involved in metamorphosis.
Variations in the combination of processes and the materials processed
end products varying in chemical and physical properties. Analytical
that will consistently show numerical differences between these
data with which the types, ranks, and grades can be determined.
of the principal coal
producing countries in the world has a series of procedures or national
standards. The Technical Committee 27 on Solid Mineral Fuels of the
International Standards Organisation (ISO) consists of representatives
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Spain, France, Germany,
Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia,
United Arab Republic, United Kingdom, United States, Soviet Union, and
Yugoslavia collaborating on the international standardization for coal
though the coke was produced
and used by metallurgical plants, the specifications were maintained by
chemical and physical tests. Uniformity is very essential in the
this section, the methods for
coal are discussed in detail. Testing methods for coke are the same as
except the procedures for stability, porosity, and density. More
information on the testing methods can be found in the publications of
Bureau of Mines, British Standards Institution, and the American
Testing and Materials.
to any chemical or
physical testing of coal in the laboratory it is essential that a
representative sample be provided. The most carefully conducted
meaningless unless the sample be truly representative of the lot. This
that increments are specified in number, weight, frequency, and method
extraction. The properly collected gross sample must be reduced in
size and mass to laboratory size by a method that retains the
representativeness without gain or loss of such fleeting substances as
of Constitution and Physical Properties
of the constitution and
physical properties of coal is of great value in combustion,
gasification, and in the utilization of coal in making nonsolid fuels
chemical syntheses. A number of techniques have been developed and
other are in
development status to provide this vital information.
Functional Group Analysis
Essentially all of the
recognized as being present in coal are associated with oxygen. Both
nitrogen and organic sulfur are considered to be present primarily as
heterocyclic systems since there is no satisfactory evidence for any
groups containing either element.
Carboxyl groups, both free
and as salts, are
present in lignites and brown coals and may represent as much as 14wt %
dry lignite. Determination of free carboxyl group generally has been
out by ion exchange between coal and barium or calcium acetate,
titration of the liberated acetic acid. Methoxyl groups also are
in low-rank coals. Zeisel determination of methoxyl contents of
brown coals indicates a maximum of 2% for lowest-rank coals. The number
carbonyl groups also decreases with increating rank, although no
procedures have been developed for quantitative determination of this
functionalgroup in coal. Some oxygen is also presentin heterocyclic
Acetynlation. Several different acetylation
procedures have been
used on coal. The one which is most widely used utilizes acetic
Add a weighed sample (500-800mg) of
dried coal to 10 ml of a
1:2 mixture of acetic anhydride and pyridine in a 200-ml flask. Reflux
mixture for 24 hr, cool, and dilute with 100 ml of water. Filter the
wash the residue until free of acid Boil the acetylated coal for 5hr in
150-ml flask with 2 g of barium hydroxide in 40 ml of water and keep on
steamplate overnight. Add 2 ml of 85% phosphoric acid, and distill 24
ml into a
titration flask. Titrate the acetic acid in the distillate with sodium
hydroxide. Add increments of water to the residue and distill into the
titration flask until no more acid is observed upon titration.
Trimethylsilylation. A second method for determining
the hydroxyl content of
coal involves treatment of the coal with hexamethyldisilazane, and
trimrthylchlorosilane in pyridine. This results in the conversion of
hydroxyl groups to trimethylsilyl ethers. Silicon analysis of the
coal ethers affords a quantitative value from which the hydroxyl
content can be
calculated. Alternatively, the trimethylsilyl ether content can be
from the extinction coefficient of the trimethylsilyl group measured at
spectral techniques are
now applied to the study of coal. The methods discussed here include
ultraviolet and visible absorption, mass, nuclear magnetic resonance,
electreon paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. A good general reference
of Silverstein and Bassler. Although considerable coal research work is
spectral methods there are as yet not many analytical applications of
spectroscopy in the coal industry.
spectroscopy is the most universally applicable spectral method. With
exception of monatomic gases, all substances have infrared spectra.
Historically, infrared has been applied principally to organic
it is being used increasingly on inorganic substances. Of all spectral
infrared has most earned the right to the title of “fingerprint method”.
and Visible Absorption Spectroscopy. The
principal use of ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy is the study of
compounds particularly polynuclear condensed aromatic compounds.
Because of the
prolific and characteristic spectral fine structure that results from
electronic excitation of polynuclear condensed aromatics, ultraviolet
visible spectroscopy is the best spectral method for establishing
identification of these compounds. Similar aromatic compounds have
different characteristic spectra- for example, anthracene and
chrysene and benz-phenanthrene, pyrene and fluoranthene. Also the
of the parent compounds display.
Since the first mass
spectral studies of coal a considerable amount of work has been done,
principally at the Pittsburgh Energy Research Center of the U.S. Bureau
Mines. Mass spectra of pyridine extracts of bituminous coal have shown
presence of thirteen types of aromatic compounds having molecular
78 to 400.
investigations of various oils and
pitches from coal tar have been carried out. Many aromatic hydrocarbon
were identified along with several nitrogen and a few oxygen compounds.
average molecular weights, aromaticities, and mean size of aromatic
these samples were calcutated from the mass spectra of oils and pitches.
Magnetic and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. The application of NMR or EPR in
the coal utilization
industries is limited. One development appears to be approaching the
stage; the analysis of water in coal is being carried out on moving
belts. Belt speeds are low and throughput is small as yet but the
radicals exist in coals in relatively large amounts and are easily
EPR. Unfortunately, no fine structure has been detected in
coal spectra it
is therefore difficult to characterize structures. However,
characterizing information is obtainable from free radical
widths, and spectral g-values.
Coal petrography deals with
descriptions of different
physical parts of coals that can be distinguished best by microscopic
observation. These small parts of coals look different because they are
different size and shape and they modify in different ways the light
reflect or transmit to the eyes. Coal petrography relates these
to the plants or plant parts from which they were derived and deduces
about the changes that have occurred from plant to coal.
physical component of coals that may observed microscopically is
mineral matter. These mineral constituents may have been present in the
original plants, may have deposited as the peat beds formed, or
from waters percolating through the coal bed. The principal ones are
kaolinite, calcite, and pyrite. Traces of many mineral elements are
Some attempts have been made to
separate or concentrate
different coal components on a commercial basis to take advantage of
favorable to various uses. These usually depend upon differences in
to breakage or differences in density.
thin– section analysis is usually made on
specimens obtained from column samples cut out of a coal bed from top
bottom. The specimens are small blocks measuring approximately 1×
0.5 in. The 0.8- in. dimension is in the vertical
direction of the
column or bed, so that the total of the 1×
0.8-in./faces represents a
ribbon area over the entire height of the bed, excluding the material
cutting between the blocks.
analysis of thin coal sections is
conducted with a biological microscope equipped with binocular
pair of 15× eyepieces is used with 16 and 32 mm objectives to attain
magnifications of 60× and 150×. Anthraxylon is measured at 150×
and opaque attritus, fusain, and mineral at 60×. Translucent
attritus is determined by difference. Measurements are made by means of
Whipple micrometer disc inserted in one of the eyepieces. This a glass
which is centered a 7 mm square field divided into one hundred 0.7 mm
with the central one subdivided into twenty-five 0.14 mm squares. The
sizes of these squares under different magnification conditions are
by comparison with a stage micrometer.
detailed study of the errors involved in this type of thin-section
showed that the percentages of components in a column sample of a coal
determined by this technique usually should not be in error by more
l illustrates the results of
thin-section analysis on a complete vertical column of a coal bed.
surface analysis. Petrographic polished surface
analysis is usually
made on briquets of granular coal molded with a binder. The granular
usually of –20 mesh size, is representative of much larger lots of
variety of grinding and
polishing steps may be used. A detailed grinding plan would include the
240, 400, and 600 grit papers in succession. Similarly, a careful
procedure might involve successive use of 3 mm alumina on chemotextile cloth, 1mm on chemotextile, and 0.05 mm on two or three layers of
cloth, the top being silk
or cotton. Some of these steps may be omitted, depending on experience
desired quality of the polish. After polshing most coal briquets should
dried in a desiccator for a period of about 15 hr. More details or
in specimen preparation procedures can be found in References 54 and 55.
Reflectance Measurement. This measurement is important
analysis and permits the determination of optical constants. Various
assemblages of equipment have been used for this purpose. A brief
of one of these will serve to illustrate the general principles of the
has been found that, for
accurate reflectance measurements, the polised specimen surface must be
precisely perpendicular to the optic axis of the microscope. A commonly
hand-leveling press cannot be relied on to attain this positioning. A
method involves observation of focus preservation with an objective of
a 60 × magnification as the specimen surface is traversed over about 1
two perpendicular directions. Mounting the specimen on a device capable
controlled tilt in two directions permits adjustment of the surface
the specimen remains in focus through all possible displacements.
this method, absolute
reflectance is obtained by reference to a standard of known refractive
and negligible absorption. The reference to a standard of should be in
range of those of coal components. Some investigators have used a
glasses of different reflectances in this range, although some surface
by oxidation have been encountered. Synthetic ruby and particularly
have proven satisfactory. The standard should be cut in a form so that
reflectance from the back face is not allowed to interfere with the
measurement. Measurements on several minerals of known refractive
different media, provide an excellent means of checking the accuracy of
method. If the indices calculated from the reflectance measurements
within an acceptable limit with the indices provided by other means,
operation of the equipment is satisfactory.
of Vol % of Macerals. Macerals
commonly determined are vitrinite, exinite, resinite, micrinite,
and fusinite. The equipment used is essentially that described for
measurement with the addition of devices for scanning the speciment and
selection of areas to be identified and summed. The additional devices
Whipple ocular disc or a crosshair disc, a mechanical stage, and a
stage maybe operated manually or electrically. In the latter case it
coupled to an electrically actuated counter. The mechanical stage stage
be of such type that the specimen can be advanced quickly by definite
increments in two perpendicular directions. If an electrically operted
used, increment steps in one direction across the specimen may be
the counter switches. The counter should be capable of totalizing
counts in at
least six channels.
specimens for automatic scanning microscopy are prepared in a way very
to those previously described for visual studies in reflected light.
because there is no element of human judgment involved, the surfaces
more carefully polished to attain the least possible relief, pits, and
scratches. This objective may require modifications to the grinding and
polishing steps, depending, for one factor, on the relative importance
results for the softer organic components or the harder mineral,
of Optical Constants
constants are of interest because they
are the basis of the optical descriptions of the petrographic
because they are related to structural atomic arrangements in coals.
the simplest methods of determining these optical constants involves
microscopic measurement of reflectance in two different media. The
are made using objectives corrected for air, oil or water immersion,
the first two.
simple equation for
transmission is the equation given above for defining k.
practical measurements on thin sections of coals and carbons,
be made for reflections at interfaces between the various media. The
section usually is supported on a transparent substrate and the
enters the system on the substrate side. Reference light (Io) is usually measured after
transmission through the substrate. An equation governing transmission
a system consisting of an absorbing medium on a transparent substrate
given by Born and Wolf.
principal procedure involved
in the study of coal with an electron microscope is the preparation of
specimens. At first, powdered coal mounts were observed, but these
little useful information. Replicas of polished or etched coal surfaces
later tried with some interesting results, but these have been little
recently. The most productive type of specimen for electron microscopy
ultrathin section, prepared as described previously. Preparation of
micrographs and electron diffraction patterns of coal specimens
involves no differences
in procedure from those commonly used.
The true density of a
somewhat porous material
such as coal cannot be determined in a simple way. Any satisfactory
displacement should consist of molecules small enough to penetrate the
but should not react chemically with the coal. It has been found that
most satisfactorily meets these requirements. An approximation for the
can be derived by measuring the displacement of water by the coal,
granular form. However, it is questionable whether the water molecules
penetrate into the minute pores of the coal sufficiently to result in
determination of true density.
blank run without a sample in a sample frame will give the scattering
due to air
and background. Air scattering is appreciable only at low angles. A few
of the blank run are sufficient. The readings to be subtracted must be
normalized to the number of scans used in obtaining the intensity with
in place. An idea about the instrumental broadening can be obtained by
preparing a sample of 2.5mm diamond
powder and obtaining the scattered intensity for the diamond powder
same conditions. The widths of the diamond lines are largely due to
instrumental factors. If they are excessive, the observed intensities
coal sample can corrected by unfolding them with those of diamond.
an x-ray beam traversing a distance
in the sample before reaching a differential element of volume dV
interior of the sample and further consider the scattered beam
distance y in the sample before leaving it. The
incident beam will
undergo a reduction in intensity by a factor exp (-mx). Where is
the linear absorption coefficient, and the scattered intensity will be
by a factor exp (-my). The over all loss of intensity
due to absorption
depends upon the scattering angle as well as the sample diffractometer
geometry, thus corrections must be made. Further, the scattered
polarized to a different degree at each scattering angle, and
be made for polarization. Finally, the observed intensities are in
units, they must be converted or normalized into Thomson or atomic
This form of the
Warren-Bodenstein equation also can
be modified to consider an assembly of stacks each containing different
X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. X-ray fluorescence analysis of
elements of relatively
high atomic number is well developed. Presently the method is practical
element down to, perhaps, fluorine, of atomic number 9. It has not yet
shown to be reliable for oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon, although
research in to
is progressing well.
Therefore, fluorescence analysis may now be used for virtually all the
elements in coal, but cannot yet determine the composition of the
sample required for fluorescence analysis
is about 2g. It must be ground to an extremely fine particle size
2 mm or less, in order to
minimize and to render less variable the absorption of the fluorescence
by the mineral matter in the coal sample. This extreme pulverization
accomplished in a tungsten carbide pestle by vibration for 5 min on a
similar to a Crescent Wig-L- Bug, available from the Crescent Dental
Manufacturing Co. Chicago. The sample is then pressed into a frame with
dimensions of 4cm.× 2.5 cm ×2.5 mm, under an applied pressure of about
the analysis , a standard sample containing proportions of each of the
to be analyzed similar to those to be a expected in the unknown samples
necessary. For coal analysis, this could be a typical coal sample or a
synthetic mixture of the various coal mineral elements in carbon
sample is kept in one of the spectrometer chambers. Reading on the
sample are taken at regular intervals so that those on unknown samples
normalized to minimize errors due to variations in conditions.
American National Standards
Institute, Inc. (ANSI) represents the United States at the
standards level and corresponds in part to the British Standards
in the United Kingdom. The ANSI is unlike the BSI in that it does not
standards but recognizes the work of some independent organization. For
the American Society for Testing and Materials has been recognized as
developing body. The committee for coal consists of approximately
experts equality divided in interest as producers, consumers and
tests constituting coal
analysis have been divided into three group –Proximate, ultimate, and
miscellaneous analysis. Some of the taste are empirical and strict
the specified conditions is required in order to obtain meaningful
Proximate analysis is the
separation of the components of a mixture. In the proximate analysis of
the amounts of moisture, volatile matter, and are determined. The sum
percentages of these components is subtracted from 100 to calculate the
of fixed carbon present.
determination of the
moisture content of coal is probably the most important test. It is
also one of
the most difficult components to determine accurately because of its
forms, its fleeting nature during the collection and preparation of the
sample, and its strong affinity for the coal during the last stages of
Usually, three moisture
values are required in
the analysis of coal. First, if the coal is too wet to crush and sieve
losing moisture, it must be air-dried, which results in the value of air-dry
moisture. The air-dried coal is then crushed and prepared for
laboratory where the residual moisture is
determined. This laboratory
sample is used to prepare the analysis sample which is used for most of
tests. The knowledge of the total moisture content
of this sample is
necessary in order to express all items on a dry basis. The total
calculated from the air-dry and residual moisture values and is used to
the various dry analyses to the as-received basis.
Moisture. Two methods are given;
the first is used for coals known to be resistant to oxidation and the
is applicable to coals subject to oxidation or to coals of unknown
coals. Transfer one of the air dried sample to a shallow,
noncorrodible metal pen to a depth of about 10 mm, weight, and heat in
air circulation oven at 105-110oC
to constant weight. Calculate the %
of residual moisture from the loss on heating and weight of the air
coals. Mix the air-dried sample well and place
approximately 10 g into a
weighed capsule made of glass or noncorrodible metal with close-fitting
with a diameter of 60mm, cover, and weight to the nearest mg. Place the
in desiccator containing magnesium perchlorate desiccant, and the
capsule in an
oven with a minimum free space, capable of maintaining a temperature of
and having facilities for introducing nitrogen at a flow rate of three
changes per minute. Use a nitrogen containing less than 10 ppm of
the sample in the oven to constant weight; approximately 2 hr are
Remove the capsule, cover and put on a metal plate for 10min.Transfer
desiccator until cooled to room temperature, then weigh. Calculate
residual moisture from the loss in weight and weight of the air-dried
The % total moisture is
calculated from the percentage of air-dry and residual moistures, as
% total moisture = % air-dry
+ % residual
Moisture of Analysis Sample. This moisture value is used to
analyses made to a dry basis, using the analysis sample of 250mm size coal.
Volatile Matter. Volatile matter refers to loss of
for moisture, that results when coal is heated in specified equipment
standard conditions. It is one of the more important items in purchase
specifications of coal; it is valuable for the fuel engineer in setting
maintaining burning rates, and is used with other parameters in almost
The test given below is
empirical and easily
performed. However, it can lead to erroneous results if all the vital
are not observed strictly. If carried out properly, duplicate tests by
operator and equipment should agree within 0.3% for anthracite, 0.5%
semianthracite and bituminous coals, 0.7% for subbituminous coals, and
lignite. For the test, special high-form crucibles made of platinum, 31
high, with a 25.4 mm diameter at the top and 16 mm diameter at the
used. The crucibles are equipped with platinum covers, 10 mm high, with
mm diameter at the top and 25.3 mm diameter at the bottom. The total
the crucible and capsule is between 14 and 15g.
The heating of
the sample is to be performed in an electrically heated vertical tube
furnace. The tube furnace heating zone should be approximately 38 mm ID
mm long. The crucible is suspended in the heating zone by a platinum or
nichrome wire cradle. The size of the muffle furnace should be large
insert and remove the crucible conveniently. It is essential that the
zone of the furnace be maintained as close as possible to 9500 C
, but must not vary more than 200C.
Ash. Coal ash is the residue
remaining after the
combustion of coal under specified conditions. Ash should not be
mineral matter. The ash can be more than, equal to, or less then the
quantity of ash in coal is of prime importance in purchase
utilization, and classification.
Ash represents an impurity, adds
to the cost of transportation of the coal, and is costly to dispose to
utilization. In certain methods of utilization, ash contributes to air
pollution as well as corrosion of the burning equipment.
Fixed Carbon. The fixed carbon is calculated
by subtracting the
sum of moisture, volatile matter, and ash from 100. It consists mainly
carbon but, also contains small amounts of hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen,
ultimate analysis of coal
expresses the elemental composition in terms of the determined
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and the calculated value for
five items are generally calculated on moisture and ash free basis. A
more accurate value for oxygen is obtained if the analysis computed on
moisture and mineral-matter-free basis.
Hydrogen. These two elements
contribute virtually all the energy derived from coal. The carbon and
contents of coal are utilized in certain classification systems and
an estimate of the calorific values of coals.
All methods employ the same
basic principle of
burning the sample in oxygen in a closed system and collecting and
quantitatively the combustion products. The standard U.S. method
the combustion at 800-850oC. A high temperature (1350oC) combustion
method has been used successfully in a number of European laboratories.
The oxygen to the combustion
through the other area of the T connection by passing the above
pressure-safety device, and passes through a U-tube. The first arm
soda-lime, the bottom contains a glass-wool plug , and the second arm
with magnesium perchlorate. A one-hole rubber stopper is used to seal
end of the combustion tube. Metal or glass tubing is used to connect
U-tube with the tee and the combustion tube. The joints are sealed with
this procedure using an accurately weighed sample of standard sucrose
acid. Several tests may have to be made before the determined values
hydrogen and carbon are in satisfactory agreement with the theoretical
Repeat the procedure with an accurately weighed sample of coal.
determinations by the same operator using the same equipment and the
analysis sample should not differ more than 0.07% for hydrogen and
Nitrogen. Nitrogen occurs almost
exclusively in the organic
matter of coal. The amount is
rather constant and in most bituminous
coals it varies from 1.0 to 1.5 % in anthracite and low-rank coals.
kjeldahl method is most commonly used, and consists of destructive
the coal with a mixture of concentrated sulfuric acid, potassium
mercury catalyst. The nitrogen is distilled from alkaline solution as
into a standard acid solution and quantitatively determined
Total Sulfur. Sulfur occurs in coal as the
sulfide of iron and in
combination with the organic matter. In some weathered coals small
sulfate sulfur may also be found. Two chemical methods are used for the
determination of total sulfur. In the method given , the coal is
oxidized in an
Eschka mixture. The resulting oxides of sulfur are retained by an
mixture, extracted with water, precipitated high-temperature combustion
closed system with oxygen, the sulfur oxides are absorbed in aqueous
and the sulfuric acid formed is treated with a standard alkali. It is
particularly applicable where results are required in a very short
Oxygen. The oxygen content of coal can
be used to estimate
the degree of oxidation of a weathered bituminous coal, and it is an
of the lowest rank in the bituminous group that can be used for making
satisfactory metallurgical coke.
can be determated directly by a semimicro combustion method. For most
it is estimated by subtracting from 100 the sum of the percentage
carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, moisture and ash. A more accurate estimate
made by converting the analysis to a mineral-matter-free basis.
test consists of burning a
weighed amount of the material in a closed vessel under a pressure of
Heat is released and absorbed in a fixed mass of water. The increase in
temperature of the water is directly related to the calorific value of
material. The manner of absorbing this indicates the two principal
calorimeters commonly used in the isothermal calorimeter,
temperature of the water bath surrounding the calorimeter is maintained
contained at a constant temperature. Since the temperature of the water
surrounding the combustion vessel or bomb varies, there is heat
between the two systems, and the amount of heat gained or lost must be
determined between the two systems, and the amount of heat gained or
be determined. Adiabatic calorimeters have the
facilities to adjust or
raise the temperature of the outer water bath to the same temperature
water surrounding the combustion vessel.
Remove the bomb and release
the pressure at a
uniform rate in about 1min. Inspect the interior of the bomb for
carbon, and if it is present discard the results and repeat the test.
Wash the interior
of the bomb with water containing methyl orange indicator until all
removed , collect the washings and titrate with a sodium carbonate
containing 20.90g/liter, 1 ml of this solution corresponds to 10.0 Btu.
combustible firing wire is used, determine the weight of the unburned
Fusibility of Coal Ash
test gives an approximation of the
temperatures at which the ash remaining after the combustion of coal
sinter, melt and flow. The correlation of the laboratory and
results is only approximate, because of the homogeneity of the
piece and the heterogeneity of the residue or ash from utilization. The
fusibility datas are of value in the procurement of coals that most
procedure given below consists of heating
a molded trilateral pyramid of the ash in a mildly reducing or
atmosphere and observing the changes in shape and the temperatures at
changes occur. Four such temperatures are defined below.
Some of the phenomena
exhibited by coal on
heating have been assigned names that refer to essentially the same
they differ only in the rate of heating. These slight differences of
become of great importance when they are used in the classification of
The various terms may be defined as follows:
refers to the behavior of the
coal when it is heated rapidly in measuring the free-swelling index and
index or as the combustion of coal. The agglomerating index refers to
behavior of coal when heated rapidly in the volatile matter test.
Coking refers to the behavior of the
coal when it is heated
slowly in the Audibert-Arnu dilatometer and Gray-King coke-type tests
or as in
contraction, and agglutinating value are other terms also used to
behavior of coal on heating.
some of the tests used to
investigate the behavior of coal during heating are discussed more
or Crucible Swelling
Number. The free-swelling index is quite important in
between groups in the classification of coals; it also gives
information on the combustion characteristics of coal. The test
heating the coal under prescribed conditions and comparing the residue
button with standard profiles as shown in Figure 5. Since the test is
empirical, the special apparatus is specified exactly.
Roga Index. The
Roga index is an
alternate procedure for measuring the caking properties of coals. It
special drum tumbler and an anthracite with specified properties to mix
the coal before carbonizing. Because of the limited use of the Roga
the difficulty of getting the specific anthracite or suitable
details of the test will not be given.
index is required in the ASTM classification of coals in order to
between the anthracitic and bituminous classes and between the
subbituminous classes of coals.
test is made by examining the residue from
the platinum crucible in the standard volatile matter determination. If
agglomerate button shows a cell structure or swelling or supports a
weight without pulverizing, it is considered as agglomerating.
Coke-Type Test. This test and
the Audibert-Arnu dilatometer are used alternatively for assessing the
phenomena of coal in the International Classification of Hard Coal by
equipment for the Gray-King coke test is more easily acquired and the
of operation less exacting than for the Audibert-Arnu dilatometer.
Consequently, only the procedure for the Gray-King test is given.
test consists of heating pulverized coal
out of contact with air in a horizontal tube retort at a uniform and
Plasticity of Coal Measured by
the Gieseler Plastometer. The test is
a semiquantitative measurement of the plastic property or apparent
coal on heating in the absence of air. The plasticity phenomena have
closely related to carbonization and many researchers have attempted to
the Gleseler plasticity values with the quality of coke produced from a
particular coal or more often a blend of coals. The detailed
the testing equipment and procedure of operation make this a very
The slightest variation in equipmental detail or deviation in operation
results in erroneous results.
At present, two types of
equipment are in use,
one utilizing a constant torque of 40g-in. by suspended weight on the
imbedded in coal, and another which produces an equal torque by a
clutch between a constant speed motor and the stirrer. For more
information on the procedures, the instruction manuals supplied with
equipment should be consulted.
Moisture of Coal at
96-97% Relative Humidity and 300C
This test is used to restore
wet coal and
partially dried coal to the moisture content it contained in the bed.
results are used to measure the degree of during and excess moisture,
the classification of coals by rank. It is applicable to all coals from
metaanthracite to lignite. The measurement is carried out in a moisture
maintained at 1050C and with provision in dry air
or dry nitrogen at a
rate of two oven changes per minute. Air is used only with coals known
Determination of Hardgrove
Grindability Index of Coal
Hardgrove grindability index
(HI) of coal is a relative measure of the ease of pulverizing. The test
consists of grinding a specially prepared sample in a laboratory mill
standardized design. The Hardgrove grindability machine is available
Babcock & Wilcox Co. Alliance, Ohio. An index is derived from a
analysis of the ground product. For comparison, a standard coal sample
index of 100 is used.
addition to the determination of the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen,
oxygen content of the coal, sometimes investigations are carried out to
determine the amount of sulfur present in various forms, and the
mineral carbonate content of coal.
Froms of Sulfur. Sulfur
occurs in coal
as sulfate, pyrite, and in combination with the organic material.
sulfur is usually less than 0.1% except for weathered coal containing
The pyritic sulfur content varies considerably more than the organic
and is of more interest because it is the only form that can be removed
coal by current preparation practices.
Chlorine. A considerable amount of the
chlorine in coal is
present as sodium chloride and therefore the amount of chlorine present
been used as an estimate of the sodium content. Sodium is suspected of
contributing to operational difficulties caused by deposits on the
surfaces Coals containing less than 0.15% chlorine are considered as
potentially trouble free. The chlorine content is used in some system
estimation of the amount of mineral matter from the determined ash
the method given, a muffle furnace, heated
to 675± 250C and
ventilated at three to four air changes per minute, is used. The coal
oxidized with an Eschka mixture, and the chlorine content retained as
The resulting mixture is dissolved in diluted nitrate acid, the
precipitated with silver nitrate, and the excess of silver is titrated
Infrequently, a coal
contains mineral carbonates in sufficient quantity to affect its carbon
content, mineral matter, and classification. The carbon dioxide of the
carbonates is determined by heating the coal with dilute hydrochloric
absorbing the evolved carbon dioxide in a suitable absorbent, and
the weight increase. Duplicate determinations by the same operator
same equipment and sample should not differ more than 0.05%
second hole of the stopper in the Erlenmeyer flask is fitted with the
of a coil-type condenser, 300mm long. The open top end of the condenser
connected with an approximately 300 mm long, 7 mm OD glass tube. The
top of a
Stetser- Norton bulb is filled with 15 mm glass-wool in the bottom and
anhydrous calcium chloride on top. The bottom connection of this bulb
connected with a short section of rubber tubing to the bottom
connection of a
second Stetser-Norton bulb filled two thirds full with granular pumice
impregnated with anhydrous copper sulfate; the remainder of this bulb
with anhydrous calcium chloride.
wide variation in chemical and physical characteristics shown by the
testing methods, methods, provides an opportunity to devise numerous
for the classification of coals. Some of the systems have received only
acceptance possibly because of little practical applicability.
of the more widely known and used
systems are briefly described below. The British National
Coal Board Coal
Classification System is based on the dry,
matter and the Gray-King coke-type test.
is one of the plants utilized by mankind at the dawn of civilization
archeological evidence indicates that cotton was used in the Indus
about 3000 BC, for making cloth. Cotton was brought from India to Egypt
Alexander the Great in the fourth century bc,
and from there it spread to other countries around the; Mediterranean
Cotton was introduced from India to China during the seventh century ad, first as
a garden plant, and about
for use as a fiber.
In America, remains of cotton bolls dating back to about 5000 bc have
been found in Mexico, and
discoveries indicate that it was used for textile purposes about 2500 bc.
wild and cultivated species of cotton plants belong to the botanical
Most of the cultivated cotton belongs to four species: Gossypium
G. arboreum, which probably originated in southern
northeastern Africa and were introduced into India, G.
originated in southern Mexico and Guatemala, and G. barbadense,
was found in the northern part of South America but is also cultivated
Cotton fiber, like most vegetable fibers, is essentially cellulosic;
the percentage of cellulose which it contains is higher than in most
materials and may be as high as 96% of the dry weight of the unpurified
Methods of Analysis
related to the identification and analysis of the nature of cottons
with organic reagents and organic finishings, as well as the
trace inorganic elements present either as contaminants or as
mentioned, superficial or partial reactions of the hydroxyl groups of
cellulose produce valuable permanent finishes on cotton products. These
reactions include esterification and etherification, further reaction
double or multiple bonds, and replacement reactions resulting in
identification of the organic groups introduced into the cellulose
well as the determination of the degree of substitution, can be carried
the use of infrared spectroscopy.
fact that infrared absorption spectra can be obtained without modifying
crystallinity of even highly crystalline native cotton because grinding
of the sample
is not required is a major advantage of this procedure. O’Connor et al.
that satisfactory spectra could be obtained with very large pieces of
cotton cellulose, and cutting 20 mesh was recommended in order to
special methods are also of interest in the infrared investigation of
cotton products. The first developed by McCall, Miles, and O’Conor
frustrated multiple internal reflectance (FMIR) technique; the
Knight and co-workers permits the measurement of cotton fibers without
cutting, grinding, sifting or mixing with extraneous material.
technique of direct pressing into parallel fibers was demonstrated to
satisfactory spectra, and had the advantage that the cotton fiber was
to no treatment other than mechanical pressing and the highly oriented
in which the fibers are aligned should be helpful in polarization
technique is the only satisfactory manner in which the study of
by means of deuterium and infrared measurements can be extended to
crystallinities of short, staple cellulosic fibers of native or
are a great variety of subatances which are being used in the chemical
finishing of cotton fabric. Included in this list are chemicals used to
water repellency, fire resistance, resistance to mildew, or protection
actinic radiation, lubricants, plasticizers, softeners, antibacterial
deodorants, fungicides, germicides, rot resistant agents, and resins
obtain durable-press or wash-and-wear characteristics. It is almost
to establish a single coordinated procedure for the analysis of cotton
chemical finishing agent; however, two systematic methods approach this
Separation and Identification
first systematic approach to separate and identify the chemical agents
cotton fabrics was developed by Skinkle in 1946. The sample is
with five solvents, each selected to remove by solubilizing certain
substances. Subsequent evaporation of the solvent reveals the presence
entire group. Individual components of each group are subsequently
either by further separations, by application of additional solvents,
applying chemical tests which are valid in the presence of some or all
other substances within the specific group.
visible, and infrared spectroscopy permit the identification and
analysis of a number of chemical finishing agents used for cotton and
and Visible Spectroscopy. The
in the analysis of several of the chemical finishes, after extraction
separation, as by the scheme described above or by one of the many
modifications of this scheme, have been achieved through the production
characteristic color produced by reaction of the finishes in a single
with a reagent which would produce a specific color with only one
of the group. Often interfering colors, by reaction of the selected
with other materials in the group or through a reaction with the
necessitate further preseparations before the color test could be
accurate quantitative method for the determination of the total
content of cotton fabrics treated with a formaldehyde-containing resin
of considerable aid in the elucidation of the resin reactions involved.
However, the usual procedure involving distillation with dilute acid
estimation of the formaldehyde in the distillate is not entirely
as it is difficult to distill formaldehyde completely from solution.
Hirt, described a method for the determination of melamine resins used
impart wet strength to paper. The method, which is applicable to
melamine resin from cotton cellulose fabric, is based on the strong
absorption of melamine near 235 nm.
Scott depends upon the chloroform extraction of dye salt formed
ammonium surfactant and excess Orange II (p-(2-hydroxy-l-napthylazo)
benzenesulfonate) in aqueous solution. Advantage is taken of this last
establish a standardization factor, related to molar absorptivity,
from purified surfactants for the analysis of commercial surfactants.
Spectroscopy. Although the infrared
absorption technique was
completely successful for the identification and quantitative
the extent of chemical modification by reactions with the active
groups of cotton cellulose, its application for the analysis of the
finishes encountered several difficulties. These difficulties led to
development of complex methods. In one such method, differential
spectroscopy accompanied by linear scale expansion is utilized. The
multiple internal reflectance (FMIR) technique of McCall et al. already
discussed for chemically modified cotton fabrics also be applied for
investigation of the cotton fabrics with chemical finishes.
Miles, Tripp, and O’Connor investigated cottons with chemical finish by
comparing their spectra with those obtained from untreated cotton. This
is only practical if some estimate of the actual amount of the
reagent (the so-called add-on) can be made.
scheme starts with the conventional potassium bromide disc procedure.
technique permits satisfactory detection, identification, and
determination of the resin finish, the analysis is completed with
effort. If, however, sensitivity problems are encountered, the same
sample is remeasured using the differential and/or linear scale
techniques. If the resin finish still cannot be identified or
determined, resort is made to the acid hydrolysis procedure.
it is an
agricultural product, cotton may contain a number of metallic or
elements or anions. These substances may also contaminate the original
product during processing. Besides this, a number of elements may be
small amounts as inorganic salts or oxides or as organometallic
the cotton during processing to produce a specific property not native
elements (either metallic or nonmetallic) in cotton samples may be
by the chemical spot test methods developed originally by Feigl.
have one major disadvantage; a separate test is required for the
of each element. A second disadvantage is that spot tests do not yield
quantitative data regarding the concentration of the specific element
sample. For chemical methods for the quantitative determination of the
inorganic constituents, see Cellulose.
one advantage over spectroscopic techniques: they permit distinguishing
various anion groups. Thus, tests can be made to differentiate among
sulfate, or sulfide, between nitrate and nitrite, chloride or chlorate,
The atomic spectroscopic methods in current use permit only the
(and determination) of total elemental content. Thus, sulfur is
measured as differentiation of the oxidation state of a specific
element as by
induced electron emission are not impossible, they have not been
the point where they can be said to be tools for the use of the
chemist engaged in the analysis of cotton and cellulose.
are about a dozen spectroscopic techniques which are of potential
to the determination of elements, both metals and nonmetals, only
electronic emission, x-ray fluorescence, and atomic absorption
have been used in the analysis of cotton cellulose. It is of some
therefore, to consider the respective merits and disadvantages of each
emission spectroscopy in cotton analysis is primarily its ability to
with a single scan, a complete qualitative analysis of a considerable
of the entire spectrum. If the photographic technique is being
employed, such a
spectrogram permits the operator to investigate in detail the presence
absence of almost all specific metals. In many large spectroscopic
laboratories, the use of emission spectroscopy is confined to such
surveys, and x-ray fluorescence or atomic absorption is used (often
to the qualitative survey) when quantitative values are required.
x-ray fluorescence analysis is that light elements may escape detection
accurate measurement. However, techniques and selection of accessories
x-ray tube, analyzing crystal, and detector have pushed these analyses
magnesium and, with special vacuum spectrophotometers and specially
analyzing crystals, such as lead stearate, analyses are being made down
boron, leaving very few elements which cannot be detected and
this technique. These latter determinations, between magnesium and
be made, however, only by a significant increase in instrumental
disadvantage of x-ray fluorescence is the sophistication and the cost
initial equipment, which is higher than the cost of the equipment used
Emission spectroscopy consists of three more or less independent steps.
the proper preparation of the sample; second, the technique for
raw data, the emitted atomic lines of the desired constituents; and
evaluation of these data to properly identify and quantitatively
element or elements of interest.
paper of O’Connor and Heinzelman, describing the general method for the
spectrochemical analysis of plant products, two procedures were
one for samples with an ash content of less than 1% (where there could
matrix effect from the composition of the ash), and another for samples
ash content of sample over 1% (where the composition of the ash might
the condition for constant matrix). In later works the second procedure
used, mainly because the cotton samples being analyzed were fabrics
modified by the introduction of metal-containing substances to produce
specifically desired effects. The two procedures are given below.
of sample less than 1%. Accurately weigh 16.67 of the
sample into a
Vycor dish with 90-mm diameter, and add 2 ml of a solution of 250 g of
magnesium nitrate hexahydrate in 1 liter of 95% ethanol. The ratio of
weight to the magnesium nitrate buffer is arbitrary and can be varied
different samples depending upon the sensitivity required, if the ratio
actually used is considered in obtaining and using the working curves.
ratio suggested here will permit analysis with a sensitivity of about 1
metal in 10,000,000 parts of sample for the more sensitive metals,
iron, for most types of samples.
ash content of sample
over 1%. Ash exactly 5 g of sample in a tared Vycor dish
as described in
the earlier procedure, but without addition of the magnesium nitrate
After removal from the furnace, cool the dish and reweigh to determine
content of the sample. Add a volume of a very dilute aqueous solution
germanium dioxide so as to introduce a quantity of the dioxide equal to
of the ash. Grind and thoroughly mix the ash prior to analysis.
Prepare a mixture of salts
representing the major
constituents of a typical ash. A suggested composition is as follows:
potassium carbonate, 0.95% sodium chloride, 11.02% calcium carbonate,
magnesium carbonate, and 4.14% germanium oxide. Prepare working curves
adding graduated amounts of elements to portions of this salt mixture.
When x rays strike any material, as any analytical
sample, one usually considers their penetration, as it is their
characteristic. However, if the beam of x rays is measured before and
striking the sample, a decrease in intensity will be found. Some of the
have been absorbed by the material, the amount, of course, depending
nature, particularly the density of the material, and the thickness of
sample. These absorbed x rays can be used as a successful method of
spectroscopic analysis in a manner essentially analogous to the use of
absorption of photons, except that absorption of x rays is an atomic
and absorption by a given element is independent of the chemical
which the particular element occurs. Thus, x-ray absorption is a
spectrometer consists of an x-ray tube capable of emitting an intense
beam that impinges upon the sample to be analyzed. Fluorescent rays,
appear as secondary emission, are dispersed by utilizing crystal with a
lattice constant, frequently a bent mica crystal, to act as a
grating. The diffracted fluorescent x rays are detected by a Geiger
goniometer, and their intensities may be automatically recorded as a
the foniometer angle which is proportional to the wavelength or
the x rays.
a tabulation are reproduced in Table 11 for the five elements, calcium,
chromium, potassium, manganese, and zirconium. All the lines in Table
the innermost orbit, as indicated by the letter K in column 3, although
complete tables the L and occasionally M and N lines may occur. ABS
the absorption line or edge.
of determination by x-ray fluorescence methods, the elements introduced
cotton through chemical and additive modification (which are the major
for such analyses) fall into two broad categories; those of atomic
and higher, and the lighter elements. The heavier elements are used to
protection against degradation by outdoor exposure or microorganisms
mercury, lead, cadmium, selenium, zirconium), and to impart flame
(tinbromine); they are also used in certain classes of dyes and
(chromium, iron, titanium) and for miscellaneous purposes, such as
equivalent discs usually show a maximum difference of 2%. The
percentage composition to counting rate is found to be linear over a
0.01 to about 3% for most of the elements examined. In all cases, a
counting rate was noted at concentrations above 3% indicating self-
This loss of counts becomes marked at concentrations of about 10% and
with pure cellulose should be employed.
and percentages of lignin and hemicellulose very from one plant species
another so it is difficult to arrive at generalizations concerning
and abundance of these polymers. Moreover, composition varies within a
plant (roots, stems, leaves), with age (heartwood versus sapwood),
growth (early wood versus late wood in annual rings) and with the
under which the plant grows. Study over many decades has elucidated the
structural features of wood hemicelluloses and lignin’s along with the
biochemical mechanisms for their degradation.
Most recently attention has turned to the molecular
these enzymes. It is beyond the scope of the present review to
these findings in detail. Rather, the focus will be on specialized or
(gymnosperms), hardwoods (angiosperms), and grasses (graminaceous
plants) have evolved
separately, and they contain different lignin and hemi cellulose
Moreover their specialized tissues have varying proportions of
hemicellulose, lignin, pectins, proteins, and extractives. Lignin is
during maturation of cell walls, and some carbohydrates become cross
it. Because the lignin and hemicellulose constituents differ, the
between these polymers differ form plant to plant and from tissue to
are most commonly assayed by measuring the rate of reducing group
under optimum conditions. A suitable polysaccharide substrate is
buffer and mixed with an enzyme solution that is appropriately diluted
a linear response over time Alternately, several successive two-fold
are assayed for a single fixed time (10 to 30 min), and the enzyme
calculated from the average of several successive dilutions that
consistent enzyme activity. This approach is necessary because at very
dilutions (or long assay times) the substrate is exhausted, and the
activity is not representative of the actual value.
are classified according to the substrates they act upon, by the bonds
cleave and by their patterns of product formation, Table 1, but greater
exists among the endo-xylanases and ß- glucosidases than is reflected
simple classification system. One notable distinction is made between
188.8.131.52) and xylan 1,4-b-xylosidase
(EC 184.108.40.206). While the former produces
oligosaccharides from random cleavage of xylan , the latter acts
xylan oligosaccharides producing xylose. Some endo-xylanases appear to
greater specificity for straight chain substrates, and others appear to
to accommodate more frequent side chains of branching.
makes native xylans much less soluble in water, which is an observation
causes some consternation to trained organic chemists. Even though
makes the xylan polymer more hydrophobic, it also blocks extensive
hydrogen bonding. When the acetyl groups are removed, hydrogen bonding
xylan precipitation. Even though the substrate is less soluble,
generally increases susceptibility of the substrate to enzyme attack.
acetylesterses, however, show specificity for the native acetylated
enzymes are often of interest for biotechnological applications, and
hemicellulases are no exception. Thermophilic xylanases have been
for several years. Ristoph described an extra cellular xylanase
produced by the
thermophilic actinomycete Thermonospora that was
stable for approximately
1 month at 55 °C and could withstand up to 80°C in a 10 min assay.
described a highly thermos table xylanase form a thermophilic bacillus
that has a
catalytic optimum of 78° and
a half life of 15 h at 75°. Both enzymes were predominantly endo in
and produced only trace quantities of xylose after long periods of
The thermophilic fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus
produces an extra
cellular endo-xylanase that has a temperature optimum of 80°C. At that
temperature, the half life is 54 min. These characteristics are fairly
to thermos table xylanases from Talaromyces emersonii,
thermophilic fungus that grows on straws and pulps.
D. Alkaline active xylanases
active enzyme was also purified and characterized from an alkalophilic
actinomycete. Tsujibo et al. purified three endo-xylanases from the
filtrate of Nocardopsis dassonvillei subsp. alba
OPC- 18. The
molecular weights were 23,000, 23,000
and 37,000 for X-1,X-11,and X-111, respectively.
E. ß- Xylosidase
are much more common than ß-xylosidases, but the latter are necessary
to produce xylose. Most ß-xylosidases are cell bound, and the enzymes
relative to endo-xylanases. The ß-xylosidase of Bacillus
has a molecular weight of about 150,000 and is stable at up to 70°C Utt
described a novel bifunctional ß- xylosidase from the ruminal bacterium
fibrisolvens was cloned in E. coli
and shown to consist of a
60,000Mr protein with dual
galactanses are described far less frequently than xylanases. It is not
whether this is attributable to their lower prevalence in nature or
because they are sought less often. Bacterial species known to produce
mannanases include Aeromonas hydrophila, Cellulomonas
sp. and Strepromyces
olivochromogenus. Multiple endo – ß-mannanases are found in
cellular broth of Polyporous versicolor.
enzymes appear to be critical in the early steps of hemicellulose
These include acetyl xylan esterases, ferulic and p-coumaric
rabinofuranosidases, and a-4-O-methyl
esterase was first described by Biely in several species of fungi known
degrade lignocellulose and most especially in A.
Acetyl xylan esterase was subsequently described in a number of
micres different microbes including (Schizophylum commune, Aspergillus
and Trichoderma reesei, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Fibrobacter
succinogenes. Acetyl xylan esterase acts in a cooperative
endoxylanase to degrade xylans. This enzyme is not involved in breaking
because the acetyl esters are terminal groups.
esterase of S. commune exhibits specificity for its
substrate, and it
has been separated form other enzymes. Borneman et al. assayed feruloyl
coumaryl esterase activities form culture filtrates of anaerobic fungi
dried cell walls of Bermuda grass as a substrate. The enzyme
released ferulic acid more readily than they released p-courmaric
from plant cell walls. Assays using methyl ferulate or methyl p-coumarate
as substrates in place of dried cell walls showed the presence of about
times as much enzyme activity. McDermid employed ethyl esters of p-coumarate
and ferulate as substrates for these activities.
aromatic polymer with the substituents connected by both ether and
carbon-carbon linkages. It is composed of three principal building
alcohol (p-hydroxyphenyl propanol), coniferyl
propanol), and sinapyl alcohol (syringyl propanol)
have witnessed an increasing interest in the enzymatic mineralization
depolymerization of lignin. No dougbt this stemmed in part form the
of a family of peroxidase-like enzymes from active lignin-degrading
These enymes, termed lignin peroxidases (LiP) are capable of degrading
of lignin model compounds- including the b-
aryl ether model-and are closely
associated with the mineraliation of 14C-
labelled lignin to CO2. Of particular note is the
ability of enzyme
preparations from p.chrysosporium
to depolymerize methylated spruce lignin.
degradation in whole cell cultures
essentially two approaches to understanding the roles of these various
in lignin degradation. One approach is to reconstitute a lignin-
system in vitro using crude, purified, or cloned enzyme constitutents.
other is to regulate the cellular metabolism of lignin- degrading fungi
so as to produce either LiP or MnP, and then to observe the cultures
depolymerization and mineralization.
showed that both the appearance of lignin- degrading enzymes and
of lignin are affected by the presence of manganese. The effects,
with the organisms and test systems employed. In p.chrysosporium,
elevated Mn concentrations represses
LiP while inducing MnP, and in phlebia
inducing both MnP and laccase. In both cases, high rates of
correlate with the appearance of LiP at low Mn concentrations and not
appearance of MnP or laccase D. squalens produces
only MnP and laccase,
and in this organism, mineralization correlates with the appearance of
by cell-free enzyme systems
catalytic depolymerization of lignin has not been demonstrated in vitro
cell-free enzyme system. Extracellular proteins form p.chrysosporium,
Coriolis versicolor, and
phlebia radiata were reported to increase the
number of hydroxyl groups,
decrease the mean molecular weight, or otherwise chemically alter
lignin preparations. Kern investigated the action of crude and
purified LiP form p.
chrysosporium on the molecular size distribution of 14C
– labelled lignins, and he further
used pyrolysis GC mass spectrometry to investigate changes in substrate
lignin depolymerization may not be the same in all organisms. Galliano
lignin degradation (solubilization) by Rigidoporous
lignosu, an organism that
does not produce LiP, but rather synthesizes MnP and laccase. When the
enzymes were puriried and their properties studied in vitro,neither
enzyme was able to solubilize radioactive lignins. When both enzymes
to the reaction, mixture at the same time, lignin solubilization was
the MnP and the laccase acted synergistically. In addition, glucose
enhanced lignin solubilization by preventing repolymerization of the
formed by the two oxidative enzymes.
D. Role of
glycosides in lignin
of the first
enzymes implicated in lignin biodegradation was cellobiose: quinone
oxidoreductase(CBQase). This enzyme catalyzes the reduction of a
the simultaneous oxidation of cellobiose discovered this enzyme and
that its tole might be to prevent
repolymerization of lignin during degradation. Recent
studies have not
borne this out, but the enzyme may be important monetheless. The CBQase
binds very tightly to microcrystalline cellulose, but such
binding does not
block its ability to oxidize cellobiose, indicating that the binding
catalytic sites are in two different domains.
feature of lignin biodegradation is that degradation products resulting
the activity of extracellular enzymes must be taken up by the mycelium;
glycosylation by b-glucosidase
seems to be an important part of this
process. Whether or not sugars attached to lignin in the native
nonglycosidic linkages play a similar role has not been addressed.
complexes (LCCs) are heterogeneous, poorly defined structures that are
many plant species. Lignin is directly or indirectly bound covalently
carbohydratate, and the resulting complexes present a barrier to
degradation. LLCs have proven to be highly intractable materials that
large part responsible for limiting the biodegradation rate of plant
Fractionation of lignin and carbohydrate in wood
The existence and character of
LC bonds have long
been studied and debated. In 1956, Bjorkman published techniques for
MWL form finely ground wood. He also obtained an LCC by exhaustive
Aqueous dioxane was used
to extract MWL, and dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, and aqueous
acid were used to extract LCC. The lignin contents of LCCs are similar
of the MWLs except that the latter contain less carbohydrate. Despite
attempts Bjorkman could not separate carbohydratae from LCC without
highly heterogenous and difficult to study. Many conventional chemical
treatment, such as alkali, readily disrupt some of the most prevalent
The best approaches employ neutral solvents and purified enzyme
Most research has focused on the isolation of water- soluble lLCCs,
they can be fractionated, sized, and subjected to spectroscopic study.
insoluble LCCs exist and may even account for the bulk of LC bonds in
substrate, but less is lnown about them. Most evidence suggests that
chemical linkages are similar to those of the soluble LCCs.
characteristics of LC bonds
chemical bonds between lignin and carbohydrate has been questioned
the intimate physical intergration between the lignin and carbohydrate
constituents, the possibility of entrapment or adsorption, and lability
linkages. Several different types of LC bonds have been proposed based
knowledge about changes in sugar composition following digestion and
hemicellulose structures. The proposed LCbonds include bonds to xylan,
glucomannan, cellulose, various other hemicellulosic sugars, and pectin.
p-coimaric ester side chains
lignins differ from those of hardwoods and softwoods in that they are
not only from guiacyl and syringyl units, but also from p-hydroxyphenyl
units. Esterified p-coumaric acid can comprise 5%
to 10% of the total
weight of isolated lignin. The participation of p-hydroxphenyl
structures is of minor importance.Based on methanolysis and spectral
Shimada proposed that the majority of p-coumaric
acid molecules in
bamboo and grass lignin are ester-linked to the terminal g
carbon of the
side chain of the lignin molecule Fig.11. Ferulic acid is also present
amounts. The p-coumaric ester linkages are
extremely stable as they are
not removed by methanolysis, thioglycolic acid treatment, or catalytic
and stability of LC
amount of carbohydrate remaining on the lignin can measured by
sugar analysis following acid hydrolysis. Obst found 10.8% carbohydrate
MWEL from loblolly pine. Afraction of this amount (11%) was removed by
lignin in kraft pulp
removes large quantities of hemicellulose and lignin and disrupts ester
linkages between lignin and carbohydrate and between hemicellulose
so, significant amounts of carbohydratae remain bound to the residual
pulping. As the reaction
progresses, however, residual lignin becomes harder to remove. Lignin
in the kraft pulp cannot be removed without unacceptable large yield
of galactoglucomannan. Although this structure is in accord with what
about native LC bonds, the bonds in kraft pulp can be very different.
nature of the covalent linkages in kraft pulp have not been fully
because (1) many rearrangements occur during pulping (2) difficulties
encountered in isolating the residual lignin, and (3) reliable
characterization methods are lacking. At least some changes appear to
from the formation of alkali- and acid- stable carbon- carbon bonds
lignin and carabohydratae Several rearrangements are possible.
primary hudroxyls of glucose and mannose can react with the a,
phenylpropane units to form ether linkages. The reducing –end groups
react. Glucose is the most prevalent sugar bound to residual lignins
pulps, and it seems probable that this results form the reaction of
with lignin during the pulping process.
This conclusion is supported, but not proven, by the observation that
glucose content of lignins from wood. Reactions with the b
the phenyl propane are particularly acid and alkali- stable and may
detection in methylation analysis.
methylation analysis to determine the characteristics of
attached to residual lignin in loblolly pine kraft pulps. The total
carbohydrate content of the residual MWEL was only about 8%. As
compared to the
12% abtained with MWEL from nataive wood, but methylation data
the carbohydratae bonding was similar in kraft and native wood. The
position was most frequently found for hexans and the primary O-5
for arabinan. Xylan was
bonded to lignin
at O-3, with a small amount at O-2
methylated derivatives obtained from glactose and arabinose indicated 1®4
respectively. The apparent DP ranged from 4 for xylan to almost 13 for
galactan. Because of the small differences in methylation patterns between
carbohydrates form MWELs of
pine and pine kraft pulp. Minor was not able to confirm the possible
of LC bonds during pulping.
Biodegradation of LCCs
carbohydrate chains or side groups appear to be attached to lignin
nonreducing moieties. Because exo-splitting enzymes
generally attack a
substrate form the nonreducing end of a polysaccharide, removing
progressively toward the reducing end of the molecule, complete
not possible. Even when cargohydrates are attached to the lignin by the
hydroxyl, a single sugar residue could remain attached even after
attack by exo-splitting glycosidases.
structures after exhaustive enzymatic digestion
lignin, aromatic acid, and other modifications of hemicellulose clearly
digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose by ruminants. Phenolic acids
associated with forage fibre are known to decrease fibre digestion when
are in the free state. p- Coumaric, ferulic, and
sinapic acids inhibit
the activity of rumen bacteria and anaerobic fungi.
LCCs on ruminant digestion was studied by examining the solubilization
LCCs using cell-
complexes from the rumen. LCCs from grasses of increasing maturity were
isolated and treated with cell-free rumen hemicellulases. As the lignin
increased, the extent of degradation declined, indicating that the
content of the LC was the overriding factor in determining its
Solubilization of LCC by microbial activity
studies on the solubilization of lignin from grasses or wood labelled
phenylalanine have proliferated.The
bulk of the radioactive label is incorporated into the lignin rather
carbohydrate or protein of the plant, but it is clear that lignin
the labelled plant tissue contains significant amounts of carbohydrate.
material is probably closer to the structure of native lignin than is
lignin prepared by in vitro dehydrogenative
polymerization of coniferyl
research on the solubilization of LCC by microbial activity has
shown that cellulases, hemicellulases, esterases, and perhaps
correlate with lignin solubilization. The mineralization rates and
reported for streptomyces are relatively low, and the solubilized
lignin is not
extensively modified. Lignin mineralization and solubilization could,
be sttributable to two (or more) different enzymes. These studies
additional rigorous clarification.
Enzymatic treatments of pulps
applications, residual lignin in kraft pulp must be removed by
Successive chlorination and alkali extraction remove the remaining
leave a bright, strong pulp suitable for printing papers and other
products. Although chlorine bleaching solves the immediate problem of
lignin, the chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons produced in the bleaching
are are recalcitranat and toxic. These chlorinated products are hard to
from waste streams, and trace quantities are left
in the paper, so other bleaching
processes were devised. One approach is to use hemicellulases to
hemicellulose are complex polymers occuring in plant materials. Either
presents a formidable challenge to microbial degradation. In native
however, lignin and hemicellulose are intermeshed and chemically bonded
covalent corss-linkages. As such they are even more resistant. Covalent
– corbohydrate linkages can be divided into two types: ester linkages
the free carboxy terminus of uronic and aromatic acids and ether
through sugar hydroxyls.
degradation of wood
should be considered on two levels. From an organismic point of view
degradation concerns the interaction of the cell with its
this level, degradation is strongly affected by diffusion of the
agents and the uptake of the oligomeric products. From a biochemical
perspective, degradation concerns the molecular architecture of the
biopolymers, the capacities of the enzymatic catalysts to bind to them
catalytic turnover rates. Lignin reactivity is limited by the
heterogeneity, and stability of the polymeric linkages; cellulose
limited mostly by accessibility and crystallinity; and hemicellulose
is limited by substitution.
Distribution of Wall Components
three principal components of
wood are found throughout the wall. Cellulose is organized into laminar
crystallites which are bundled into the microfibrils. Each micro-fibril
contains regions of amorphous cellulose interspersed and intertwined
Fig. 1. The latter is in turn crosslinked to lignin. Most of the
in the secondary wall layers. Its concentration depends on the relative
portions of hemicellulose and lignin.
is a stable, highly
cross-linked aromatic macromolecule arising through dehydrogenative
radical polymerization of p-coumaryl, coniferyl;
and sinapyl alcohols.
Gymnosperm lignin is made up principally of coniferyl alcohol (guaiacyl
whereas angiosperm lignin is made up from approximately equal amounts
coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols (syringyl/guaiacyl lignin). p-Coumaryl
alcohol is found principally as a precursor to the lignin of grasses
reaction wood. Cellulose microfibrils are the most conspicuous element
plant cell wall. The b-(1,4)-D-glucose
chains which make up the cellulose polymer can be arranged in both
antiparallel crystallites; but based on what we now know about the
and biodegradative mechanisms and x-ray crystallographic studies, the
arrangement is almost certainly the form found in nature.
and microstructure are critical in determining accessibility of enzymes
their polyumeric substrates. The relationship between enzyme diffusion
substrate accessibility has been shown in the number of ways. For
reducing particle size greatly increases surface area and speeds up the
enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Grinding or cutting wood to open all
lumina to attack will expose considerably more surface than is
whole wood. The total surface area reaches about 1 m2 g-1.
Once the lumina are accessible, however, relatively little
further increase in surface area occurs following further grinding,
cell wall thickness is very small compared to its length. Particle size
the only factor important in enzymatic depolymerization. Enzymatic
depends on the structure of the wall itself.
of whole wood
degradation of whole wood occurs principally by fungi. Although
apparently possess much of the biochemical machinery necessary for
biodegradation of the wood components, they do not form mycelia, and
cannot propagate through the tissue structure or translocate nutrients
wood or from one region to another as decay progresses.
of lignin has been studied for more than 80 years with only incremental
progress over much of the time. Early assays employed the disappearance
acid-insoluble Klason lignin. The development of Synthetic 14C-labelled
lignins enabled rapid radiorespirometric determination of lignin
under controlled conditions, and a series of experiments using this
to improved understanding of the cultural and nutritional conditions
which lignin biodegradation occurs.
aspects of lignin biodegradation such as the roles of oxidative species
of biochemical mechanisms, regulation and bacterial lignin degradation
been reviewed elsewhere.
biodegradation of cellulose has probably attracted more attention
than any other single biochemical event outside the filed of medicine,
mechanism of cellulose hydrolysis is still imperfectly understood. The
cellulase complex from Trichoderma reesei has been
thoroughly, but it is not yet clear exactly how this complex works to
depolymerize cellulose. The focus here is placed on the biochemical
involved in hydrolysis.
all of the cellulases are present, Valonia crystals
delamination to form bundles of microcrystallite fibrils. A similar
delamination has been observed with the purified bacterial cellulose
xylinum. Although no direct evidence is available, the
probably occurs between the sheets adjacent van der Waals-bonded sheets
than between adjacent hydrogen bonded chains.
distinction between CBH I and II is not confined to T. reesei.
CBH I and
II are also found in the cellulase complex of Penicillium
in Fusarium lini. In the later instance, CBH I was
found to be active
against D-xylan, whereas CBH II was not. Given the apparent importance
C6 carbon in forcing the half-chair conformation during the hydrolysis
glycosidic bond by lysozyme, it is apparent that substrates lacking
substituent may not be appropriate for some cellulases.
of the diversity of hemicelluloses, it is not possible to survey here
the different types known. Dekker have provided an extensive, useful
compilation of this sort. Likewise have recently reviewed the
microbial xylanases. Mannanases have been studied to a lesser extent,
the emphasis here is placed on xylanases.
characterization of hemicellulase mechanisms presents numerous
encountered with cellulase because the substrate employed is
branched. Moreover, the literature is not definitive because substrates
larch arabino – glucuronoxylan commonly used for hemicellulose assays –
presumably because of their easy solubility – but they are not really
representative of the bulk of hemicellulose found in wood. Selection of
appropriate substrate is critical because the apparent specific
activity of a
xylanase can vary greatly depending on the xylan preparation used for
Substrate variability is not confined to the type of xylan employed,
different batches of xylan from the same supplier can lead to apparent
of as much as two-fold. Native xylans tend to be highly acetylated.
groups increase colubility but decrease the rate of enxymatic
so the method of substrate preparation can have a profound affect on
xylanases are not able to remove glucuronic acid resudies from the
probably because of the 30-fold greater stability of glucuroniside
linkages noted earlier. By comparison, the ester linkages connecting
groups to the xylan are exceedingly unstable and most are removed ruing
isolation of the polymer. Although synergism is observed between xylan
esterases and endoxylanases during hydrolysis of partially acetylate4d
it seems unlikely that deacetylation would be a rate-limiting step in
enzymatic hydrolysis of xylan under most practical conditions because
extreme lability of the ester linkages.
developments, particularly the discoveries of xylose-fermenting yeasts
lignin-degrading enzymes have paved the way for specific removal of
hemicellulose and lignin in order to recover cellulosic fibers and to
useful chemicals from the hemicellulose and lignin fractions.
alternative approach to biological pulping which permits more direct
over the degradation activities is to employ isolated enzymes for
hemicellulose removal. Because the lignin is cross-linked mostly into
hemicellulose is more readily depolymerized than lignin, it has been
initial target of treatment. Removing only a small portion of the
might be sufficient to open up the polymer and ease solvent removal for
residual lignin. The principal problem in these studies has been in
selective removal of hemicellulose without degrading the cellulose.
inhibition of cellulase activity can be realized by the addition of I
Xylan was specifically removed from delignified cell walls leading to a
decrease in energy demand during beating. Removing less than 2% of the
dry pulp weight gave better fiber bonding due to increased flexibility.
Therefore, enzymatic treatments of pulp hold the prospect of both
cost and improved fiber qualities.
treated with CCA is widely used in outdoor architectural projects such
decks, walkways, gazebos and retaining walls. Although this material
originally marketed as a maintenance-free product, most preservatives
manufacturers and end users today recognize the advantages of
beautifying CCA-treated lumber with surface finishes. As a consequence,
frequently becomes a substrate for a variety of coatings products.
little published information is available on the performance of surface
over CCA-treated wood. This has led to some confusion among
manufacturers, coatings companies, the trade, and consumers as to the
compatibility of coatings with this material. Not surprisingly, there
number of misconceptions about the effects of CCA treatment on coatings
performance. This project was undertaken to help clarify some of these
of this suggests that surface finishes applied over CCA-treated lumber
perform better than those applied over untreated wood of the same
objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of a variety
surface finishes over untreated and CCA-treated wood and to determine
extent of the chromium enhancement effect.
is a hygroscopic material that can sorb water as a liquid or
as vapor from its surroundings. The sorbed moisture can exist in wood
or vapor in all cavities and as water bound chemically within cell
Moisture in the cell walls affects all wood properties, but moisture in
affects all wood properties, but moisture in voids affects only weight.
amount of moisture held in cell walls varies according the particular
wood and is a function of both the relative humidity and temperature of
surrounding air. The fiber saturation point is the point at which cell
are empty. Wood is subject to dimensional changes when its moisture
fluctuates below the fiber saturation point.
way wood-polymer composites (WPC) are made is by saturating
wood with monomers followed by in situ polymerization
of the monomers.
Many monomers used to make WPC do not penetrate the cell walls and do
completely fill the voids after polymerization, leaving voids in the
because of shrinkage of the polymer. Solvents can be used to help swell
and aid the penetration of monomers into cell walls, resulting in
high dimensional stability. Methanol has been used to swell the wood;
methanol treatment, the wood is then heated.
objectives of this research were to identify monomers that
swell and penetrate the cell wall without the use of solvents, measure
extent of swelling in individual monomers, polymerize the monomer in
and measure the volumetric swelling and moisture content of the WPC at
relative humidity (RH).
selected for this study were acrylates and metacrylates,
which can be polymerized using the thermal polymerization initiator
2,2´-azobnis-(2-ethylbutyronitrile). All monomers were used as received
further purification or removal of inhibitors added by the
(Acer saccharum ), northern red oak (Quercus rubra),
and southern pine (Pinus sp.) woods were used. The
wood was cut into
specimens 2.5 by 2.5 by 0.6 cm (radial by tangential by longitudinal).
rings were oriented parallel to one side of each specimen to minimize
distortion during shrinking and swelling.
swelling and moisture content
WPC specimens and untreated control specimens were conditioned
in a humidity chamber at 27 C and 30% relative humidity (RH) for 7
conditioned specimens were weighed, dimensions measured, and volumes
calculated. The specimens were then placed in a humidity chamber 27 C
RH. Specimens were weighed and measured after 2,4, 6, and 24 h, and 2,
and 7 days. The percentage of volumetric swelling based on the treated
volumes was calculated based on the oven-dry untreated weight.
swelling of WPC
rate of swelling of WPC specimens was slow for the first few
hours at 90% RH, compared to that of the control specimens Tables 6 to
6 h in 90% RH,
maple red oak, and
southern pine control specimens swelled 6.6, 6.1 and
7.0%, respectively. In contrast, all maple
WPC specimens swelled less than 3%, red oak WPC specimens less than
the southern pine WPC specimens less than 4.0% during the same period
into the wood, which lowered the rate of swelling compared to that of
during the first few
hours at 90% RH.
content of WPC specimens
moisture content of WPC specimens was calculated from specimen
weight at specified time intervals in 90% RH. The rate of moisture
during the first few hours was slower than it was after 24 h in 90%RH.
days at 90% RH, the moisture content calculated on the basis of only
in the specimens (untreated
weight) excluding the weight of polymer, showed that many treated
sorbed more moisture than did control specimens.
monomers can swell
wood at temperatures above room temperatures. These monomers have low
weights and molecular structures that facilitate hydrogen-bonding. For
wood-polymer composite (WPC) specimens that displayed some volumetric
after polymerization, cell-walk bulking had the potential to reduce the
moisture-related swelling, but this potential was counteracted by the
hygroscopicity of the polymers. This attraction of moisture to the WPC
specimens resulted in some swelling that likely would not have occurred
polymers not been hygroscopic.
Composites from Recycled Materials
of the word “waste” projects a vision of material with no value or
purpose. However, technology is evolving that holds promise for using
recycled wood and plastics to make an array of high-performance
are, in themselves, potentially recyclable. Preliminary research at
Products Laboratory (FPL), and elsewhere indicates that recycled
as polyethylene, polypropylene, or polyethylene terephthalate can be
with wood fiber waste to make useful reinforced thermoplastic
Advantages associated with these composite products include lighter
improved acoustic, impact, and heat reformability properties—all at a
than that of comparable products made from plastics alone. In addition,
previous research has shown that composite products can possibly be
and recycled for the production of second-generation composites.
Thermoformable Composites as Outlets
for Waste Paper, Wood,
general types of thermoformable composites exist, distinguished by
different manufacturing processes. Both processes allow and require
in composition and in the lignocellulosic component. The two processes
produce thermoformable composites are melt blending and air laying or
the primary application of the thermoformed composites, both melt
air laid, is for interior door panels and trunk liners in automobiles.
noted, additional large-volume, low-to-moderate cost applications are
in areas such as packaging (trays, cartons), interior building panels,
Research on Wood Fiber-Thermoplastic Composites
following is not intended to
be a comprehensive review of recent research on wood
composites. Instead, we simply illustrate the effects of some important
composition and processing variables in the composite processes,
preliminary indications of the effects of recycled ingredients.
Made by Melt Blending.
The 1980s brought a resurgence of
research into various aspects of melt-blended composites made from
flour or fiber in virgin thermoplastic matrices. For example, Kokta and
colleagues have published numerous papers in this area, emphasizing
improvements in the filler-matrix bond through coupling agents and
polymers on cellulosic fiber surfaces.
Made by Nonwoven Mat Technologhy.
articles and technical papers have been written and several patents
issued on both the manufacture and use of nonwoven fiber webs
combinations of textile and cellulosic fibers. This technology is
well-known in the consumer products industry. For example, Sciaraffa
have been issued a patent for producing a nonwoven web that has both
bonds and patterned embossments for use as a liner material for
diapers. Bither has found that polyolefin pulps can serve as effective
in nonwoven products, many additional references could be cited in this
and Development Needs
the FPL and the UW, we are conducting a program aimed at developing
to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that
themselves recyclable, are environmentally friendly, and will remove
materials from the waste stream. This program is being conducted in
with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In support of this goal,
defined a number of research and development needs.
Modification of Wood Fiber
wood composite industry has an opportunity to follow this trend and
expand markets for new materials based on blends and alloys with other
materials. The research program at the Forest Products Laboratory is
on wood fiber/plastic blends and alloys in an attempt to produce
consistent, uniform, continuous, predictable, and reproducible
purpose of this paper, is to present some of the initial results in the
wood fiber thermoplasticization. The wood fiber is a composite made up
crystalline, thermoset polymer (cellulose) in a thermoplastic matrix
and the hemicelluloses). The melting point of the thermoplastic matrix
high to allow this phase to flow at temperatures that do not degrade
fiber. If the glass transition temperature of the thermoplastic matrix
is reduced through chemical modification, it is possible to plasticize
fiber allowing it to become more thermo-formable through
extrusion, or injection.
of the fibers using maleic (MA) and succinic (SA) anhydrides was
using the following procedure. Hot xylene was saturated with each of
anhydrides in a reaction vessel. When reflux temperature was reached,
fiber was added and allowed to react for different lengths of time to
different levels of chemical weight gain. Excess anhydride was removed
extraction of the esterified fiber with xylenes for four hours. Excess xylene was removed by
evaporation and then
the fiber was oven dried overnight.
of Esterification Products
spectroscopy was performed using a Nicolet 6000 Spectrophotometer.
each modification were dried, ground, and mixed with potassium bromide
ratio of 1 mg; 200 mg and pressed under a vacuum to form pellets.
was measured over a range from 4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1with air as a
electron micrographs (SEM) were taken with a jeol 840 scanning electron
microscope. All samples were coated with gold. A magnification of 750x
contents were determined by saponifying the acetyl groups and using
chromatography (GLC) with propionic acid as a standard. The ester
the MA and SA modified fibers were calculated from the acid and
values using a similar technique to that used by Matsuda.Titration of
carboxyl groups in the esterified wood fiber and in ester groups
from the esterified wood fiber gave determinations of the ester content
on the acid and saponification values and indicated whether the
as a monoester or diester.
percent of a liquid phenol-formaldehyde (PF) dryprocess hardboard resin
(GP2341.50% aqueous solution), was sprayed onto the esterified fiber
by attrition milling to distribute the resin. The fiber was hand formed
mat approximately 15 by 15 cm and then pressed in a heated Carver press
190°C for 10 minutes to a predetermined thickness of 6 cm and specific
of 0.7. for the no resin boards, controls AA, MA, and SA modified
hand formed into fiber mats and pressed in a heated carver press at
210°C for 5
minutes at 8.5 MPa (board pressure).
were cut into 5 by 5 cm specimens and placed in separate rooms at 27°C
65,, or 90% relative humidity. Each specimen was weighed at the end of
and the equilibrium moisture content determined. Triplicate samples
and the results averaged.
of Wood Fiber
1 shows the extent of modification achieved with the three types of
based on a molar addition. The reaction with AA results in the
splitting out of
byproduct acetic acid during wood esterification while the reactions
and SA result in 100% anhydride carbon skeleton added to the wood. MA
much lower reactivity than SA which has the same structure except for
double bond in MA. A possible explanation for the molecule into the
as well as the instability of the reactivity MA chemical intermediate.
Sorption of Esterified
2 shows that the equilbrium moisture content (EMC) of the esterified
fiberboards is independent of the type of esterification, but is
the molar gain of reacted ester in the wood fiber. A reduction in EMC
for each esterification as the level of modification was increased.
and Extent of Swelling of
Fiberboards in Liquid Water
4 shows the rate of fiberboard swelling in liquid water at equivalent
anhydride modification. while control boards swelled almost 25% in
the first 20 minutes, all types of esterified boards swelled less than
reduced the swelling to less than half of the control specimens while
MA and SA
modifications reduced the swelling further. The reduction in swelling
attributed to the bulking of the cell wall and the reduction in
of wood especially with the larger MA and SA molecules.
of Wood with Pernitric Acid
peroxides such as peracetic and performic acids will effectively
wood and other lignocellulosics. The use of performic acid as a pulping
is under active investigation. We recently found that the inorganic
peroxymonosulfuric acid, will readily delignify these materials.
perxide is quite ineffective, however. On the basis of these findings,
seemed highly likely that other inorganic peroxyacids might also be
in delignification. Consequently, we initiated an exploratory study on
delignification of wood with other inorganic peroxyacids.
the basis of this consideration, we decided to study the possibility of
delighifying wood with pernitric acid. We chose finely divided aspen
the substrate for study because it delignifies easily. Success with
delignification would suggest further pulping studies.
of pernitric acid
are several methods for preparing pernitric acid. We initially chose
described by Kenley, Trevor, and Lan that uses only concentrated
peroxide and concentrated nitric acid. Several attempts at generating
acid by this method were unsuccessful. After adding a drop of peroxide
chilled nitric acid in an ice bath, a puff of yellowish-brown vapor
arter a fraction of a second. Apparently, when the drop of peroxide
the acid, some pernitric acid formed and then immediately decomposed to
acid and oxygen.
the basis of the large variability of the data and the ease of
explosive mixtures, it appeared that pernitric acid was quite unstable
would readily decompose, especially at higher concentration. If
of pernitric acid in dilute aqueous was too rapid, it might possess
ability to function as an oxidizing agent. It would therefore lose the
to degrade the lignin in wood. Because of this consideration, we
experiments on the decomposition of pernitric acid in dilute aqueous
of pernitric acid
generated pernitric acid by adding 1.35 g of chilled (from a
hydrogen peroxide to 4.0 g 90% nitric acid in a vial in an ice bath.
min, the mixture was diluted with 24.6 g of distilled to water. The
was then analyzed and was 0.68 m (5.4%) in
pernitric acid. The total
acidity of the solution was 1.93 m based on the input of nitric acid.
solution remained at room temperature (22°C) and the remaining half at
refrigerator temperature (6°C) with periodic analysis of each of the
of aspen wood
generation procedure used in the decomposition work produced a 5.7%
pernitric acid. Then 25 g of this solution was added to 1.00 g (o.d.
finely divided aspen wood (passing a 40-mesh screen, 6.0% moisture).
mixture was held at 22°C for 305 min. The liquor was drained from the
residue. The residue was washed thoroughly with RO water, and
residue was dried in a vacuum
overnight at 60% and its yield was determined. It was then analyzes for
content, and its 0.5% cupriethylenediamine (CED) viscosity was
Because the residue was not completely soluble in the CED solution, it
delignified using the chlorite procedure given in the Experimental
and Rosin Derivatives
is a complex mixture of mainly resin acids and small amount of
components. Its colour, depending on the source and method of
vary from a water white through dark red to almost black, with a tinge
It is generally translucent and brittle at room temperature. The other
properties which are of importance in judging the quality of rosin are
value, saponification value, softening point, and unsaponification
However, entire rosin is sold and purchased on the colour basis, the
colour bring the highest price. Opacity in rosin some times degrades
Sometimes rosin is upgraded to get better market price.
acids are monocarboxylic acid having typical molecular formula C20H30O2.
The structural formulas of all the known resin acid are shown in Fig.1,
may be divided into abietic and primaric type. The pimaric type resin
differs from those of abietic type, in that they have two alkyl groups
C-7 position in the place of isopropyl group. When double bond occurs
in one of
these alkyl groups, it can not conjugate with a cyclic double bond.
Consequently the double bonds in pimaric and isopimaric acid are not
conjugated and so not very reactive.
resin acid molecule possesses two chemically reactive centers, the
and the carboxyl gorup. Through these, many modifications in structure
numerous derivatives are obtainable. Abietic acid is customatily and
conveniently used to exemplify the structural and chemical reaction
constitute the bulk of commercial products. Although the molecular
pure acid is 303, for rosin, the value is usually taken as 340 due to
of neutal for calculation in involving carboxyl group.
resin acids of the abietic type are isomerized thermally or
by treatment with dilute mineral acids. The equilibrium mixture from
mineral acid isomerization of levopimaric acid was 4% palustire, 93%
and 3% meoabietic. The equilibrium mixture of a thermally isomerized
levopimaric acid was 13% palustric acid, 80% abietic acid and 7%
acid. Methyl abietate isomerised to give the same equilibrium
abietic acid. A major difference between the two was an extensive
disproportionation reaction that occurred with the ester.
alcoholic solution of levopimaric acid containing a sensitizing dye,
methylens blue, readily absorbs one mole of oxygen, when contacted with
produce quantitatively a peroxide, 8,12-peroxide-13,14 dihydroabietic
is one of the more satisfactory methods for decreasing the
rosin to air oxidation. Because of the structural features of the resin
however more vigorous conditions are necessary than with ordinary
Reduction with heavy metals and mineral acids or which sodium amalgam and water,
incomplete hydrogenation, even for one double bond. On the other hand
hydrogen, in the presence of noble metal catalysts, such as palladium
platinum, will saturate one or both double bonds, depending on the
the solvent employes. By taking advantage of solvent effect, the
selectivity can be obtained with palladium carbon catalyst.
acids can be hydrogenated by the transfer of hydrogen from sodium
the presence of water and a palladium carbon catalyst. The primary
the dihydro derivatives Incorporation of a polar solvent (Methyl
in the solvent increases the reaction rate. Although methyl neoabierate
hydrogenates faster than abictatc, the initial rate of formation of the
compounds is practically the same, same isomerization to methyl
(maximumabout 25%) and slight dehydrogenation to methyl dehydroabietate
The reaction product distribution is essentially the same as for
trace amounts of 13(15)-abietenate are produced.
of vinyl esters of hydrogenated rosin
esters were prepared and homopolymerized in emulsion and copolymerized
vinyl acetate, vinyl chloride, and butadiene and thus compared to vinyl
tetrahydroabietatc (VTA) and vinyl dehydroabietate (VDA).
of the double bonds of rosin acid containing conjugated unsaturation,
abietic acid, and the exocyclic double bonds of dextropimaric and
isodextropimaric acids are easily reduced. The endocyclic double bonds
dihydroabietic acid and pimaric acids are more difficult to
they can be reduced over a nickel catalyst, under severe conditions.
acid, which contains a
highly hindered aromatic ring, cannot be reduced at a practical rate
dehydrogenation reaction is the second means of effectively modifying
render them less susceptible to oxidation by atmosphcric oxygen. Part
hydrogen that is removed is readily absorbed by the pimaric type acids,
in rosin, to produce the stable dihydropimaric acid. Because of the
of a part of the hydrogen, this reaction frequently has been described
disproportionation. However, the appearance of only 2-3% of
acids and the absence of tetrahydro abietic acid, show that the
disproportionation of the abietic type acid is not involved.
disproportionated rosin is chemically stable, thermoplastic resin, by
of conjugation or aromatization of the molecule. This treatment
total oxidation prone AA content to highly stabilised forms of resin
predominantly dehydroabietic acid. As a result this DPR has a much
resistance to discoloration, embrittlement, and other effects of
do pale grades of ordinary rosin. This improved oxidation resistance,
with a wide compatibility with polymeric thermoplastic and elastomeric
materials, makes DPR especially suitable as an ingredient of hot melt
adhesives and coatings for paper and paper boards substrates, and as a
tackifier and processing aid for rubber based adhesives and molding
any application only reduction in acid value of rosin does not satisfy
performance requirements of coatings. Rosin (abietic acid) possesses
conjugated dienoic unsaturation, which is very much susceptible to
atmospheric oxygen. Thus, when exposed to air, rosin and its
undergo discolouration to develop ultimately dark brown colour, On
rosin becomes more brittle and friable and changes its solubility
characteristics. Enhanced performance of rosin derivatives with their
colour and good colour retention properties is obtained by proper
modifications of rosin, such that the oxidation susceptible
rosin is reduced to a greater extent or completely eliminated by
chemical reactions such as polymerization.
phenolic modified rosin is made by adding to the hot rosin either the
formaldehyde condensate or the phenol and the formaldehyde separately.
phenols commonly used are bis-phenol, phenol and creasols. The phenolic
modified rosins are usually further modified by esterification with
The condensation reaction is an addition reaction that takes place
methylol phenol and rosin or rosin esters. These esters are used in oil
unsaturated cyclic and acyclic hydrocarbons
salts of the condensates of resin with unsaturated
hydrocarbons, which salts are particularly valuable for use in
coatings such as varnishes, having excellent bodying and drying
and forming harder films of improved water resistance.
metal salts of this rosin-butadiene condensates were pepared
by heating the condensate to 235°C and then gradually adding, with
stirring, during a period of about 40 minutes, the metal salt, while
simultaneously increasing the temperature to about 320 °C. The hot,
viscous resins was then cooled to room temperature and analysed.
pentaerythritol and other polyhydric alcohols
diethylene glycols are also used to prepare esters by heating rosin at
in the presence of zinc, or boric acid
catalyst. The unreacted alcohol is removed from the ester at 300oC
under reduced pressure. One of the
glycol ester is prepared by the reaction with rosin, diglycol and
The PVC sandals made from these esters can fully meet the international
successfully hydrogenated to produce the hydroabietyl alcohol of
alcohol may be produced by the hydrogenation of the methyl esters of
and 5000 psi,
in the presence of copper chromite catalyst. With soluble film formers,
casein and zein, the alcohol is used to impart improved tack, colour
stability. Hydro abietyl alcohol produces esters with a wide range of
properties, when reacted with organic and inorganic acids.
polyester modified rosin (UPER) are prepared by reacting first with
acid glycol, maleic anhydride and then with rosin.
and physical properties of the castings, prepared by copolymerization
styrene are good to excellent when compared with accepted values of
styrenated polyester cast resins. Foams prepared from these polyesters
promising use in garments as a fabric-foam laminated. This has been due
their ability to be flame taminated directly to the fabric without the
to broad class of organic high molecular weight compounds, which are
repeated esterification reaction. They constitute one of the most
class of plastic material. The great scope lies in the powder coatings,
solventless convertible coatings, aqueous coatings etc. The film
these polysters have high dimensional stability against change in
action of ammonia on
dehydrogenated rosin at elevated temperatures, yields a nitrile. It is
yellow, waxy solid with softening points about 65o
containing 85-95% of
nitrile from which the nitrile of dehydroabietic acid can be
is used in the
production of Amine D, by
catalytic hydrogenation at elevated temperature and pressure. The amine
relatively weak base that forms salts with both mineral and organic
room temperature, in suitable solvents or at elevated temperature.
a solution of 2.85 kg. of Amine D dissolved in 4.71 lit. of
toluene was added a solution of 654 g. (10.8 mole) of glacial acetic
1.56 lit. of toluene. The solution was stored at 10oC
for 2 hour. The crystalline salt was collected, washed with cold
recrystallized from 4.23 lit. of boiling toluene. The colourless
collected, washed several times with n-pentene and air dried to obtain
acid catalyzed condensation of abietic acid with formaldehyde: Abietic
g. (0.033 mole) of formaldehyde (as paraformaldehyde) were suspended in
of purified dioxane. On addition of 3 g. of conc. Sulfuric acid, the
became homogeneous, and the temperature rose spontaneously to 60oC.
The darkened solution was maintained
for 0.5 hr. On
addition of 300 ml. of water, a cream coloured precipitate was formed
thoroughly washed with water and dried in vacuum at 50oC.
similar to that above were run using 2,3 and 5 moles
of formaldehyde per mole of abietic acid. These products showed neutral
equivalent values of 357,394, and 419, respectively. The product from
condensation of abietic acid with 2 moles of formaldehyde showed no
the region 220-285 mµ.
chlorosulphonyl isocyanate, acrylonitrile, fumaronitrile,
benzoquinone, tetracyano ethylene, and many dinitrile and diamine
levopimaric acid are reported here. Diamines and isocynates from rosin
found many industrial applications, such as polyurethane, ingredients
adhesives and corrosion inhibitors.
Polymerizable Half Esters of Rosin
commucation is concerned
with the partial esters of the polymerizable rosin adducts which have
two carboxyl group.They are some times referred to as half esters,but
least one case a trivalent acid is involved .Although they are quite
known, but there is little information published in the literature to
coordinate their behaviour and properties.
specific interest of the
partial is that while maintaining acid functionality a wide gradition
properties from hydrophilic to hydrophobic can be obtained and also
differential solubilities in various solvents. These properties are
to various copolymers which may be formed from them, dependent on the
partial ester included and the nature of the alcohol radical.
the chemical used are of comical type.
and properties of monomers
method of preparing the rosin ester is by reacting a stoichiometric
the requisite alcohol with an adduct being by far the most utilized in
respect. The general object is to avoid simultaneous formation of the
and free acid.
Maleic rosin is refluxed with absolute alcohols until the conversion to
monoester is complete. Rp increases rapidly with
temperature till 80OC
and is constant to 120oC.
Heating above 80oC
tends to cause diester formation. Phenol methyl isohexyl alcohol and
tert-butanol react slowly. The above experiment was carried out under
Purification of the H rosin esters may be effected by first
ester with sodium carbonate solution. In order to remove diesters, the
salt is extracted with the solvent. At 25oC,
the half ester in acetone is extremely rapid. Secondary alcohols fail
esterify. Preparations are as flows.
The dibasic do not, except under special and rather drastic conditions,
homopolymer, but they are normally copolymerizable although with rather
reactivities. The anhydride salt, especially maleic rosin,can be made
homopolymerize under drastic condition, but they copolymerize very
a strong tendency to alternate, e.g., with vinyl acetate or styrene.The
diesters of the dibasic adducts copolymerize readily with vinly
vinly acetate, but the reactivity ratios are somewhat
unfavourable for monomers such as styrene.