Detailed Project Profiles On Chemical Industries (Vol II) (2nd Revised Edition)

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Detailed Project Profiles On Chemical Industries (Vol II) (2nd Revised Edition)

Author: NPCS Board
Format: Hardcover
ISBN: 9789381039144
Code: NI3
Pages: 158
Price: Rs. 1,695.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2012
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
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***********Limited Edition- available in Photostat Version Only************


Chemical industry, complex of processes, operations, and organizations engaged in the manufacture of chemicals and their derivatives. The chemical industry may be described simply as the industry that uses chemistry and manufactures chemicals. A chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e. without breaking chemical bonds. It can be solid, liquid, gas, or plasma. The scope of the chemical industry is in part shaped by custom rather than by logic. An average chemical product is passed from factory to factory several times before it emerges from the chemical industry into the market.
The chemical sector has witnessed growth of 13-14% in the last 5 years A number of initiatives have been proposed in the 12th 5-year plan (2012-2017) to boost the growth of Indian Chemical industry like Target to increase the share of manufacturing in GDP to at least 25% by 2025 (from current 16%). Investments in manufacturing in the chemical sector are absolutely essential to ensure growth of the Indian chemical industry, FDI inflow picked up in FY11 reaching USD 2,345 Mn and USD 4,041 Mn in FY12. Indian Chemical industry also managed to lead industrial IIP in FY13. As per CSO sources, Chemicals IIP for FY13 stood at 3.1% while the overall IIP was 0.8%. The Indian chemicals industry, which earned revenues in the range of $ 155-160 billion in 2013, is likely to grow at a rate of 11-12 percent in the next two to three years. The market is likely to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 13-14 percent. “Product customization and understanding of unique customer needs has been one of the key success levers for the Indian chemical industry. The chemical industry can be broadly classified into two segments – organic and inorganic chemicals. Organic chemicals cover over half of all known chemical compounds, and include petrochemicals, drugs, cosmetics, agrochemicals, etc. Inorganic chemicals comprise alkalis, dyes and dyestuffs.
The content of the book includes information about chemical industry. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like acetylene gas, acrylic acid and its derivatives, ciprofloxacin HCl, dicalcium phosphate, glycerol monostearate, L-ascorbic acid (plain), manganese oxide, potassium iodate, precipitated calcium carbonate, single superphosphate, sodium silicate and zinc sulfate (33%, 21% & 12%) .
Project profile contains information like introduction, properties, uses and applications, raw material used, manufacturing process, flow diagram, plant economics, land and building, plant and machinery, fixed capital, working capital requirement/month, total working capital/month, cost of project, total capital investment, turn over/annum, profit sales ratio, rate of return, breakeven point (B.E.P)
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.

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Contents

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1. Chemical Industry
2. Acetylene Gas
3. Acrylic Acid and Its Derivatives
4. Ciprofloxacin HCL
5. Dicalcium Phosphate
6. Glycerol Monostearate
7. L-Ascorbic Acid (Plain)
8. Manganese Oxide
9. Potassium Iodate
10. Precipitated Calcium Carbonate
11. Single Super Phosphate
12. Sodium Silicate
    13. Zinc Sulfate (33%, 21% & 12%)

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(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Zinc Sulfate

 (33%, 21% & 12%)

Introduction

Zinc sulfate is a powder that is colorless and completely water-soluble. The product can be used in different applications, including some connected with maintaining good health. A number of over the counter products contain some level of zinc sulfate, as well as many prescription medications.

One application of zinc sulfate that may surprise some people is the use of the powder as a means to preserve wood products. The properties of the sulfate help it permeate the body of the wood and help to protect it from wear and tear from regular use as well as adverse weather conditions. The sulfate can be used safely with just about any type of wood product and eliminates the necessity of using other preservatives that have in recent years been proven to have adverse effects on the health of human beings.

In terms of healthcare uses, zinc sulfate is often included as an ingredient in products designed to treat skin conditions. In particular, over-the-counter medications for acne are likely to contain the compound. Lotions and topical creams that are used to treat boils are also likely to contain at least trace amounts of the sulfate.

The chemical compound is also helpful with a number of internal health issues as well. Products such as throat lozenges are likely to employ zinc sulfate as one of the ingredients. Many products that promote health hair and strong nails contain the compound.

The properties of zinc to promote the proper function of the oil glands are thought to indirectly support collagen and protein production, leaving the skin with a healthy appearance. An added bonus of the compound for skin is that the sulfate promotes conditions that encourage the healing of wounds.

Zinc sulfate is also helpful in promoting the efficient function of the immune system. This means that indirectly the product has an impact on just about every system in the body, as it helps to keep the immune system strong enough to deal with viruses and other types of infection. There is also a great deal of evidence that points to the importance of the zinc compound in the proper development of muscles and their maintenance.

It is not unusual for prescription medicine products used to treat various types of internal and external health issues also contain zinc sulfate. In most cases, the amount of sulfate present is greater than that of over the counter medications. As with many compounds, it is possible to ingest too much zinc sulfate and possibly disrupt the normal function of some systems. For this reason, it is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare professional when it comes to taking a prescription medication containing the sulfate.

Zinc sulfate is a very water soluble, transparent, colorless, crystalline compound. It is commonly used as the heptahydrate, ZnSO4 •7H2O, and is commonly called white vitriol; it occurs naturally as the mineral goslarite, and can be prepared by reacting zinc with sulfuric acid. It is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, and agricultural sprays; in making lithopone; in coagulation baths for rayon; in electrolyte for zinc plating; as a mordant in dyeing; as a preservative for skins and leather; and in medicine as an astringent and emitic.

Zinc sulfate is chiefly used in fertilizer applications and animal feed supplements. It is especially applied on crops such as pecan, deciduous fruits, peanuts, cotton, corn, and citrus, and added to feeds for swine and poultry. Zinc sulfate is the most common dry fertilizer and zinc chelates are the most common liquid material. Zinc sulfate’s high solubility in aqueous systems makes it a favored substance for delivering zinc values in agriculture applications. Zinc is one of the essential elements for plant and animal life. In plants, it serves as a growth hormone and influences protein synthesis. Zinc deficiency causes stunting of the plant, yellowing of the leaves and decreased yields of seed, grain, vegetables or fruit. Soil application of zinc sulfate is the most common and most successful long-term strategy for eliminating zinc deficiencies. Zinc sulfate can be applied as a broadcast treatment and tilled into the soil or applied in a band near the seed. Band application is most effective when placed to the side and below the seed. Zinc chelates are generally used as a rescue treatment and do not result in any benefits to following crops. Common rates of foliar zinc are 0.25-1.0 lb/a elemental zinc. Multiple applications of foliar zinc are usually required to achieve the same affect as 10 lbs/a zinc applied to the soil before planting.

Zinc sulfate solution may be used in the production of zineb (zinc ethylene bisdithiocarbamate). Zineb, and agricultural fungicide, is commonly employed to protect crops such as apples, pears, cabbage, broccoli and ornamentals as well as citrus, stone-fruit, cotton and wheat.

The second major use for zinc sulfate is the manufacture of viscose rayon fiber. Zinc sulfate is one of the ingredients in the spinning bath along with sodium sulfate and sulfuric acid. A thin stream of viscose solution is injected into the spinning bath where it coagulates forming the fiber. The zinc sulfate promotes coagulation and crenullation of the fiber. Rayon of high strength is produced which is especially well suited for tires, rubber hoses, belting and other reinforcing applications.

Zinc sulfate is the ideal source of zinc for the production of zinc stearate. It is used as a catalyst in numerous chemical operations and in the production of butyl rubber. Zinc Sulfate Solution is used as the source of zinc in the manufacture of zinc dithiocarbamate rubber accelerators. In water treatment, zinc sulfate finds application as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling towers and secondary oil recovery. Zinc sulfate also finds use in production of pigments, preservation and clarification of glue, in flame-proofing compounds, as a mining flotation agent, wood preservative and in electrometallurgy and electrogalvanizing.

APPLICATION

Zinc Sulphate is used in agriculture as a weed killer and to give protection against pests. It is used to supply zinc in animal feeds and fertilizers; Zinc Sulphate is also an important constituent of the precipitating bath in the manufacture of viscose rayon and in electrolyte for zinc plating. Zinc Sulphate functions as a mordant in dyeing; as a preservative for skins and leather; and as an astringent and emetic in medicine.

RAW MATERIAL DETAILS

SULFURIC ACID

Sulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4. Its historical name is oil of vitriol. Pure sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid. The salts of sulfuric acid are called sulfates. Sulfuric acid is soluble in water at all concentrations.

Sulfuric acid has many applications, and is a central substance in the chemical industry. Principal uses include lead-acid batteries for cars and other vehicles, ore processing, fertilizer manufacturing, oil refining, wastewater processing, and chemical synthesis.

ZINC ASH

Zinc ash is oxidised zinc that forms on the surface of molten zinc metal.

       •   The ash consists of a powdery material (the ash proper) and solid metallic pieces of an irregular shape.

       •   It is sometimes called zinc dross, zinc skimmings, zinc top dross or zinc oxide. In the galvanising industry itself, the term zinc ash prevails.

       •   Zinc ash usually arises from hot dip galvanising or other zinc coating processes.

       •   The ash is removed from the top of galvanising baths by skimming or straining.

       •   There are several major companies that process or recycle zinc ash domestically.

       •   One of these companies mechanically separates the metallic zinc from the ash.

       •   Another company does this and blends the zinc ash to make agricultural grade zinc oxide.

       •   A number of galvanising companies also mechanically separate the metallic zinc from the ash.

       •   The metallics are re-used in galvanising and other processes.

       •   Another company smelts both processed ashes and unprocessed ash to recover the zinc in metallic form.

       •   Export or import of zinc ash without a permit contravenes the Hazardous Waste (Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1989.

DIFFERENT TYPE OF ZINC ASH

Old Zinc Die Cast Scrap

Shall consist of miscellaneous old zinc base die castings, with or without iron and other foreign attachments. Must be free of borings, turnings, dross pieces, chunks, melted pieces and skimmings.

All unmeltables, dirt, foreign attachments, and volatile substances (such as rubber, cork, plastic, grease, etc.) are deductible. Material containing in excess of 30% iron will not constitute good delivery.

New Zinc Die Cast Scrap

Shall consist of new or unused, clean, zinc base die castings. Castings to be unplated , unpainted, and free from corrosion.        

Zinc Die Cast Automotive Grilles

Shall consist of clean, old or used zinc base die cast automotive grilles, free from soldered material. All foreign attachments and extraneous materials are deductible.

New Plated Zinc Die Cast Scrap

Shall consist of new or unused clean, plated zinc base die castings, free from corrosion.

Old Scrap Zinc

Shall consist of clean dry scrap zinc, such as sheets, jar lids, clean unalloyed castings and anti-corrosion plates. Borings and turnings are not acceptable. Material must not be excessively corroded or oxidized. All foreign attachments and extraneous materials are deductible.      

New Zinc Clippings

Shall consist of any new pure zinc sheets or stampings free from corrosion. To contain no foreign material or attachments. Printers zinc, such as engravers zinc, lithograph sheets and addressograph plates subject to special arrangements. Printers zinc to be free of routings.

ZINC ASH (Zinc Dust, Zinc powder)

     CAS                                     :                7740-68-6

     Molecular Formula                 :                Zn

     Molecular Weight                   :                65.38

     Property                               :                Grayish Powder

Zinc for Crop Production

Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient required in some fertilizer programs for crop production. While some soils are capable of supplying adequate amounts for crop production, addition of zinc fertilizers is needed for others. Zn may be needed in fertilizer programs for production of corn, sweet corn, and edible beans.

The Role of Zinc in the Plant

The specific role of Zn in growth and development of plants is not known. This nutrient is an important component of various enzymes that are responsible for driving many metabolic reactions in all crops. Growth and development would stop if specific enzymes were not present in plant tissue.

Zinc, however, is needed in very small amounts. Plant uptake of this nutrient is calculated in terms of ounces per acre instead of pounds per acre. Therefore, Zn is classified as a micronutrient.

Deficiency Symptoms

Plants fail to develop normally when they are deficient in Zn and certain characteristic deficiency symptoms will appear. With corn, these symptoms usually appear in the first two or three weeks of the growing season. If the deficiency of Zn is severe, these symptoms may last throughout the entire season.

A deficiency of Zn in corn is characterized by the development of broad bands of striped tissue on each side of the midrib of the leaf. These stripes begin on the part of the leaf closest to the stalk and appear first on the upper part of the plant A Zn deficient corn plant also appears to be stunted. The lack of normal elongation in a corn plant.

Zinc deficiency in edible beans first appears as a yellowing of the lower leaves. As the season progresses, this yellowing develops into a bronze or brown color. The leaves have a rusty appearance. For this crop, however, care must be taken to avoid confusing sunburned leaves with Zn deficiency.

For both corn and edible beans, suspected deficiency symptoms should be confirmed with plant analysis.

MANUFACTURING PROCESS

Plant Capacity –                       20 MT/day or 6000 MT/Annum

Zinc Sulfate 33%                       1500 MT/Annum

Zinc Sulfate 21%                       3000 MT/Annum

Zinc Sulfate Soln. 12%              4100 KLs/Annum

Technological process consists from:

     1.   suspension preparation

     2.   leaching

     3.   refining

     4.   solution thickening

     5.   crystallization

     6.   centrifugation and packing of zinc sulphate

Production machinery involve are :

       •   suspension basins

       •   dissolving basin

       •   refining basins

       •   evaporators

       •   crystallizator

       •   filter

       •   filtration screen

       •   centrifuge

       •   packing line

       •   collateral technological equipment: pressure vessels, collecting vessels, sulphuric acid reservoir

Material Preparation

Zinc ash is generally available in the form of lumps and chips. It is, therefore, first crushed and then pulverized to separate out zinc metallic from fine ash.

Raw Material Required –

Zn Ash

3720 MT/annum

Sulfuric Acid

3240 MT/annum

Leaching

The fine ash is then treated with sulphuric acid. Zinc is rendered soluble according to the following reaction, using agitated reactors:

ZnO + H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + H2O

During this operation, compressed air and pyrolusite (MnO2) are added to oxidize ferrous iron to ferric state. Small quantity of steam, if required, is also added to leach zinc at about 60°C to get better extraction. Leaching is continued till pH of the slurry reaches 4.5 to 5 where the oxidized impurity of iron is hydrolyzed to ferric hydroxide precipitate and is thus removed from the solution:

3ZnO + Fe2(SO4)3 + 3H2O = 3ZnSO4 + 2 Fe(OH)3

The slurry is then discharged to a thickener for solid-liquid separation. For quicker settling, suitable flocculent is added to slurry at the time of discharge. The thickener, overflow, which is a clear solution of ZnSO4, is sent for evaporation from their 12% solution take a out as product.

The thickener underflow is pumped to another reactor, where it is subjected to water washing. The pulp is filtered in a drum filter to get soluble zinc.

The residual cake is discarded to secured landfill facility and the filtrate goes to effluent treatment plant for making zinc hydroxide.

Further, rest solution sent for crystallizer. Zinc Sulfate crystal takes place and suspended in the solution.

These are separated out by centrifuge, and liquid filtrate recycled & zinc sulfate cake sent for drying. On drying heptrahydrate take in out as 21% & further drying to monohydrate take in out as 33% zinc sulfate.

These 21% & 33% zinc sulfate lumps subjected to grinding/Pulverilzering & screening.

 PACKING

Zinc Sulfate 33 %, 21 % is packed into standard 25 kg HDPE bags with inner liner. Zinc Sulfate 12 % solution packed in the 25 litre plastic container,

PLANT ECONOMICS

Rated Plant capacity          =      20.00 MT/day

                                         =      6000.00 MT/annum

                                                 ZINC SULFATE 33%, 21%, AND 12% SOLN

Basis

No. of working days           =      25 days/month

                                         =      300 days/annum

No. of shifts                      =      3 per day

One shift                            =      8 hours

ZINC SULFATE 33% 1500 MT/ANNUM

ZINC SULFATE 21% 3000 MT/ANNUM

ZINC SULFATE SOLN 12%

4100 KL/ANNUM

Currency - Rs.

INDIAN CURRENCY

LAND & BUILDING Cost                                                                                  Rs.       166.4 Lakh

PLANT & MACHINERY

     1.   Storage Tank

     2.   Reactor

     3.   Evaporators

     4.   Crystallizer

     5.   Filtration/Centrifuge

     6.   Dryer

     7.   Grinder/Crusher

     8.   Storage Tank

     9.   Bagging Machine

    10.   Air Compressor

    11.   Refrigration System

    12.   Cooling Tower

    13.   Boiler

    14.   Fuel Storage

    15.   Pipelines, Pumps etc.

    16.   Miscellaneous Material Handling Equipments

    17.   Erection & Installation                                                          TOTAL         Rs.       131 Lakhs

FIXED CAPITAL

     1.   LAND & BUILDING                                                                                 Rs.       166.4 Lakhs

     2.   PLANT & MACHINERY                                                                           Rs.       131 Lakhs

     3.   OTHER FIXED ASSETS                                                                         Rs.         72 Lakhs

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.       369.4 Lakhs

WORKING CAPITAL REQUIREMENT/MONTH

RAW MATERIALS

     1.   Zn Ash

     2.   Sulfuric Acid

     3.   Packing 25 Kgs Plastic lined bags

     4.   Packing 25 Ltrs. Plastic Containers

     5.   Other labels, gum, tape and consumables

     6.   Laboratory & ETP Chemicals                                               TOTAL         Rs.       113.6 Lakhs

TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL/MONTH

     1.   RAW MATERIAL                                                                                     Rs.       113.6 Lakhs

     2.   SALARY & WAGES                                                                                Rs.          6.6 Lakhs

     3.   UTILITIES & OVERHEADS                                                                      Rs.          7.64 Lakhs

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.       127.84 Lakhs

COST OF PROJECT

           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                          Rs.       369.4 Lakhs

           MARGIN MONEY                                                                                   Rs.         63.9 Lakhs

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.       433.3 Lakhs

TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT

           TOTAL FIXED CAPITAL                                                                          Rs.       369.4 Lakhs

           TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL FOR 2 MONTHS                                           Rs.       255.5 Lakhs

                                                                                                     TOTAL         Rs.       624.9 Lakhs

           TURN OVER/ANNUM                           =         Rs. 1946 Lakhs

           PROFIT SALES RATIO                        =         16.13%

           RATE OF RETURN                              =         50.24%

           BREAK EVEN POINT (B.E.P.)              =         34.77%

 


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NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. Its various services are: Pre-feasibility study, New Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Preparation of Project Profiles and Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Studies, Market Surveys and Studies, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Reports, Identification and Selection of Plant and Machinery, Manufacturing Process and or Equipment required, General Guidance, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial projects and industry.

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