Chemical industry, complex of processes, operations, and organizations engaged in the manufacture of chemicals and their derivatives. The chemical industry may be described simply as the industry that uses chemistry and manufactures chemicals. A chemical substance is a form of matter that has constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. It cannot be separated into components by physical separation methods, i.e. without breaking chemical bonds. It can be solid, liquid, gas, or plasma. The scope of the chemical industry is in part shaped by custom rather than by logic. An average chemical product is passed from factory to factory several times before it emerges from the chemical industry into the market.
The chemical sector has witnessed growth of 13-14% in the last 5 years A number of initiatives have been proposed in the 12th 5-year plan (2012-2017) to boost the growth of Indian Chemical industry like Target to increase the share of manufacturing in GDP to at least 25% by 2025 (from current 16%). Investments in manufacturing in the chemical sector are absolutely essential to ensure growth of the Indian chemical industry, FDI inflow picked up in FY11 reaching USD 2,345 Mn and USD 4,041 Mn in FY12. Indian Chemical industry also managed to lead industrial IIP in FY13. As per CSO sources, Chemicals IIP for FY13 stood at 3.1% while the overall IIP was 0.8%. The Indian chemicals industry, which earned revenues in the range of $ 155-160 billion in 2013, is likely to grow at a rate of 11-12 percent in the next two to three years. The market is likely to grow at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 13-14 percent. “Product customization and understanding of unique customer needs has been one of the key success levers for the Indian chemical industry. The chemical industry can be broadly classified into two segments – organic and inorganic chemicals. Organic chemicals cover over half of all known chemical compounds, and include petrochemicals, drugs, cosmetics, agrochemicals, etc. Inorganic chemicals comprise alkalis, dyes and dyestuffs.
The content of the book includes information about chemical industry. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like acetylene gas, acrylic acid and its derivatives, ciprofloxacin HCl, dicalcium phosphate, glycerol monostearate, L-ascorbic acid (plain), manganese oxide, potassium iodate, precipitated calcium carbonate, single superphosphate, sodium silicate and zinc sulfate (33%, 21% & 12%) .
Project profile contains information like introduction, properties, uses and applications, raw material used, manufacturing process, flow diagram, plant economics, land and building, plant and machinery, fixed capital, working capital requirement/month, total working capital/month, cost of project, total capital investment, turn over/annum, profit sales ratio, rate of return, breakeven point (B.E.P)
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.
21% & 12%)
sulfate is a powder that is colorless and completely water-soluble. The
can be used in different applications, including some connected with
maintaining good health. A number of over the counter products contain
level of zinc sulfate, as well as many prescription medications.
application of zinc sulfate that may surprise some people is the use of
powder as a means to preserve wood products. The properties of the
it permeate the body of the wood and help to protect it from wear and
regular use as well as adverse weather conditions. The sulfate can be
safely with just about any type of wood product and eliminates the
using other preservatives that have in recent years been proven to have
effects on the health of human beings.
terms of healthcare uses, zinc sulfate is often included as an
products designed to treat skin conditions. In particular,
medications for acne are likely to contain the compound. Lotions and
creams that are used to treat boils are also likely to contain at least
amounts of the sulfate.
chemical compound is also helpful with a number of internal health
well. Products such as throat lozenges are likely to employ zinc
sulfate as one
of the ingredients. Many products that promote health hair and strong
contain the compound.
properties of zinc to promote the proper function of the oil glands are
to indirectly support collagen and protein production, leaving the skin
healthy appearance. An added bonus of the compound for skin is that the
promotes conditions that encourage the healing of wounds.
sulfate is also helpful in promoting the efficient function of the
system. This means that indirectly the product has an impact on just
every system in the body, as it helps to keep the immune system strong
to deal with viruses and other types of infection. There is also a
of evidence that points to the importance of the zinc compound in the
development of muscles and their maintenance.
is not unusual for prescription medicine products used to treat various
of internal and external health issues also contain zinc sulfate. In
cases, the amount of sulfate present is greater than that of over the
medications. As with many compounds, it is possible to ingest too much
sulfate and possibly disrupt the normal function of some systems. For
reason, it is important to follow the instructions of your healthcare
professional when it comes to taking a prescription medication
sulfate is a very water soluble, transparent, colorless, crystalline
It is commonly used as the heptahydrate, ZnSO4 •7H2O,
and is commonly called white vitriol; it occurs naturally as the
goslarite, and can be prepared by reacting zinc with sulfuric acid. It
to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, and agricultural sprays;
lithopone; in coagulation baths for rayon; in electrolyte for zinc
a mordant in dyeing; as a preservative for skins and leather; and in
as an astringent and emitic.
sulfate is chiefly used in fertilizer applications and animal feed
It is especially applied on crops such as pecan, deciduous fruits,
cotton, corn, and citrus, and added to feeds for swine and poultry.
sulfate is the most common dry fertilizer and zinc chelates are the
liquid material. Zinc sulfate’s high solubility in aqueous systems
makes it a
favored substance for delivering zinc values in agriculture
is one of the essential elements for plant and animal life. In plants,
serves as a growth hormone and influences protein synthesis. Zinc
causes stunting of the plant, yellowing of the leaves and decreased
seed, grain, vegetables or fruit. Soil application of zinc sulfate is
common and most successful long-term strategy for eliminating zinc
deficiencies. Zinc sulfate can be applied as a broadcast treatment and
into the soil or applied in a band near the seed. Band application is
effective when placed to the side and below the seed. Zinc chelates are
generally used as a rescue treatment and do not result in any benefits
following crops. Common rates of foliar zinc are 0.25-1.0 lb/a
Multiple applications of foliar zinc are usually required to achieve
affect as 10 lbs/a zinc applied to the soil before planting.
sulfate solution may be used in the production of zineb (zinc ethylene
bisdithiocarbamate). Zineb, and agricultural fungicide, is commonly
protect crops such as apples, pears, cabbage, broccoli and ornamentals
as citrus, stone-fruit, cotton and wheat.
second major use for zinc sulfate is the manufacture of viscose rayon
Zinc sulfate is one of the ingredients in the spinning bath along with
sulfate and sulfuric acid. A thin stream of viscose solution is
the spinning bath where it coagulates forming the fiber. The zinc
promotes coagulation and crenullation of the fiber. Rayon of high
produced which is especially well suited for tires, rubber hoses,
other reinforcing applications.
sulfate is the ideal source of zinc for the production of zinc
stearate. It is
used as a catalyst in numerous chemical operations and in the
butyl rubber. Zinc Sulfate Solution is used as the source of zinc in
manufacture of zinc dithiocarbamate rubber accelerators. In water
zinc sulfate finds application as a corrosion inhibitor in cooling
secondary oil recovery. Zinc sulfate also finds use in production of
and clarification of glue, in flame-proofing compounds, as a mining
agent, wood preservative and in electrometallurgy and
Sulphate is used in agriculture as a weed killer and to give protection
pests. It is used to supply zinc in animal feeds and fertilizers; Zinc
is also an important constituent of the precipitating bath in the
of viscose rayon and in electrolyte for zinc plating. Zinc Sulphate
as a mordant in dyeing; as a preservative for skins and leather; and as
astringent and emetic in medicine.
acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula H2SO4.
Its historical name is oil of vitriol. Pure sulfuric acid is a highly
corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid. The salts of sulfuric acid are
sulfates. Sulfuric acid is soluble in water at all concentrations.
acid has many applications, and is a central substance in the chemical
industry. Principal uses include lead-acid batteries for cars and other
vehicles, ore processing, fertilizer manufacturing, oil refining,
processing, and chemical synthesis.
ash is oxidised zinc that forms on the surface of molten zinc metal.
ash consists of a powdery material (the ash proper) and solid metallic
of an irregular shape.
is sometimes called zinc dross, zinc skimmings, zinc top dross or zinc
In the galvanising industry itself, the term zinc ash prevails.
ash usually arises from hot dip galvanising or other zinc coating
ash is removed from the top of galvanising baths by skimming or
are several major companies that process or recycle zinc ash
of these companies mechanically separates the metallic zinc from the
company does this and blends the zinc ash to make agricultural grade
number of galvanising companies also mechanically separate the metallic
from the ash.
metallics are re-used in galvanising and other processes.
company smelts both processed ashes and unprocessed ash to recover the
or import of zinc ash without a permit contravenes the Hazardous Waste
(Regulation of Exports and Imports) Act 1989.
TYPE OF ZINC ASH
Zinc Die Cast
consist of miscellaneous old zinc base die castings, with or without
other foreign attachments. Must be free of borings, turnings, dross
chunks, melted pieces and skimmings.
unmeltables, dirt, foreign attachments, and volatile substances (such
rubber, cork, plastic, grease, etc.) are deductible. Material
excess of 30% iron will not constitute good delivery.
Zinc Die Cast
consist of new or unused, clean, zinc base die castings. Castings to be
, unpainted, and free from corrosion.
consist of clean, old or used zinc base die cast automotive grilles,
soldered material. All foreign attachments and extraneous materials are
Plated Zinc Die
consist of new or unused clean, plated zinc base die castings, free
consist of clean dry scrap zinc, such as sheets, jar lids, clean
castings and anti-corrosion plates. Borings and turnings are not
Material must not be excessively corroded or oxidized. All foreign
and extraneous materials are deductible.
consist of any new pure zinc sheets or stampings free from corrosion.
contain no foreign material or attachments. Printers zinc, such as
zinc, lithograph sheets and addressograph plates subject to special
arrangements. Printers zinc to be free of routings.
ASH (Zinc Dust,
(Zn) is an essential nutrient required in some fertilizer programs for
production. While some soils are capable of supplying adequate amounts
production, addition of zinc fertilizers is needed for others. Zn may
in fertilizer programs for production of corn, sweet corn, and edible
Role of Zinc in
specific role of Zn in growth and development of plants is not known.
nutrient is an important component of various enzymes that are
driving many metabolic reactions in all crops. Growth and development
stop if specific enzymes were not present in plant tissue.
however, is needed in very small amounts. Plant uptake of this nutrient
calculated in terms of ounces per acre instead of pounds per acre.
Zn is classified as a micronutrient.
fail to develop normally when they are deficient in Zn and certain
characteristic deficiency symptoms will appear. With corn, these
usually appear in the first two or three weeks of the growing season.
deficiency of Zn is severe, these symptoms may last throughout the
deficiency of Zn in corn is characterized by the development of broad
striped tissue on each side of the midrib of the leaf. These stripes
the part of the leaf closest to the stalk and appear first on the upper
the plant A Zn deficient corn plant also appears to be stunted. The
normal elongation in a corn plant.
deficiency in edible beans first appears as a yellowing of the lower
the season progresses, this yellowing develops into a bronze or brown
The leaves have a rusty appearance. For this crop, however, care must
to avoid confusing sunburned leaves with Zn deficiency.
both corn and edible beans, suspected deficiency symptoms should be
with plant analysis.
MT/day or 6000 MT/Annum
Sulfate Soln. 12%
and packing of zinc sulphate
involve are :
technological equipment: pressure vessels, collecting vessels,
ash is generally available in the form of lumps and chips. It is,
first crushed and then pulverized to separate out zinc metallic from
fine ash is then treated with sulphuric acid. Zinc is rendered soluble
according to the following reaction, using agitated reactors:
+ H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + H2O
this operation, compressed air and pyrolusite (MnO2)
are added to oxidize ferrous iron to ferric
state. Small quantity of steam, if required, is also added to leach
about 60°C to get better extraction. Leaching is continued till pH of
slurry reaches 4.5 to 5 where the oxidized impurity of iron is
ferric hydroxide precipitate and is thus removed from the solution:
+ Fe2(SO4)3 + 3H2O
= 3ZnSO4 + 2 Fe(OH)3
slurry is then discharged to a thickener for solid-liquid separation.
quicker settling, suitable flocculent is added to slurry at the time of
discharge. The thickener, overflow, which is a clear solution of ZnSO4,
is sent for evaporation from their 12%
solution take a out as product.
thickener underflow is pumped to another reactor, where it is subjected
water washing. The pulp is filtered in a drum filter to get soluble
residual cake is discarded to secured landfill facility and the
to effluent treatment plant for making zinc hydroxide.
rest solution sent for crystallizer. Zinc Sulfate crystal takes place
suspended in the solution.
are separated out by centrifuge, and liquid filtrate recycled &
sulfate cake sent for drying. On drying heptrahydrate take in out as
further drying to monohydrate take in out as 33% zinc sulfate.
21% & 33% zinc sulfate lumps subjected to
Sulfate 33 %, 21 % is packed into standard 25 kg HDPE bags with inner
Zinc Sulfate 12 % solution packed in the 25 litre plastic container,
SULFATE 33%, 21%, AND 12% SOLN
of working days
3 per day
SULFATE 33% 1500 MT/ANNUM
SULFATE 21% 3000 MT/ANNUM
SULFATE SOLN 12%
1. Storage Tank
8. Storage Tank
9. Bagging Machine
10. Air Compressor
12. Cooling Tower
14. Fuel Storage
15. Pipelines, Pumps
1. LAND &
2. PLANT &
3. OTHER FIXED
1. Zn Ash
2. Sulfuric Acid
3. Packing 25 Kgs
Plastic lined bags
4. Packing 25 Ltrs.
5. Other labels,
gum, tape and
& ETP Chemicals
1. RAW MATERIAL
2. SALARY &
WORKING CAPITAL FOR 2 MONTHS
Rs. 1946 Lakhs
EVEN POINT (B.E.P.)