The Complete Technology Book on Wax and Polishes (Reprint)

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The Complete Technology Book on Wax and Polishes (Reprint)

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788178330129
Code: NI183
Pages: 656
Price: Rs. 1,675.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2011
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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Wax and polishes are used for many purposes. Wax has their principal use in waterproofing; they are mainly consumed industrially as components of complex formulations, often for coatings. Waxes confer matting effects and wear resistance to paints. Although most natural waxes are esters, paraffin waxes are hydrocarbons, mixtures of alkanes usually in a homologous series of chain lengths. These materials represent a significant fraction of petroleum. They are refined by vacuum distillation. The degree of branching has an important influence on the properties. Millions of tons of paraffin waxes are produced annually. They are used in adhesives, in foods (such as chewing gum and cheese wrapping), in cosmetics, and as coatings. Paraffin wax is typical of the agents that are coated on a film or sheet, one that really melt. Waxed paper, still the most widely used heat sealing material, was the earliest product to bring the advantages of heat sealing to packaging. Paraffin wax is mostly found as a white, odorless, tasteless, waxy solid, with an average melting point. The FT waxes are purely synthetic polymers of carbon monoxide and hydrogen which can be best be described chemically as mineral waxes. Duroxons of the B group also serve as additives in the manufacture of lubricating greases for the purpose of raising their dropping point and improving the consistency. There are various types of mineral waxes; lignite wax, montan wax, durmont wax, ozocerite wax, utah wax, peat wax etc. Utah waxes are successfully utilized in dance floor wax, linoleum wax, shoe polish etc. Some other important uses of waxes are in candles, polishes, electrical insulation, coatings and carbon paper. There are various types of polishes having industrial and domestic applications; abrasive polish, aluminium polish, motor car polishes, cellulose friction polishes, furniture polishes, leather belt polishes, pine oil metal polish etc. For many years, petroleum wax was considered a byproduct of lubricant base stock production, it has come onto its own over the last decade and is considered by most refiners to be a relatively high margin product and is often an important contributor to the overall profitability of the refinery. Pure paraffin wax is an excellent electrical insulator. There are many refineries in India which have with fuel, lube, wax and petrochemical feed stocks production facilities. Mineral waxes (including petroleum) account for an estimated 85% of this global demand, with synthetic waxes accounting for 10% and animal and vegetable waxes, accounting for 5%. Wax consumption is expected to grow at an average annual growth rate of 1% in this decade. Clearly, different regions and different product applications will enjoy different growth rates.
This book basically deals with microcrystalline waxes in floor polishes, properties of braxilian grades of carnauba wax, compatibility of paraffin waxes with other substances, synthetic mineral waxes, miscellaneous synthetic waxes, additives for raising melting point of candles, wax coating for fruits, shribs, and plants, effect of paraffin on esparto montan mixtures, water proofing of kraft papers, production of montan wax, polish, abrasives, metal cleaners, nickel silver castings, cleaning, polishing metals for metallographic analysis, paste for wax calf leather, burnishing polishes for automobile maintenance, etc.
The purpose of this book is to present comprehensive information of different types of wax and polishes like their processing, properties and uses. This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technocrats, professionals and researchers.

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Related Books


Contents

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CHAPTER I
COMPOSITIONS WITH RESINS AND RUBBER
Resin-wax compositions
Compatibility of varnish resins with waxes
Wax-rosin compositions
Cumar (cumarone-indene resins) and wax compositions
Methacrylate resin hot-melt blends
Pliolite S-7 wax compositions
Microcrystalline wax-resin blends
Microcrystalline Waxes in Floor polishes
Wax-rubber compositions
Wax-Vistanex Blends
Viscosity of Vistanex-Wax Mixtures
Water Vapor Transmission
Flexibility
Sealing Strength
Paper Coatings (wax-Vinyl Copolymer)

CHAPTER 2  
VEGETABLE WAXES
Bayberry wax
Source
Candelilla wax
Compatibility
Specifications
Scope
Carnauba Wax
Production
Composition
Properties of Braxilian Grades of Carnauba Wax
Flower wax
First wax
Medium wax
Sandy wax
Fat wax
Specifications
Colour
Adulterations of Carnauba Wax
Cotton wax
Esparto wax
Fir Eax
Propertries of Fir wax
Flax wax
Japan wax
Composition
Grades Available
Ouricury wax
Preparation
Composition
Grade available
Specifications
Palm waxes
Grade available
Cuban Palm wax
Compatibility
Rice-oil wax
Sugar cane wax
Source
Constituents of Sugar Cane Wax
Ucuhuba Wax
Cocoa Butter
CHAPTER 3
PARAFFIN WAX COMPOUNDS
Compatibility of paraffin Waxes with Other Substances
Paraffin wax with Bitumen

CHAPTER 4
SYNTHETIC MINERAL WAXES
Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Waxes
FT-200 and FT-300 Wax
Specifications
Hardening Fischer-Tropsch Wax
Duroxon waxes
Duroxen Waxes-Group C
Douroxon Waxes- Group E
Duroxon Waxes- Group H
Duroxon Waxes- Group J
Duroxon Waxes- Group R
Paraflint
Paraflint as Modifier
Polymekon

CHAPTER 5
MISCELLANEOUS SYNTHETIC WAXES
Albacer
Atlasene Waxes
BASF waxes
Cardis waxes
Ceramid
Diolin (Octadecanediol)
Glyco Waxes
Flexo Wax C
Oxazoline waxes

Toxicity
Experimental Synthetic waxes

CHAPTER 6
INDUSTRIAL USES OF WAX
Adhesives
Candles
Wicks
Winding
Size of Candles
Machinery
Wax Candles
Paraffin Candles
Temperature Control
Colors, Sizes, Shapes
Standard Candle
Additives for Raising Melting Point of Candles
Melting point of Wax mixtures
Congealing Point of Candles
Coatings
Foil Coatings
Hot-melt coatings
Protective and Decorative Coatings
Wax Coating for Fruits, Shribs,and Plants
Cosmetics
Cold creams
Vanishing creams
Cleaning creams
Emollient Creams
Protective or Barrier Creams
Sun Screen Creams
Lipsticks
Cream Rouge
Eyebrow pencils
Shaving Cream
Antiperspirants
Lotions
Hand Cleaners
Hair Straighteners
Embalming Preparations
Dental Waxes
Carving Wax
Method of producing Base-Plate wax
Electrolytic Condensers
Inks
Printing Inks
Carbon Paper Inks
Effect of paraffin on Esparto-Montan Mixtures
Leather Goods

Finishes
Saponified Shoe Cream
Manufacture of Saponified Creams
Paper Products
Practial Evaluations
Additives
Improved Compositions for wax Coatings
Polyethylene-Paraffin Wax Paper Coatings
Paper Finishes
Stencils
Water proofing of Kraft Papers
Effects of a Wax Sixing on Insulating Board
Pliolite-paraffin wax Compositions
Pharamaceutical preparations
Photomechanics
Plastics
Polishes
Floor Polishes
Rubless Emulsion Polishes
No-Rub Resin -Wax Emulsion Polish
Pyrotechnics
Rubber
Textile processing
Sizing
Printing
Finishing
Yard Finishes
Water Poofing

CHAPTER 7
OTHER MINERAL WAXES
Montan wax
Sources
Production of Montan Wax
Composition
Properties of Montan Wax
Durmont Waxes
Uses of Montan Wax
Modified Montan Waxes
Lignite wax
Oxocerite wax
Occurrence
Manufacture of Ozocerite
Composition
Properties of Ozocerite
Compatibility
Adulterations
Ceresin
Utah wax
Peat wax
CHAPTER 8
POLISH, ABRASIVES, METAL CLEANERS
Abrasive Compound
Brass, Refinishing Corroded
Cellulose-Friction Polishes
Flatting Paste Emulsions
Finishing Floor Wax
Liquid Floor wax (Rubbing Type)
Wood Floor Finish
Furniture polishes
Leather Belt Polish
Leather Dressings
Leather Finish
Metal Polish
Tank A
Tank B
Pipe Oil Metal Polish
Nickel Silver Castings, cleaning
Non-Caking Shoe Dressings
Dyeing "Shoe" Plush Brown
Shoe Polish
Synthetic Spinel
Sand Papers and Emery Papers
Abrasive Wheels
Automobile Polish
Furniture Polish
Polishing Cloth
Oil Polish for Furniture
Furniture Polish
Removing Scratches from Furnishes
Non-slippery Floor wax
Floor Polish
Floor sweeping Compound for Polished Floors
Wood-Preserving and Finishing
"Italian" Powder for Polishing Marble
Colored Burnishing Clay
Sharpening Compositions
Aluminium Polish
Directions for use
Non Scouring Copper Polish
Automobile Polish (Tumbler's)
High Luser Polish for Shoes
Sporting Shoe dressings, paste
Notes on Cleaning White Shoes
Shoe White (Water Type)
Shoe White (Waterproof Type)
Cleansing and Polishing compositions
Auto-Polishes
Automobile Polishes(oils)
Automobile-Polishes (Pastes)
Automobile Polishes
Metal Polish Pastes
Metal Polishing Cloths
Polishing Metals for Metallographic Analysis
Aluminum Polish Powders
Liquid Polishes for Iron or Steel
Polish for Silver, Nickel, Brass, Chromium, etc.
Silver Polishes
Liquid Silver Polishes
Removing Silver Polish
Silver Polishing Cloths
Wax Paste Stove Polish
Quick Drying Stove Polish
Water-Resistant Floor Emulsion Polish
Rubless Bright Drying Water Wax Polishes
Semi Bright Drying Wax Emulsion Polishes
Floor Polish Powders
Floor Mop Oil
French Polishing
Cleaning and Polishing Table
Ski wax
Paste for Wax Calf Leather
Leather Cleaning and Polishing stick
Types of Cleaners
White Shoe Polish
White Leatehr polish
Shoe Polishes
Polishing, Lapping and Tumbling
Abrasives
Poolishing Wheels
Metal Polish
Liquid metal polishes
Paste Metal Polish
Wax Polish for varnished metals
Fine instrument scale polish
Polishing by barrel Toumbling
Barrel Tumbling material
Stove Polishes
Sodium silicate Solutions
Artrificial Graphite
Stove Polishes
Dance Floor Polishes
Bright Drying Floor Polishes
Emulsified Floor waxes
Wax for polishes
White Shoe Polishes
Oil Polish
Burnishing Polishes for Automobile Maintenance
Silver Polish
Jewelry Polish
Bright Drying Floor Polish
Floor Treatments
Wood Floors
Floor Waxes or Polishes
Cement (Concrete)Floors
Vitreous Tile or Ceramic and Terrazzo Floors
Marble and Travertine Floors
Linoleum Floorings
Rubber Floors
Cork Tile and Cork Carpet Floorings
Asphalt Tile and mastic Floors
Plastic magnesia Cement Floors
Slate Tile Floors
Bonded Abrasive Wheels
Removing Scratches from Glass

CHAPTER 9
POLISHES
Heavy Duty Floor Polish
Carnauba Base Floor Polish
Silicon Furniture Polish
Liquid Floor polish
Bright Drying Floor Wax
Silicone Polishing Cloth
Mineral Oil Emulsion Polish
Aesrosol Polish
Aerosol waxeless Polish
Auto Cleaner Polish
Ball Bearing Polish
Metal Polish
Silver Polish (Dip)
Antislaking Buffing Composition
Abrasive Vehicle (Oil)
Insectidal Floor Wax
Opaque-White Norrubbing Floor Wax
Floor-Wax Emulsion
Non-Rubbing Floor Wax
Water Emulsion paste Waxes
Liquid Solvent Waxes
Solvent-Type paste Waxes and Shoe Polishes
Stable Wax-Solvent Floor Polish
Liquid Solvent Floor wax
Buffing Compound
Metal Abrasive
Paste Wax Polish (Auto wax)
(Floor and Furniture wax)
Liquid Wax Polish
Auto Polish
Glass Polish
Oven polish
Silver Polish
Metal Polishing Cloth
Chromium Polish
Leather Polish
Liquid Leather Polish
Paste Leather Polish
Shoe Polish Paste (for Tubing)
Shoe Creams
Furniture Polish
Floor Wax Remover
Bright Drying Floor Polish (Emulsion) (rubber)
Floor wax
Diamond abrasive
Synthetic Abrasive
Auto Rubbing compounds
Buffing Compounds
Cream Buffing Wax
Automobile polish
Metal Cleaning and Polishing Cloth
Metal Polish
Furniture Polish
Furniture Cleaner and Polish
Floor Polish
Dance Floor Wax
Oil Polishes
Wax Polishes
Wax Paste Polish
Rubber Polishes
Rubber Wax Floor Polish
Method 1
Method 2
Variation
Triethanolamine Water-Resistant Rubless Polish
Morpholine Water-Resistant Rubless Polish
Method 1
Method 2
Resin, Shellac, Casein Dispersions
Natural Resin Dispersions
Preparation of Formula No.1.
Preparation of Formula No. 2
Shellac Dispersion
Casein Dispersion
Polishing Paste
Diamond Dust Abrasive
Abrasive Cleaner
Lens Polishing Powder
Polishing Powder
Smoothing Compound for Lucite and Plexiglas
Tumbling Barrel Polish
French Polish Base
Black Paste Shoe Polish
Soft Leather Polish
Rubber Foot wear Polish
Rubless Floor Wax
Bright-Drying Floor Wax Emulsion
Durez Wax Base
Floor Polish
Dance-floor Wax
Furniture Polish
Perfume for Furniture Polish
Paste Waxes
Black Shoe Polish
Leather Polish
Polish for Edging Leather Straps
Automobile Polish
Automobile Polish and Cleaner
Automobile Finish Haze Remover
Automobile Hand-Rubbing Compound
Stone and Porcelain Polish
Glass Wax Polish
Optical-glass Polish
Rough Diamond-Polish Substitute
Lapping Compound
Stove Polishing Stick
Gold Polish
Silver Polish
General Metal Polish
Brass Polish
Brass and Bronze Cleaner and Polish
Brass, Nickel, and Chrome Polish
Brass-Buffing Soil Cleaner
Tripoli-buffing Composition for Brass
Tripoli-cut-and-color Composition for Brass
White-Lime- cut-and-color Composition for Brass
Red Oxide Color Composition for Brass
Metal-Buffing Compound
Polishes
Silver Polish
Metal Polish
Rust-Preventing Metal Polish
Chemical Nickel Polish
Glass and Metal Polish
Electric Shaver Sharpening Paste
Glass-Grinding Fluid
Abrasive Diamond Paste
Silicone Furniture Polish
Silicone Auto Polish
Silicone Cleaner Polish
Silicone Wax Polish
Furniture Polish
Solvent-type Paste Floor Polish
Solvent-Type paste Wax Polishes
Liquid Type wax Polishes

Floor-Polish Paste
Buiffing Paste Polish
Oil Polish
Paste Shoe Polish
Liquid White shoe dressing

CHAPTER 10
MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES
Differences between microcrystalline and paraffin waxes
Fractional crystallization of petroleum waxes
Properties of Microcorystalline waxes
Melting point
Compatibility
Laminating properties of Microcrystalline waxes
Miscibility with additives
Solubility
Specific Gravity at various Temperatures
Thermal Expansion and Melting point of waxes
Oxidized microcroystalline waxes
Emulsifiable Microcrystalline waxes
Petrolatum wax
Uses of Microcrystalline waxes
Drum Linings
Vat Linings
Miscellaneous data
Properties of some commercial Microcrystalline waxe
Amsco waxes
Aristo Waxes
Bareco waxes
Bareco Hard Wax
Bareco Plastic waxes
Bareco Emulsifiable waxes
Bareco Synthetic waxes
Electrical Properties of Bareco waxes
Be Square Waxes
Mobile Waxes
Milti Waxes
Pearl Waxes
Sova Waxes
Super Flex Waxes
WarWick Waxes

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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POLISHES

Polyethylene Emulsions

Formula No. 1

Emulsifiable "A-C"
Polyethylene 40
Oleic Acid 8
Morpholine 8
Water 184

Melt the "A-C" Polyethylene and add the oleic acid, avoiding overheating. With the melt temperature at 248-266° F., add the morpholine. (Care must be taken to prevent boiling out the morpholine.) There is a sufficient excess to allow for minor evaporation. Avoid open flames since morpholine has a flash point of 100°F.

While "A-C" Polyethylene is being melted, heat the water (bring to a boil and turn off heat just before using).

With rapid stirring (but below speed at which air is whipped in ), slowly add the melt to the water (1-3 minutes). During the addition, the temperature of the melt should be 239-257°F, and the water 203-210° F. (not boiling). Add the melt at a steady rate to the top of the vortex formed by the stirring action (the melt stream should not hit the beaker side or the stirrer shaft). With proper addition the melt will spiral down the vortex and be emulsified enroute. If stirring speed is too low or rate of addition too high the melt will accumulate in the vortex and impair the quality of the finished product. Cover, and with moderate stirring allow to cool to 104-122°F. Make up to weight to replace loss of water due to evaporation.

No. 2

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 40
Oleic Acid 8
Morpholine 8
Water 184

Melt the polyethylene in the oleic acid. Heat to 212-230°C. and add morpholine slowly with stirring. Hold temperature at 208-210°F, add water (heated to 100°C.) slowly with rapid agitation. Cover and stir until 104-122°F. Add water to make up to 184.

Anionic Emulsions

(Wax to water Method)

No.3 No.4 No.5 No.6 No.7 No.8
"A-C" Polyethylene 629 40 40 40 40 40 40
Oleic Acid 4 6 5 5 6 7
3- Methoxy Propylamine 3 _ _ _ _ _
2-Amino 2-methyl,
1-Propanol _ 3 _ _ _ _
Morpholine _ _ 7 _ _ _
Monoethanolamine _ _ _ 4 _ _
Diethanolamine _ _ _ _ 5 _
Triethanolamine _ _ _ _ _ 7
Water To make up to desired concentration

Other amines are also quite satisfactory such as :

diethyl ethanolamine

2-amino, 1-butanol

2-amino, 2-ethyl, 1, 3-propanediol

2-amino, 2-methyl, 1, 3-propandiol

Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane

Other fatty acids which may be used are :

Stearic Soya
Palmitic linseed
Myristic tall oil

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 may also be emulsified with potassium or sodium soaps. Borax may be used in combination with amine soaps.

Cationic Emulsions

(Wax to Water Method)

No. 9 No. 10 No. 11 No. 12 No. 13 No. 14
"A-C" Polyethylene 629 40 40 40 40 40 40
"Armac" T 8 - - - - -
"Armac" HT - 8 - - - -
"Armac" C - - 8 - - -
Acetic Acid - - - 2 1 1
"Ethomeen" 18-12 - - 8 - -
"Alro" Amine O - - - - 7 -
"Alro" Amine S - - - - - 6
Water To make up to desired concentration

Several formulations are included in the following pages to illustrate some of the ways "A-C" Polyethylene 629 may be used. Many variations will be immediately apparent to the experienced formulator. However, it is strongly recommended that the basic laboratory emulsification procedure described in the preceding section should be tried before modifications are made.

Heavy Duty Floor Polish

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 in combination with a resin and a leveling agent gives a dry-bright floor polish which has high gloss, water resistance, and exceptional durability. The formulations using "Ubatol" 2003 as the resin and "Durez" 15546 as the leveling agent are suggested as high quality industrial polishes.

The emulsions and solution are prepared separately to 15% total solids and blended.

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 Emulsion

"A-C" Polyethylene
629 40 parts
Oleic Acid 6
Morpholine 7
Water 254

Resin Emulsion I

"Ubatol" 2003
(40% total solids) 100.0
Dibutylphthalate 3.3
"KP" 140 2.6
Water 201.0

Mix together at room temperature the dibutylphthalate, "KP" 140, and the "Ubatol" 2003. Stir the mixture moderately for one-half hour. Then add the water and stir a few minutes.

Resin Emulsion II

"Resyn" 78-3021
(35% solids) 100
Water 133

Leveling Agent Solution

"Durez" 15546 Resin 30
Ammonium
Hydroxide (28%) 5
Water 165

Heat water to 185°F., add one-half of the ammonum hydroxide, and with good agitation add the "Durez" 15546. Temperature should be maintained at 185-190°F. Add the remainder of the ammonum hydroxide and stir until solution of the "Durez" 15546 is obtained.

The following are the polish proportions.

Formula No. 1

(For Buffability)

"A-C" Polyethylene 629
emulsion 5
Resin Emulsion 1 to 11 4
"Durez" 15546 solution 6

No. 2

(For Scuff Resistance)
"A-C" Polyethylene 629
emulsion 4
Resin Emulsion 1 to 11 7
"Durez" 15546 solution 4

The finished product is obtained by blending the desired amount of leveling solution with the wax emulsion. Recommended proportions are 25 or 30 parts of leveling solution to 75 to 70 parts of emulsion. For greater water resistance ammonia cut resins may be used. Best leveling and gloss in this formulation are obtained with borax cut resins particularly "Shanco" L-1001.

These proportions may be varied considerably to bring out the qualities most desired by the formulator. Increasing the A-C Polyethylene emulsion improves polishability and film flexibility. Increasing the resin and the leveling agent improves the hardness and dirt pick-up. Excellent leveling is attained with these three components over a wide range of proportions.

Another suggestion for a heavy duty floor polish is as follows :

No. 3

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 30
"Beckacite" PX361 30
Oleic Acid 9
Morpholine 9
Water 382

Melt wax, resin and oleic acid with agitation until all the resin is dissolved. Cool to 257°F. Add morpholine and hold at 257°F. Add wax mixture at 257°F. with agitation. Agitate while cooling to room temperature.

Add 70-80 parts of the wax emulsion to 30-20 parts of the leveling solution.

High Shellac Floor Polish

The following formula is representative of a good, high Shellac type dry-bright polish containing "A-C" Polyethylene 629.

Borax Cut Shellac Solution Shellac, Bleached dewaxed

108.75
Borex, 5 Mol 21.50
Water 709.75
840.00

In the heated kettle, raise the temperature of the water to 160°F, and add the borax with stirring. Continue stirring and heating and add the shellac in granular form. Stir until solution takes place, cool the bath and make up to weight for loss of water due to evapoation.

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 Wax Emulsion

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 90
"Durez" 219 Resin 30
"Neofat" 42-12 12
2-Amino-2-methyl-I-propanol 12
Water 706
850

Finished Product

Borax Cut Shellac
Solution 65
Wax 35 gal.
100

Carnauba Base Floor Polish

This polish will serve to demonstrate the value of "A-C" Polyethylene 629 in a high wax type dry-bright formulation. The polish dries to a hard, flexible film of excellent gloss and good levelling. A relatively small amount of "A-C" Polyethylene 629 is used, resulting in gloss and leveling superior to straight carnauba base polishes. Preparation of a typical formulation containing 15% total solids is as follows :

Wax Emulsion

Carnauba 30
"A-C" Polyethylene 629 10
Oleic Acid 7
Morpholine 6
Water 260

Leveling Agent Solution

"Shanco" L-1001 30
Borax, 5 Mol 13
Water 244

Heat water to 194°F., add the borax with agitation until dissolved. Maintaining the temperature at 194°F., add the Shanco resin and stir until the solution is achieved.

No. Rub Polishes

Formula No. 1 No. 2 No.3 No.4 No.5
"A-C" Polyethylene 629 22.5 22.5 15 15 15
"PE"-100 22.5 22.5 15 - 15
"Petronauba" C - - - 15 15
"C-700" or "C-1035" 14 14 15 15 15
"Durez" 219 41 41 - - -
Carnauba No. 3
NC Ref. (Pure) - - 55 - 55
Carnauba No. 1 Yellow - - - 55 -
Oleic Acid 4-6 4-6 12 12 12
Triethanolamine 4 - - - -
Morpholine - 2-2.5 11 11 11
KOH (85%) 2 2 - - -
Ammonia Water (26-28%) - 3 - - -
Borax 3 - 4 4 4
Water 750 750 800 800 800

Formulas No. 1 and 2 are produced by the "wax to water" system of emulsification as follows :

Melt the waxes, "A-C" Polyethylene 629 and resin at temperatures up to 350°F. cool to 250°F and add the oleic acid with agitation. When the temperature reaches 205 to 210°F., add the KOH and borax (no borax in formula 2) in a hot saturated solution followed by the TEA. Cook for 20 minutes at 205 to 210°F. (for formula No.2, add the KOH solution and cook for 15 minutes; add the morpholine followed by the ammonium hydroxide with equal parts of hot water, and cook for an additional 5 minutes). Pour the wax-mix (205-210°F) into one half of the water at 205 to 210°F. with rapid agitation. Add the remaining water (cold) while cooling to room temperature.

These formulations should be free from scum and sediment. Formula No. 2 will have excellent water resistance; and both formulas will give very high gloss, good buffing properties, good slip resistance, and long wear with a minimum of discoloration. Excellent leveling can be obtained with 20% of a leveling resin solution. These formulations are stable at high solids concentration and will have good stability with high concentrations of leveling resin. "Ubatol" polystyrene can be added to these emulsions with good results.

The procedure for manufacturing formulas 3, 4 and 5 is as follows :

Melt the waxes, "A-C" Polyethylene 629 and oleic acid together and bring the temperature to 205 to 210°F. Add the morpholine followed by the borax in a hot saturated solution with agitation. Begin adding half of the water (205 to 210°F.) slowly until the emulsion inverts to the "oil in water" type. The remaining hot water and cold water can be added to a rapid rate. Cool to room temperature with slow stirring.

Silicon Furniture Polish

Formula No. 1

Silicone Fluid 2.2
Oxidized
Microcrystalline Wax 3.6
Mineral Spirits 94.2

No. 2

Microcrystalline Wax 5.0
Silicone "DC-200" 0.5
"Ethomeen" 18/12 Acetate 3.0
Mineral Spirits 10.0
Water 81.5

Heat the wax, silicone, mineral spirits and "Ethomeen" 18/12 acetate until the wax melts. Add the water to the wax very slowly at first with stirring. Then add the remainder of the water while continuing agitation. This formulation dries with a good gloss which upon buffing takes on a high luster.

Wax Paste Polish

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 30.0
Beeswax 30.0
Naphtha 50.0
Triethanolamine 4.3
Stearic Acid 8.0
Water 65.0

No. 2

Carnauba Wax 30.0
Beeswax 30.0
Naphtha 50.0
Monoethanolamine 1.9
Stearic Acid 8.0
Water 65.0

No. 3

Carnauba Wax 30.0
Beeswax 30.0
Naphtha 50.0
Morpholine 2.6
Stearic Acid 8.0
Water 65.0

Liquid Cream Wax Polish

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 12.0
Beeswax 6.0
Naphtha 70.0
Triethanolamine 4.8
Stearic Acid 8.0
Water 180.0

No. 2

Carnauba Wax 12.0
Beeswax 6.0
Naphtha 70.0
Monoethanolamine 2.1
Stearic Acid 8.0
Water 180.0

No. 3

Carnauba Wax 14.0
Beeswax 4.0
Naphtha 25.0
Monoethanolamine 2.0
Stearic Acid 8.0
Water 240.0

No. 4

Carnauba Wax 12.0
Beeswax 6.0
Naphtha 70.0
Morpholine 3.0
Stearic Acid 8.0
Water 180.0

Automobile Polish

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 9.0
Beeswax 8.0
Naphtha 75.0
Triethanolamine 2.7
Stearic Acid 7.0
Water 75.0

No. 2

Carnauba Wax 9.0
Beeswax 8.0
Naphtha 75.0
Monoethanolamine 1.2
Stearic Acid 7.0
Water 75.0

No. 3

Carnauba Wax 9.0
Beeswax 8.0
Naphtha 75.0
Morpholine 1.7
Stearic Acid 7.0
Water 75.0

A steam-or hot-water-jacketed kettle is preferred for making wax polishes, as a satisfactory temperature must be maintained to prevent caking of the wax along the sides of the kettle and to avoid discoloration by overheating the wax. A paddle-type, hand-operated stirrer or a low-speed, large-bladed propeller is also suggested for successful operation. Since morpholine has a flash point of 100°F., it should no be added to the mixture in the presence of open flames. If the wax is melted by means of a gas burner, the gas should be turned off during the addition of the morpholine.

Melt the waxes and stearic acid, add the amine, and maintain the temperature at about 90°C. Add the naphtha slowly and stir until a clear solution is obtained and the temperature is 90 to 95°C. Avoid the use of open flames.

The method of adding the abrasive depends on the type used. An oil-absorbing abrasive, such as tripoli, should be well mixed with the hot naphtha solution of waxes just before the water is added. An abrasive that absorbs water, such as bentonite, is best stirred into the finished emulsion.

Heat the water to boiling, add it to the naphtha solution, and stir vigorously until a good emulsion is obtained. Continue stirring slowly until the emulsion has cooled to room temperature. The proportions of waxes can be changed as desired, depending on the ease of polishing required and the hardness of the final film. A high-melting hydrocarbon wax can be used in place of all or part of the beeswax with good results. When the primary use of the automobile polish is for polishing rather than as a cleaning and polishing combination, it will be more satisfactory without an abrasive.

Liquid Floor Polish

Formula No. 1

"Estawax" 20 4.5
Paraffin Wax
(140°F. AMP) 7-6
Stoddard Solvent 89

No. 2

"Estawax" 25 4-5
Paraffin Wax
(140°F. AMP) 7-6
Stoddard Solvent 89

Heat the solvent to 180°F. and add the molten waxes. Cool with stirring and pour into containers at 100 to 140°F. Do not stir rapidly when the mixture approaches the pouring temperaure. Rapid agitation will affect the crystal formation adversely and may cause separation of the solvent.

Water-Emulsion Floor Waxes

Formula No. 1

a "Duroxon" J-324 39.0
"Shanco" 300 Resin 39.0
Prime Yellow Carnauba Wax 29.0
Oleic Acid 11.0
Morpholine 7.5
Borax 4.5
Potassium Hydroxide 0.4
Water To 12% solids
Add the melted wax to water.
b "Durez" 15546
12% Ammonia cut
Mix 80 parts of a with 20 parts of b.

No. 2

a "Duroxon" J-324 39.0
"Shanco" 300 Resin 39.0
"Duroxon" H-110 29.0
Oleic Acid 5.0
Morpholine 11.0
Borax 4.5
Potassium Hydroxide 0.4
Water To 12% solids
b "Durez" 15546
12% Ammonia cut
Mix 80 parts of a with 20 parts of b.

No. 3

a "Duroxon" J-324 20.0
Oleic Acid 2.0
3-Methoxy propylamine 1.5
Water To 13% solids
b "Ludox" Reduced to 13% solids
c Manila Loba C Resin Dispersion 13%
Mix 50 parts of a with 25 parts of each b and c.

No. 4

"Duroxon" J-324 20
"Shanco" 300 Resin 20
Oleic Acid 4
Morpholline 6
Water To 15% solids

No. 5

"Duroxon" H-110 20
"Durez" 219 Resin 20
2-Amino 2-Methyl
I-Propanol 6
Water To 13% solids

No. 6

a "Duroxon" H-110 12.0
Oleic Acid 2.4
Morpholine 1.6
Water To 15% solids
b "Ubatol" 2001 50
Water 50

Add the melted wax to the water. Mix 60 parts of a with 40 parts of b.

No. 7

a "Duroxon" H-110 50
Morpholine 6
Water To 12% solids

Liquid Solvent Wax

Formula No. 1

"Duroxon " R-21 5
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 5
Mineral Spirits or 90
Mineral Spirits and 80
Turpentine 10
Gel -point : Less than -4°F.

No. 2

"Duroxon" R-21 3.4
"FT" Wax 300 3.3
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 3.3
Mineral Spirits 90.0
Gel -point : Less than -4°F.

No. 3

"Duroxon" R-21 10
Mineral Spirits 90
Gel -point : Less than -4°F.

No. 4

Gel -point : Less than 14°F.
"Duroxon" R-21 5
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 5
Mineral Spirits 50
Turpentine 40

No. 5

"Duroxon" R-21 7.5
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 7.5
Mineral Spirits or 85.0
Mineral Spirits and 75.0
Turpentine 10.0
Gel -point : 29°F.

No. 6

Turpentine 25.0Gel Point: 32°F.
"Duroxon" R-21 7.5
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 7.5
Mineral Spirits 60.0

No. 7

"Duroxon" R-21 5
"FT" Wax 300 5
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 5
Mineral Spirits 85
Gel-Point : 35.6°F.

No. 8

"Duroxon" R-21 7.5
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 7.5
Mineral Spirits 50.0
Turpentine 35.0
Gel Point: 39.5°F.

No. 9

"Duroxon" R-21 10
Paraffin Wax
126/130°F. AMP) 10
Mineral Spirits 80
Gel Point: 39.5°F.

No. 10

"Duroxon" R-21 5
"FT" Wax 300 5
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 5
Mineral Spirits 75
Turpentine 10
Gel Point: 41°F.

No. 11

"Duroxon" R-21 7.5
Paraffin Wax
126/130°F. AMP) 7.5
Silicone Oil (350 cstks.) 2.0
Mineral Spirits 83.0

No. 12

"Duroxon" R-21 3.5
Silicone Oil (350 cstks.) 3.5
Stoddard Solvent 20.0
Mineral Spirits 73.0

The Waxes are melted together at a temperature of 212 to 225° F. While agitating strongly, the mineral spirit, respectively the blend of mineral spirit and turpentine is slowly added in a steady stream. Then the heat is shut off and agitation is continued while cooling the mass to room temperature.

Where "FT" Wax 300 is part of the formula, the waxes are heated in the presence of approximately 20 to 30% of the total quantity of solvent until a clear solution results. For this purpose temperatures of approximately 200 to 212°F. are recommended. Only when such a clear solution is achieved. the balance of solvent is added. This procedure can be recommended as a matter of general practice in order to prevent any separation of wax components or premature crystallization.

No. 13

"Duroxon" E-321 5
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 5
Mineral Spirits 90

Products with a higher viscosity can be obtained by adding "Duroxon" J-324 to the composition.

No. 14

"Duroxon" E-321 5
"Duroxon" J-324 1
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 4
Mineral Spirits 90

A further viscosity increase can be obtained without change of solids content if, in the place of mineral spirits fresh spirits of gum turpentine is used. When blends of turpentine and mineral spirits are used, the viscosity depends on the proportion of turpentine.

No.15 No.16 No.17 No.18
"Duroxon" E-321 8 7 10 9
"Duroxon" J-324 _ 1 _ 1
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 7 7 10 10
Mineral Spirits 85 85 80 80

No. 19

"Duroxon" E-321 9
Microcrystalline Wax
(150/160°F). 1
Paraffin Wax
(126/130°F. AMP) 10
Mineral Spirits 80

Small quantities of nonionic emulsifiers may be added to liquid solvent wax formulations. Such emulsifiers prevent agglomeration of crystalline particles and improve gel-formation. Emulsifiers of the type "Igepal" CO-880, 'Emulphor" ON-870, "Hoechst" 2106, "Atlas" G-3960, and others suitable for this purpose. They are melted together with the waxes.

The liquid wax dispersions described in the preceding paragraphs may be prepared according to the following procedure : Heat the waxes until a clear melt results. For this, a temperature of 212 to 230°F. is recommended. Then start the agitation and add the solvent in a steady stream, making sure that the temperature never drops below 185°F. Where limitations in plant equipment do not permit the melting of the waxes at the temperatures indicated, the melt with the solvent should be held at 185 to 190°F. with agitation for a certain length of time in order to assure complete solution of the highest melting wax components and any polyethylene in the formula. This step will also prevent premature crystallization of a part of the wax components which would later which would later result in separation and settling. After cooling the wax to room temperature with constant agitation, it may be passed through a homogenizer for further increasing its smoothness.

Floor Polish Paste

"Duroxon" R-11 6
"Durmont" 500 Refined
Montan Wax 4
Carnauba Wax No. 3
North Country 4
Paraffin Wax
143/150°F. Fully Refined 11
Mineral Spirits 75

The waxes and paraffin are melted together and then the slightly prewarmed solvent is added with good stirring. Solution should be complete, Otherwise, reheat slightly. Then cool with agitation to a temperature of 110 to 115°F. and pour into cans.

Automobile Cleaner-Polish

"Duroxon" R-11 10.0
"Durmont" 500 5.0
Carnauba Wax No. 3
North Country 5.0
Silicone Oil 350 centistokes 5.0
"Snow Floss" 10.8
No. 292 Air Floated
Cream Tripoli 1.2
Mineral Spirits 63.0

Melt the waxes ; in a separate container the silicone oil is mixed with the mineral spirits and heated to approximately 120° F. This solution is added slowly with agitation to the wax melt. Solution must be complete, otherwise, reheat slightly. Then, while agitating, add the "Snow Floss" and the Tripoli. Cool the solution to 120° F. with continued agitation. Then pour in to cans and allow to cool undisturbed.

Bright Drying Floor Wax

Emulsion

Formula No. 1

a "Duroxon" J-324 150
Oleic Acid 10
Morpholine 17
Monethanolamine 3
Water To make 1000
(Appx. 16% solids)
b "Shanco" L-1001 160
Ammonia (28%) 36
Water 804

Final Composition

a 85 parts (by volume)
b 15 parts (by volume)

This product can be readily made by conventional procedures. When the " water-to-wax" method of manufacture is used, it can be modified by reducing the amount of amine (morpholine and monethanolamine) recommended for a. It is also possible to employ other leveling resins than the recommended "Shanco" L-100.

No. 2

a "Duroxon" J-324 100.0
Oleic Acid 14.0
Morpholine 14.3
Monethanolamine 3.1
Water To make 712.0
(16% solids)
b "Ubatol" U-2003 @ 40% 100.0
Plasticizer KP-140 2.6
Dibatyl Phthalate 3.3
Water 46.6
c "Durez" 15546 resin 140.0
Ammonia (28%) 21.8
Water 838.2

Final composition (Add in the order listed)

a 36.5
Water 26.0
b 23.5
c 14.0

It is recommended that a be prepared by the "wax-to-water" method. This emulsion should be almost completely transparent. Best leveling is usually obtained after the final composition has been allowed to stand undisturbed for at least 24 hours.

Silicone Polishing Cloth

German Patent 941,309

a Methylpolysiloxane Oil 12
Isopropanol 6
Triethylamine 7
Oleic Acid 1
b Cresol Soap Solution (1%) 175

Mix a and pour into b. Impregate soft cotton cloth with above for 15 minutes ; squeeze and dry.

Mineral Oil Emulsion Polish

Mineral Oil (Light) 40.0
"Ethofat" 60/15 2.5
"Ethofat" 60/20 2.5
Water 55.0

Dissolve the "Ethofat" 60/15 and "Ethofat" 60/20 in the mineral oil using heat if necessary. The water is then added to the oil with agitation.

Aerosol Polish

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 3.0
Silicone ("Dow" DC-200, 50 CS) 1.8
Naphtha 50.2
"Genetron" 12 45.0

Melt the "A-C" polyethylene 629, add the silicone and bring to 230°F. Heat naphtha to 158-176°F. and add slowly keeping temperature at 185 to 194°F.( solution should be clear and homogenous). Continue agitation and cool to room temperature, charge to aerosol containers, cool, and pressure fill with "Genetron".

To apply, spray light coat on clean surface and buff to high gloss.

Aerosol Waxless Polish

Lauric Isopropylamide 0.5
Methylene Chloride 25.0
Trichlorompnofluoromethane 25.0
Difluorodichloromethane 50.0
Dimethylpolysiloxane 2.0

Auto Cleaner Polish

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 13.0
Silicone ("Dow" DC-200, 500 CS) 8.0
Stearic Acid 7.0
Morpholine 1.7
Water 150.0
Naphtha 100.0
J.M. "Snow. Floss" 20.0

Melt the "A-C" Polyethylene and stearic acid together and add the silicone Cool to 221 to 230°F, and add the morpholine. Heat the naphtha to 158 to 176°F. and add slowly with stirring, holding the temperature at 185 to 194°F. (solution should be clear and homogeneous). Add the water (185 to 194°F.) with moderate agitation. Finally add the "Snow Floss" and cool with agitation to room temperature. To apply, rub in well to assure removal of surface film, allow to dry and wipe off.

Ball Bearing Polish

Spindle Oil 15-35
Kerosene 15-35
Stearin 2-5
Graphite Powder 1-3
Emery Powder M-14 24-7

Metal Polish

Formula No. 1 No. 2
Polyethylene glycol 1500 35 50
"Tergitol" Nonionic NPX 3 3
Citric Acid 5 -
Sodium Chloride 5 -
Bentonite 8 9
"MultiCel" 000 19 21
Water 25 29

Stir polyethyleneglycol 1500, water, and "Tergitol" nonionic NPX until a clear solution is obtaind. If polish No. 1 is being formulated, add the citric acid and sodium chloride and stir until dissolved. Then, for both polishes, add the "MultiCell" 000 and the bentonite and stir until a smooth paste is obtained.

No. 3

"Carbowax" Polyethyleneglycol 1500 35
"Tergitol" Anionic 7 3
Citric Acid 5
Sodium Chloride 5
Bentonite 8
"MultiCel" 000 19
Water 25

Mix "Carbowax", water, and anionic, and stir until a clear solution is obtained. Add the citric acid and sodium chloride and stir until dissolved. Then add the "MultiCel" 000 and the bentonite and stir until a smooth paste is obtained.

Chemical Polishing of Steel Japanese Patent 2817

Hydrogen Peroxide (30%) 4
Hydrofluoric Acid 4
Hydrochloric Acid (d. 1.1 S) 1

Immerse steel for 10 minutes, then wash with water.

Chemical Polishing of Aluminium Japanese Patent 2962

Phosphoric Acid 100 cc.
Potassium Nitrate 5-20 g.
Copper Sulfate 0.05-1 g.

Alkaline Aluminum Cleaner

Anhydrous Sodium Metasilicate 30
Alkyl Aryl Sodium Sulfonate (85%) 10
Trisodium Phosphate Dodecahydrate 35
Soda Ash 20
Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate Anhydrous 5

Metal Cleaner

Sodium Metasilicate, Pentahydrate 34.5
Sodium Phosphate, Monobasic 12.0
Trisodium Phosphate, Dodecahydrate 33.5
"Tergitol" Nonionic NPX 5.2
Sodium Alkyl Aryl Sulfonate 14.8

Silver Cleaner

"Tergitol" Nonionic NPX 6.5
"Carbowax" Polyethyleneglycol 400 4.0
Ammonium Carbonate 2.6
"Ivory" Soap 1.5
Chalk 6.5
"MultiCel" 000 26.4
Water 52.5

Dissolve the soap in part of the water, heating to obtain solution. Add the rest of the water and cool to room temperature. Add the ammonium carbonate, stir until dissolved, and then stir in nonionic NPX and "Carbowax" polyethyleneglycol 400. Add the abrasives and stir until throughly mixed and a smooth paste is obtained. The polish will become somewhat stiffer on standing several days. The amount of abrasives can be varied to obtain the desired viscosity.

Silver Polish (Dip)

Thiourea 8.0
Hydrochloric Acid 1.0
Wetting Agent 0.3

Paste Polish

Formula No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4
"Epolene" N. 20 20 18 15
Paraffin Wax 8 4 4 8
Beeswax - 4 4 -
Carnauba - - 2 5
"DC-200" (silicone oil) 2 2 - -
Turpentine 30 - - -
"Amsco" 46 spirits - 40 32 -
VM&P naphtha 20 - - -
"Solvesso" 100 - 30 40 32
"Stoddard" solvent 20 - - 40

In the preparation of these polishes, the waxes and solvents are heated to approximately 200°F. or until a clear solution is obtained. The mixture is then cooled with agitation until the first sign of cloudiness after which the mixture is poured into a container and allowed to solidify. It has been found that homogenization of the muxture just after the first sign of cloudiness tends to give a much smoother paste.

No. 5

"A-C" Polyethylene 629 15
Carnauba wax 5
Paraffin Wax 5
Turpentine 25
Naphtha 50

Melt the "A-C" Polyethylene and the waxes together and cool to 212°F. Heat the turpentine to 122 to 140°F. and add to the melt with stirring. Heat the naphtha to 122 to 140°F. and add with stirring. Continue agitation until the polish cools to 131°F. and pour into container.

Apply in an even film and buff to a high gloss.

Antislaking Buffing Composition

Formula No. 1

Vienna Lime 65
Stearic Acid 15
Acidless Tallow 15
N-Tallow Trimethyldiamine 5

No. 2

Vienna Lime 77
Stearic Acid 14
Acidless Tallow 6
N-Tallow-N, N', N'-Tris
(hydroxyethyl) trimethylene diamine 3

Lime Buffing Composition

Lime 70-80
Stearic Acid 10-20
Petrolatum 1-6
Tallow 2-5
Tertiary Amine 0.1-5

Abrasive Vehicle (Oil)

Diesel Oil 82.99
Lard Oil 12.97
Sodium Dodecylbenzene Sulfonate 2.04
#1 cup Grease 2.00

Razor Strop Compound

Sodium Benzoate 10 ft. oz.
Water 10 ft. oz.
Gum Arabic 2 oz.

Insecticidal Floor Wax

Formula No. 1

(For Ants)

a Carnauba Wax or Blend 45.0
Technical Chlordane 2.5
"Carbitol" 7.0
"Tween" 80 12.0
Water 410.0
b Standard Shellac or
Resin Dispersion 94.0

No. 2

(For Flies)

n Carnuaba Wax or Blend 45.0
98% DDT 2.5
Butyl "Cellosolve" 7.0
"Tween" 80 12.0
Water 410.0
b Shellac Dispersion 94.0

No. 3

(For Bugs)

a Carnauba Wax or Blend 40.0
Beeswax 5.0
95% Lindane 2.5
"Carbitol" 7.0
"Tween" 80 12.0
Water 410.0
b Shellac Dispersion 94.0
Opaque-White Nonrubbing

Floor Wax

In preparing opaque-white nonrubbing carnauba wax dispersions, use light-colored ingredients, a minimum amount of dispersing agents, and a mutual solvent.

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax No. 1 47.5
White Oleic Acid 4.0
Soap Flakes 3.3
"Carbitol" 7.1
Triethanolamine 2.0
Water 411.1

No. 2

Carnauba Wax No. 1 47.3
White Oleic Acid 4.0
Soap Flakes 3.3
Butyl "Cellosolve" 7.0
Triethanolamine 2.0
Water 411.4

No. 3

Carnauba Wax No. 1 47.3
White Oleic Acid 6.0
Butyl "Cellosolve" 7.0
Morphloline 3.7
Water 411.0

No. 4

Carnauba Wax No. 1 47.3
White Oleic Acid 6.0
Butyl "Cellosolve" 7.0
2- Amino 2-Methyl 1- Propanol 3.3
Water 411.4

No. 5

Carnauba Wax No.1 47.5
Butyl "Cellosolve" 7.1
"Tween" 80 9.5
Water 410.9

No. 6

Carnauba Wax No. 1 35.6
"Mekon" Y-20 11.9
Butyl "Cellosolve" 7.1
"Tween" 80 9.5
Water 411.0

No. 7

Carnauba Wax No. 1 35.6
Bleached Beeswax 11.9
Butyl "Cellosolve" 7.1
"Tween" 80 9.5
Water 411.0

No. 8

Carnauba Wax No. 1 35.6
"Mekon"Y-20 8.0
Bleached Beeswax 4.0
"Carbitol" 7.0
"Tween" 80 9.5
Water 411.0

Wax dispersions are prepared by adding boiled water, containing the amine (if used) to the melted wax mixed with the other ingredients. Where soap flakes are used, they are dispersed in the melted wax before the water solution is added.

Floor-Wax Emulsion

Formula No. 1

"Chlorowax" 70 17.0
"Crown" Wax 23 66.0
Oleic Acid 8.3
Morpholine 9.0
Water 730.0

Melt the waxes together and add the oleic acid and morpholine with stirring. Maintain the gel at 200 to 210°F. and add hot water at 205 to 210°F., slowly at first, with rapid stirring. After the gel inverts to an oil-in-water emulsion, you may add the water more rapidly. After half the water has been added, discontinue the heat and cool the batch as rapidly as possible while the remainder of the water is added at room temperature, with slow agitation.

No. 2

"Chlorowax" 70 7.7
Carnauba Wax 5.8
"Crown" Wax 23 64.0
Oleic Acid 7.7
Triethanolamine 9.7
Borax 5.2
Water 730.0

Use the procedure given under formula 1, but add the borax, dissolved in 25 lb. of boiling water slowly to the mixture of waxes and emulsifier.

Nonrubbing Floor Wax

Formula No. 1

North-Country Carnauba Wax No. 3 4.65
"Cardis" 319 Wax 4.65
"Triton" X-100 1.50
Morpholine 0.85
Water 88.35

Melt and mix the waxes in a steam-jacketed kettle (or in a water bath, etc.), add the "Triton" and stir in until dissolved ; then mix in the morpholine ; slowly add boiling water, a small portion at a time homogeneously absorbed, with constant agitation, until the first formed water-in-oil emulsion suddenly inverts to oil-in-water. Then add the balance of the water more rapidly, with agitation. Let cool.

If making up a small amount, e.g., 5 gal. or less, hand stirring is sufficient for the agitation, but mechanical agitation is still to be preferred.

The final one third or one quarter of the water can be added cold and mixed in.

After the prepartion is made up to volume, it is not necessary to continue the agitation while cooling.

Resin or shellac solutions (10 to 20%) can be stirred in hot or cold, as is the common practice with water-emulsion floor waxes.

No. 2

"Cardis" 314 55.0
"Durez" 219 25.0
Refined Carnauba Wax No. 3 25.0
Oleic Acid 15.0
Morpholine 5.0
Borax 8.0
Caustic Potash 0.4
Water To make 1000.0
Shellac-Substitute Solution 250.0

Melt the "Cardis", "Durez", carnauba wax, and oleic acid ; cool to 210° F. Then add the morpholine and stir 10 minutes at 210°F. Add the borax and caustic potash dissolved in 30 ml. boiling water and stir 10 minutes.

Pour the hot wax blend into the total volume of water at 210°F. under strong agitation. cool, adjust the pH at 8.5 to 9.0 with ammonia, if necessary, and add the shellac substitute solution (12% "Durez" 15546) in water.

The finished emulsion shows perfect water resistance, very good gloss, leveling, and wetting properties. The heat stability is very good. The freezing stability is fair and can be improved to perfection by using 3 g. of 2-amino 2-methyl propanol in addition to the indicated 5 g. morpholine. The water resistance of the last formulation is good for practical purposes.

No. 3

"Cardis" One 60.0
"Durez" 219 40.0
"Warco" 180 White 20.0
Oleic Acid 8.0
Morpholine 9.0
Borax 8.0
Caustic Potash 0.4
Water To make 1000.0
Shellac-Substitute Solution 250.0

Melt the "Cardis" One, "Durez," " Warco," and oleic acid and cool to 210°F. Add the morpholine and stir 10 minutes at 210°F. Add the borax and caustic potash, dissoved in 30 ml. boiling water, and stir 10 minutes. Pour the hot wax blend into the total volume of water at 210°F. under strong agitation ; cool, adjust the pH at 8.5 to 9.0 with ammonia, if necessary, and add the shellac-substitute solution (12% " Durez" 15546 in water).

No. 4

"Cardis"314 57.0
"Durez" 219 48.0
Oleic Acid 10.0
Morpholine 5.0
Borax 8.0
Caustic Potash 0.4
Water To make 1000.0
Shellac-substitute solution
("Durez" 15546, 12% Solids) 250.0

Melt the "Cardis", "Durez" and oleic acid and cool to 210° F. Add the morpholine and stir 10 minutes at 210° F. Add the borax and caustic potash, dissoved in 30 ml. boiling water, and stir 10 minutes at 210° F. Pour the hot wax blend in to the total volume of water at 210°F. under strong agitation, cool, adjust the p H at 8.5 to 9.0 with ammonia water and add the " Durez" 15546 solution of 12% solid content, or as desired.

No. 5

"Cardis" One 50.0
"Durez" 219 40.0
"Warco" 180 White 30.0
Morpholine 3.0
Soap 12.0
Caustic Potash 0.4
Water To make 1000.0
Shellac-Substitute Solution 250.0

Melt the "Cardis" One, "Durez", and "Warco" and cool to 210°F. Add the morpholine and stir 10 minutes at 210°F. Add the soap flakes and caustic potash dissolved in 40 ml. boiling water and stir 10 minutes.

Pour the hot wax blend into the total volume of water at 210°F. under strong agitation, cool, adjust the pH at 8.5 to 9.0 with ammonia, if necessary, and add the shellac-substitute solution (12% "Durez" 15546 in water).

No. 6

"Cardis" One 50.0
"Durez" 219 40.0
"Warco" 180 White 30.0
Oleic Acid 8.0
Morpholine 9.0
Borax 8.0
Caustic Potash 0.4
Water To make 1000.0
Shellac-Substitute solution 250.0

Melt the "Cardis" One, "Durez," "Warco", and oleic acid and cool to 210°F.

Add the morpholine and stir 10 minutes at 210° F. Add the borax and caustic potash, dissolved in 30 ml. boiling water, and stir 10 minutes.

Pour the hot wax blend into the total volume of water at 210° F., under strong agitation, cool, adjust the pH at 8.5 to 9.0 with ammonia, if necessary, and add the shellac-substitute solution (12% "Durez" 15546 in water.)

The finished emulsion shows very good water ressistance, gloss, and leveling properties. The films are highly scuff and wear resistant.

Water-Emulsion Paste Waxes

Formula No. 1

a "FT" Wax" 200 12
"Duroxon Acid C-60-A 12
Stearic Acid 5
"Lorol" 28 3
Mineral Spirits 15
b Water at 212°F. 49
Triethanolamine 3
Borax 1

No. 2

"Duroxon" H-110 10
"Duroxon" C-60-A 10
"Alrosol" B 1
Morpholine 4
Water 75

Pour hot water into the melted wax.

Liquid Solvent Waxes

Formula No. 1

"Duroxon" R-21 5
"FT Wax" 300 5
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 133-135°F.) 5
Mineral Spirits 85

No. 2

"Duroxon" R-11 6.5
Mineral Spirits 93.5

Solvent-Type Paste Waxes and shoe Polishes

Formula No. 1

"Duroxon" R-11 6
Crude Carnauba Wax No. 3NC 4
Beeswax 1
Crude Paraffin Wax (M.P. 143-150°F.) 19
Turpentine 35
Mineral Spirits 35
Pouring Temperature : 120 to 130°F.

No. 2

"Duroxon" J-324 10
"FT Wax" 300 10
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 133-135°F.) 10
Mineral Spirits 70

Stable Wax- Solvent Floor Polish

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 6
Petrolatum 12
Beeswax 12
Turpentine 70

No. 2

Carnauba Wax 6
Petrolatum 12
Beeswax 12
Turpentine 65
"Aroclor" 1242 5

No. 3

Carnauba Wax 6
Petrolatum 12
Beeswax 12
Turpentine 60
"Aroclor" 1242 10

After preparation, the products are poured, while liquid, into glass bottles and placed in storage.

Liquid Solvent Floor Wax

"Duroxon" R-21 3.4
White "FT Wax" 300 3.3
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 133-135°F.) 3.3
Mineral Spirits 90.0

Melt the waxes with 20% of the solvent ; then stir in the heated solvent; finally cool, with agitation, to room temperature. This remains fluid at low temperatures.

Buffing Compound

Silica Sand (200 Mesh) 75
Polyglycol Distearate 20
Beeswax 2
Sodium Bicarbonate 3
Tartaric Acid 6

The articles buffed with this compound are immersed in water, acidified with hydrochloric or sulfuric acid, to complete cleaning.

Metal Abrasive

Alumina 74
Stearic Acid 26
Heat and mix until uniform.

Paste Wax Polish (Auto Wax)

Carnauba Wax 10.0
Candelilla Wax 5.0
Yellow Ozokerite 9.5
Yellow Beeswax 8.5
Stearic Acid .5
Pine Oil 5
Wood Turpentine 2.0
Kerosene 44.0
Mineral Spirits 20.0

(Floor and Furniture Wax)

Carnauba Wax 4.0
Candelilla Wax 2.0
Yellow Ozokerite 3.0
Yellow Beeswax 3.0
Paraffin WAX 10.0
Pine Oil 1.0
Wood Turpentine 10.7
Mineral Spirits 55.1
VM&P Naphtha 11.2

Melt waxes in steam bath or steam-jacketed kettle. Add solvents and heat until clear, if necessary. Cut off heat and cool to about 130 °F. Pour into containers and allow to solidity uncovered.

Liquid Wax Polish

Bleached Montan Wax 5
Ozokerite 2
Paraffin Wax 6
Carnauba Wax 2
Turpentine 80
Diglycol Oleate 3

Melt waxes at 100°C. and then cool to 85° C. Add turpentine and diglycol oleate. Stir till cold.

Auto Polish

Formula No. 1

A.Paraffin Wax 55
Candelilla Wax 20
Durocer 20
Rezo Wax B 55
B.Turpentine 45
Naphtha 205

Melt A at 90°C. until uniform and then add B.

No. 2

Carnauba Wax (No.3 Refined) 6.67 oz
Oleic Acid 0.52 oz.
Potassium Hydroxide .13 oz
Japan Wax .27 oz.
Triethanolamine .31 oz.
Powdered Borax .13oz.
Ammonia (26°). in 3.5 oz. Water 100 drops
Water 26 oz.
Shellac Solution in 5 ¼ oz. Water 5 3/8 oz.
Booster Solution in 5 ¼ oz. Water 2 ¾ oz.
Water 21 oz.

The booster is made by adding 5 oz. Casein to 1 qt. water, mixing with a solution of ½ oz. potassium hydroxide in 2 oz. hot water, then adding 1 oz. of strong ammonia, 0,8 oz. of zinc sulfate in 2 oz. of boiling water, and finally ¼ oz. of yellow pine oil. The mixture is stirred until thick and 10 oz. cold water added. By omitting the final water (21 oz.), a no-rub floor polish is obtained. The emulsion is maintained by the potassium hydroxide and oleic acid, which form soap.

No. 3

Water 16.35
Soap 4.05
Glycerin 6.75
Kerosene 19.30
Dibutyl Phthalate 3.55
Abrasive 50.00

Windshield Glass Polish and Cleaner

U.S. Patent 2,296,097 Feldspar 12
Calcium Carbonate 8
Sodium Bicarbonate ¾
Bentonite 3

Add sufficient water to make a thin cream before applying

Glass Polish

Boil about four ounces of comminuted castile soap in about one cup of water, pour the solution into 6.25 pounds of whiting, together with 1.5 ounces of aqueous ammonia, one ounce of olive oil and 0.5 ounce of oil of sassafras. The mass is mixed and kneaded until it has a relatively stiff moldable consistency.

Oven Polish

Ozokerite 38
Paraffin Wax 513
Lampblack 175
Graphite 600
Carnauba Wax 10
Benzine 800

Silver Polish

Soap Flakes 10
Hot Water 200
Santomerse S 20
Tetrasodium Pyrophosphate 5
Swift's Carton Glue 50
Sodium Thiosulfate 50
Snow Floss (Diatomaceous Earth) 40
Polish for Gold and Soft Metals Soap 20-25
Coconut Oil 1
Precipitated Chalk 25
Kieselguh 8
Glycerin 40-45
Lemenone {Artificial Lemon Oil) 1

The kieselguhr and chalk serve as abrasives, the Lemenone as a perfume, the oil to impart a certain amount of sheen to the metal, and the glycerin as a lubricating dispersing medium.

Metal Polishing Cloth

Stir a suspension of 100g. of calcium carbonate, 40 g. of kieselguhr, and 8 g. of rouge in 1 lt. of water and impregnate the cloths. Press out the excess liquid and dry the cloths at about 120°F. Then immerse the cloths in a hot 10 per cent solution of hard soap. Squeeze out excess fluid and dry again.

Chromium Polish

Powdered Soap 3
Hot Water 53
Distilled Olein 5
Ammonia (10%) 3
Denatured Alcohol 16
Tripoli 20

The ingredients should be mixed in the order given.

Leather Polish

Carnauba Wax 40
Montan Wax 60
Paraffin Wax 80
Heat until molten and add a solution of :
Oil Soluble Dye 4
Molten Stearic Acid 15
Add molten mass slowly with good stirring to:
Turpentine 300
Allow to cool before using.

Liquid Leather Polish

Crude Montan Wax 10
Carnauba Wax 3
Candelilla Wax 3
Ozokerite 1
Paraffin Wax 5
Diglycol Oleate 25
Water 70
Turpentine 90
Dye color 5

Paste Leather Polish

Bleached Montan Wax 10
Crude Montan Wax 5
Candelilla Wax 4
Carnauba Wax 2
Paraffin Wax 5
Diglycol Stearate 3
Water 50
Turpentine 70
Oil Soluble Color 5

Shoe Polish Paste

(For Tubing)

Candelilla Wax 50
Stroba Wax 25
Glyceryl Monostearate 30
or Diglycol Stearate Varsol 250
Water 225
Melt waxes; cool to 90°C.-add Varsol and
Water at 90°C.

Wax Shoe Polish

Durocer 20
Rezo Wax B 25
Paraffin Wax 55
Candelilla Wax 20
Turpentine 45
Sovasol # 4 205
Melt and mix.

This makes a paste which gives a good shine. The solvent does not squeeze out when the mass is pressed and the mixture makes a firm jell. It should be poured at 90°C.

Colorless Shoe Polish

Durocer (Synthetic Wax) 11 oz.
Candelilla Wax 11 oz.
Paraffin Wax 80 oz.
Sovasol # 4 175 fl. oz.
Warm together and mix.

This produces a firm jell, on cooling, which polishes readily, is homogeneous and is not tacky.

Shoe Creams

Shoe creams are essentially emulsions of wax and a wax solvent in water, the stability of which is maintained by a small amount of soap. Two typical commercial neutral shoe creams suitable for use on very fine leather contain the following ingredients :

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 6
Paraffin Wax 4
Turpentine 15
Water 70
Hard (ordinary) Soap 5

No. 2

Carnauba Wax 10
Paraffin Wax 10
Turpentine 15
Water 47
Soft (Potash) Soap 3

The waxes are melted together and mixed with the turpentine. The solution is then poured slowly into a boiling solution of the soap in water, meantime stirring vigorously to produce a stable emulsion. Stir until nearly ready to set and run into a container.

No. 3

Paraffin Wax 700
Carnauba Wax 500
Montan Wax, Crude 400
Nigrosine Base 100
Candelilla Wax 100
Shellac Wax 100
Ozokerite 100
Turpentine 8000

No. 4

1. Candelilla Wax 25
2. Stroba Wax 12 ½
3. Diglycol Stearate S 15
4. Toluol 125
5. Water (Boiling) 112½

Warm 1, 2, and 3 until melted. Keep temperature at 90 - 100°C. and add 4. Add 5 slowly with good mixing and continue mixing until temperature falls to 40°C. then pour into tubes.

Furniture Polish

Formula No. 1

Spindle (Mineral) Oil 20
Chinawood Oil 10
Varnolene 60
Trigamine Stearate 13
Denatured Alcohol 4
Ammonia 1
Water 120
Mix well with a high-speed stirrer.

This makes a stable milky emulsion which polishes easily

No. 2

Water 400
Albasol AR (Emulsifier) 5
Powdered Bentonite 2.5
Gum Karaya 2.5
Formalin (40%) 3
Methyl Salicylate 0.5
Pine Oil 1.5

"Two-Tone" Furniture Polish

A
Varsol (Mineral Spirits) 100
Stove Oil (Kerosene) 55
Turpentine 15
Boiled Linseed Oil 1/10
Amyl Acetate ½
Soudan Orange To color
B
Water 100
Methanol 45
Glycerol 10
Acetic Acid 5
Tomato Red To color

Equal volumes of solutions A and B are placed in the bottles. This give two liquid layers of attractively contrasting colors. If too little linseed oil is used the two layers separate too quickly after shaking. If too much linseed oil is taken the polish dries dull.

Shake well and apply with a clean cloth.

Liquid Furniture and Floor Polish

Carnauba Wax 3.0
Glyco Wax A 3.0
Candelilla Wax 2.8
Paraffin Wax 3.3
Linseed Oil Soap .1
Wood Turpentine 12.5
Mineral Spirits 65.1
VM&P Naphtha 10.2

Put turpentine, mineral spirits, and naphtha in container and mix with high speed mixer. Add linseed oil soap. Melt waxes and add slowly. Mix until cold.

Floor Wax Remover

Morpholine Oleate 0.1
Water 99.9

Apply hot and leave on for three minutes. Scrub lightly to loosen wax and wash away.

Bright Drying Floor Polish (Emulsion) (Rubless)

Formula No. 1

A
Candelilla Wax 12.5
Heat to 200°F.
B
Triethenolamine 1.8
Linolenic Acid 1.7
Borax 1.0
Water 83.0

Heat to boiling Pour A into B stirring well

No. 2

"Fine Melt" Congo 120
Caustic Soda 3
Morpholine 12
Water 500
Water 100
Carnauba Wax 20
Stearic Acid 6
Triethanolamine 3
Water 100
Water 400

To 500 parts of water, add 3 parts of sodium hydroxide and 12 parts of morpholine. Heat this solution to 85 - 90°C. Using continued stirring, add the "fine melt" Congo slowly, taking about 15-20 minutes to add the entire amount. It is very important that the resin be ground to powder size.

Hold at 85 -90°C. for ½ hour, during which time 100 parts of water are added. The resin should now be completely dissolved.

In a separate container, melt together the carnauba wax and the stearic acid, and add slowly to the Congo mixture, always continuously stirring. Then add the triethanolamine and about 100 parts of hot water slowly, keeping the temperature around 80°C. The remaining 400 parts of water are added more quickly and the polish is allowed to cool to room temperature; water is added to compensate for evaporation loss, and the polish is then filtered.

This polish exhibits excellent gloss, good leveling properties, and very good water resistance.

No. 3

A polish with slightly loss gloss and water resistance than No.2

"Fine Melt" Congo 120
Caustic Soda 5
Morpholine 6
Water 500
Water 100
Carnauba Wax 20
Stearic Acid 6
Triethanolamine 3
Water 100
Water 400
Same method as in No. 2.

The use of a protective colloid like casein is found to increase compatibility as well as the drying time of Congo polishes. The stock casein solution is prepared according to the following formula:

Casein 500
Water 2360
Borax 75
Pine Oil 10
Phenol 5

The casein is soaked in 1900-2000 parts of water at room temperature for ½ hour, with stirring. The mixture is then gradually heated. When the temperature reaches 52-55°C., the borax is added either as a solid or dissolved in about 150 cc. of water. Heating is continued and the solution completed by holding the batch at about 75°C.for ½ hour, with stirring. Heat is removed, the phenol and pine oil are stirred into the solution, and the remainder of the water is added. When cooled sufficiently, additional water is added to make up for evaporation losses.

The casein solution is incorporated in the polish just after the addition of the resin and after the temperature has been held at 85-90°C for ½ hour.

No. 4

"Fine Melt" Congo 120
Caustic Soda 3
Morpholine 12
Casein Solution 60
Water 500
Water 100
Carnauba Wax 20
Stearic Acid 6
Morpholine 3
Water 100
Water 400
Same methods as in No.2.

By increasing the amount of morpholine to dissolve the resin, the gloss of a polish is increased.

No. 5

"Fine Melt" Congo 120
Caustic Soda 10
Triton W-30 5
Casein Solution 60
Water 500
Water 100
Carnauba Wax 20
Stearic Acid 6
Morpholine 3
Water 100
Water 400
Same method as in No.1

This polish has very good gloss and leveling properties but shows a decrease in water resistance as compared to the other polishes prepared with morpholine. Triton W-30 is leveling and wetting agent. Any similar agents may be used in its place.

No. 6

"Fine Melt" Congo 120
Caustic Soda 3
Morpholine 24
Casein 60
Water 500
Water 100
Carnauba Wax 30
Stearic Acid 7
Morpholine 3
Water 100
Water 400
Same method as in No. 2

The slight increase in carnauba wax helps greatly in improving the drying time of this polish.

Floor Wax

Formula No. 1

Paraffin wax 80
Ozokerite 45
Acrawax C 35
Carnauba Wax 25
Benzine 500
Turpentine 300

No. 2

Yellow beeswax 180
Paraffin Wax 45
Turpentine 135
Benzine 180

No. 3

Paraffin Wax 600
Ozokerite 60
Bleached Montan Wax 20
Benzine 900
Turpentine 300
Pine Needle Oil 20

Diamond abrasive

A shaped compact of diamond dust and copper powder is sintered by immersion at 800°C.in a bath of :

Sodium Chloride 1
Calcium Chloride 2

The absorbed salts are washed out of the pores by water after cooling

Synthetic Abrasive

Abrasive granules (Moh hardness 7.5-8.5) are made by fusing a mixture of the following for 1 hour at 1205°, cooling, and crushing the melt.

Garnet Dust 200
Borax 10
Kaolin 10

Auto Rubbing Compound

This paste rubbing compound is used for rubbing down fresh coats of lacquer or synthetic enamel. Apply with a damp cloth or waste. Rub until perfectly smooth and free from dirt specks, orange peel, etc.

Air Floated Rose Tripoli 33½
Thin Mineral Oil 61¼
Kerosene 1¾
Pine oil 1
Oleic Acid 3½
Triethanolamine 1¾
Water 22

Put water and triethanolamine into pan of a dough mixer. Premix mineral oil, kerosene, pine oil, and oleic acid and add slowly, with good stirring. Then work in the Tripoli until a smooth and uniform paste is obtained.

Buffing Compounds

A
Double Pressed Stearic Acid 366
Avirol WS (Wetting Agent) 22
Pyrophyllite, 200 mesh 336
Air Floated Tripoli 336

Apply "A" to all except the edge of the "coloring" wheel, using that dry edge as a wiper section.

Should the work require an even higher luster, then add a touch of red rouge, "B," to the dry edge of the wheel.

B.
Double Pressed Stearic Acid 180
Avirol Ws 20
No. 00 Red Iron Oxide 800

For spinning work the brass colored red with "A" and "B" cannot be surpassed in luster and freedom from scratches by the use of a "lime" composition.

If, on some non-spinning jobs, or nickel plate,"lime" rouge is desired, formula "C" is suggested:

C.
Double Pressed Stearic Acid 200
Tallow Stearin 30
Avirol WS 20
Calcined Dolomite 750
For "coloring" chromium:
D
Double Pressed Stearic Acid 120
Tallow Stearin 30
Avirol Ws 20
Levigated Aluminum 830

When an intermediate quality finish is required at a minimum cost and without a "cutting down" operation, a "cut and color" composition similar to "E" has proven very satisfactory.

E
Double Pressed Stearic Acid 310
Tallow Stearin 15
Avirol Ws 20
Double Ground Tripoli 680
F

This compound is applied to hardwood novelties on a buffing wheel or in a tumbling barrel. It a applied directly over the stained wood, and produces a high-luster, very smooth finish. It gives the luster of a resin finish with the slip and feel of a wax finish.

Candelilla Wax 30 lb.
Paraffin Wax 25 lb.
Yellow Beeswax 5 lb.
Diatomaceous Silica 2 lb.
Mineral Spirits 50 lb.
Oil Soluble Orange Dye 5/16 oz.
Triethanolamine 5 oz.
Trihydroxyethanyolamine Stearate 12 lb
Water 65 lb.
Resin Solution 31 lb.
Ammonium Hydroxide (28%) 3 lb.

Put water, triethanolamine, and trihydroxyethylamine stearate in a steam-jacketed kettle and bring to 200.F. Melt waxes in another steam-jacketed kettle, stir in dye, silica and mineral spirits and bring to 200°F. Add this mixture to the water solution slowly, with vigorous stirring. Pre-mix resin solution and ammonia and add to the above solution. Cut off steam and stir occasionally until cold to prevent stratification. It will solidify to a smooth, soft paste. Yield 215 lbs.

Cream Buffing Wax

This compound is used with flexible-shaft mechanical buffers to produce a high polish on automobile finishes. It is non-scratching and leaves a protective wax film. The material is a heavy liquid cream emulsion, which is very stable.

Carnauba Wax 4
Yellow Beeswax 1¼
Yellow Ozokerite Wax ¾
Paraffin Wax 2
Mineral Spirits 18¾
Diatomaceous Silica 2¾
Water 164½
Trihydroxyethylamine Stearate 6

Put water in steam-jacketed kettle, add stearate, and heat to 165.F. Melt waxes and mineral spirits to 165.F. in water bath and stir in silica. Then add hot wax solution to water solution slowly with vigorous agitation. Mix occasionally until cold.

Automobile Polish

Formula No.1

Diglycol Laurate 5
Turpentine 5
Sodium Fatty Acid Sulfonate (Sulfatate B) 10
Water 500

No. 2

Water 51
Light Petroleum Oil 38
Caster OIL 10
Potash Soap 1

No. 3

Paraffin Oil 24
Linseed Oil 4
Kerosene 4
Polyethylene Glycol Mono Oleate 1

Auto Polishing Cloth

Water White Gasoline 50
Paraffin Oil 50

Pieces of flannel or cheese-cloth are soaked in the mixture and allowed to dry. They are excellent for removal of dust and restoring the gloss of automotive finishes.

Metal Cleaning and Polishing Cloth

In preparing impregnated cloths for cleansing and polishing brass, copper and silver, hard soap is found a good binding agent, as well as cleaner.

Calcium Carbonate 100 g.
Kieselguhr 40 g.
Rouge 8 g.
Water to make 1 l.

Mix the ingredients and impregnate the cloths. Press out the excess liquid and dry the cloths at 120°F. The immerse in a hot 10% solution of hard soap. Squeeze out the excess fluid and dry again.

Metal Polish

Chip soap, 10 parts; silica dust. 20 parts, air-floated Tripoli. 20parts; pine oil, 2 parts; water, 48 parts;

Dissolve the soap in the hot water and add the previously mixed silica and Tripoli without stirring; then add pine oil, with stirring, and run the hot mixture into suitable containers. The abrasives, silica and Tripoli, should be able, almost 100%, to pass through a No.325 sieve.

Furniture Polish

Formula No. 1

White Mineral Oil 70
Soya Oil Foots Acids 8
Light Blown Castor Oil 1.5
Glaurin 0.75
2-Amino-2-Methyl-2-Propanol 36.0
Water 40.0

No. 2

Mineral Oil 256
Steam Distilled Pine Oil 10
Blendene (Emulsifier) 73
Water 301

The mineral oil, pine oil and Blendene are thoroughly mixed. It is important that the liquid be clear. If not clear add Blendene in small quantities until it clears up.

Then stir in the water in small portions until entirely ncorporated. Stir for 1 hour. High speed mixing is used.

Furniture Cleaner and Polish

Formula No. 1

White Beeswax 10
Melt and add slowly with stirring;
Stoddard Solvent 500
Turpentine 500

No. 2

Yellow Beeswax 100
Turpentine 175

Melt the wax and to it add slowly with stirring the turpentine. Cool slowly while mixing.

Floor Polish

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 9.7
Triethanolamine 0.3
Ozokerite 7.5
Paraffin Wax 45.0
Deodorized Kerosene 187.5

Melt the carnauba wax and add the other ingredients. Warm together in a double boiler until dissolved. Stir until cool and smooth.

No. 2

V.M. and P.Naphtha 102
Paraffin Wax 80
Albacer 61
Hexalin 12
Tetralin 4

Dance Floor Wax

Carnauba Wax 12
Candelilla Wax 3
Paraffin Wax 5
Rice Flour 80
Grind to a very fine powder.

Wood Laboratory Table Polish

Dow Corning Silicone Fluid 200 95
Hard Paraffin Wax 5

Add the melted paraffin wax to the silicone heated to about 150.F. and cool.

Oil Polishes

Any of these oil polishes can be used on furniture, woodwork, and automobiles. As emulsion, they clean and polish the surface in one operation. The polish can be rubbed dry to give a glossy finish on a varnished or lacquered surface.

The addition of 0.07 to 1.0 parts by weight of 10% aqueous solution of cellosize hydroxyethyl cellulose WS-500 to the above emulsions assures stability over a longer period of time.

Dissolve the oleic acid in the oils and stir in the amine.

Stir for about 5 minutes. If the mixture is not then clear, add oleic acid a little at a time until clarity is attained.

Add the oil solution of the water with vigorous stirring to form a creamy, stable emulsion.

The clear oil solution can be marketed with directions to mix it with an equal amount of water before use, pointing out that it can be stored as an oil to be mixed with water when desired.

When these polishes are to be used on automobile or other lacquered surfaces, a small amount of a fine abrasive is frequently added as an ingredient that cleans by friction.

Wax Polishes

Wax polish emulsions require more rubbing than oil polish emulsions, but produce a harder, high luster finish. These polishes are cleansers and polishers combined and leave a bright, hard film. They are applied by rubbing well over the surface to remove dirt and streaks, and then polishing with a dry cloth. The wax mixture usually contains a hard wax, such as carnauba, and a soft wax, such as paraffin or beeswax, which acts as a plasticizer. The use of naphtha in a wax polish allows faster application without leaving a tacky film. The morpholine emulsion films become water-resistant several hours after application and will stand up under constant exposure to water fully as long as a solvent-type wax polish. The liquid cream wax polish is more easily applied than the wax paste polish and does not require as hard buffing to produce a high gloss. The liquid wax polish makes an excellent shoe cream polish and can be used with the addition of nigrosine for black shoes or, with the addition of other suitable dyes, for colored shoes.

A steam - or hot water-jacketed kettle is preferred for making wax polishes, as a satisfactory temperature must be maintained to prevent caking of the wax along the sides of the kettle and to avoid discoloration by overheating the wax. A paddle-type, hand-operated stirrer or a slow speed, large-bladed propeller is also suggested for successful operation. Since morpholine has a flash point of 100°F., it should not be added to the mixture in the presence of open flame. If the wax is melted by means of a gas burner, the gas should be turned off during the addition of the morpholine.

Melt the waxes and stearic acid, add the amine, and maintain the temperature at about 90°C.

Add the naphtha slowly and stir until a clear solution is obtained and the temperature is 90° to 95°C. Avoid the use of open flames.

The method of adding the abrasive depends upon the type used. An oil-absorbing abrasive, such as Tripoli, should be well mixed with the hot naphtha solution of waxes just before the water is added. An abrasive that absorbs water, such as bentonite, is best stirred into the finished emulsion.

Heat the water to boiling, add it to the naphtha solution, and stir vigorously until a good emulsion is obtained.

Continue stirring slowly until the emulsion has cooled to room temperature.

The proportions of waxes can be changed as desired, depending upon the case of polishing required and the hardness of the final film. A high melting hydrocarbon wax can be used in place of all or part of the beeswax with good results. When the primary use of the automobile polish is for polishing rather than as a cleaning and polishing combination, it will be more satisfactory without an abrasive.

Rubless Polishes

Rubless Wax Floor Polish

This polish produces a glossy film that can be readily re-emulsified or removed with water. A rubless floor polish prepared in this manner should give a clear, bright film when applied to linoleum, mastic, hardwood, and other floor surfaces. The addition of dispersed shellac or casein improves its spreading and flow-out properties.

Carnauba Wax No. 1 20.0
Oleic Acid 2.25
Triethanolamine 3.30
Borax 1.50
Water 120.0

It is essential that a good grade of carnauba wax be used and that the following directions be followed closely:

A steam - or hot water-jacketed kettle is preferred for maintaining a uniform temperature and prevent overheating and caking of the wax along the sides of the kettle. A paddle-type, hand-operated stirrer or slow-speed, large-bladed propeller is recommended for successful operation.

Method 1

Melt the wax and the oleic acid, stirring occasionally to break up the wax lumps. Bring the temperature to 95°C.

Add the triethanolamine slowly, stirring constantly until the mixture becomes clear.

Dissolve the borax in 20 lb. of boiling water; pour this solution into the wax mixture, stirring until a clear, viscous mixture is obtained.

Add the remaining boiling water to the mixture slowly, with steady stirring, a small portion at a time. Each portion of water should be thoroughly incorporated and the stirring continued until and mixture returns to a smooth, even consistency before the next addition is made.

The mixture will become more viscous when the water is first added and then becomes thin again. When about one-half to two-thirds of the water has been added and the mixture becomes water-thin, the rest of the boiling water can be added slowly, but continuously, with steady stirring. If the mixture becomes creamy at any time, the water is being added too rapidly and is not being thoroughly incorporated before the next addition. The final polish should be light colored and translucent, less opaque than milk.

The best results are obtained by using all of the water at boiling temperature. However, if more convenient, only about two-thirds of the water in the above formula need be heated to boiling. The rest of the water may be at room temperature when added, with constant stirring, to the hot polish. This final dilution with cold water may be made at any time.

The polish is allowed to cool with occasional stirring, covering between stirrings to prevent crusting or graining on top. If cold water can be run through the jacketed kettle, the cooling can be accomplished more quickly.

Make a dispersion of bleached, dewaxed shellac or casein and add 2 gal. of the resin dispersion for each 10 gal. of polish.

Method 2

Follow the instructions for Method 1 through the first three steps or until the borax solution has been incorporated.

Add about 6 lb. of boiling water and stir for several minutes after the mixture becomes clear.

Add the remaining water, at boiling temperature, quickly, all at one time; and stir until a smooth dispersion is obtained.

Cool as directed under Method 1.

Shellac or casein dispersion can be added, if desired, using 2 gallons of the dispersion for each 10 gallons of polish.

VARIATION : a cake polish can be made with about one-third the water used above.. When ready for dilution, the cake is melted in a steam-jacketed kettle and the rest of the water added, half at boiling temperature and the rest at room temperature.

Triethanolamine Water-Resistant Rubless Polish

A triethanolamine polish made with a small amount of potassium hydroxide has been found to produce a film more water-resistant than the film of a polish made with borax, but not so resistant as a morpholine polish film.

The following formula is suggested as a working basis:

Carnauba Wax No.1 40.0
Triethanolamine 4.0
Oleic Acid 8.0
Potassium Hydroxide (85% as KOH) 0.5
Water 240.0

A steam- or hot water-jacketed kettle and a paddle-type, hand-operated stirrer or slow speed large-bladed propeller are preferred for successful operation. The wax should not be allowed to cake around the sides of the kettle at any time.

Melt the carnauba wax and the oleic acid, stirring occasionally to break up the wax lumps, and bring the temperature to 95°C.

Dissolve the potassium hydroxide in about an equal weight of water, add this hot solution and the triethanolamine to the melted wax mixture, and stir until the mixture becomes clear.

Heat the remaining water to boiling and pour it quickly into the wax mixture all at one time. Stir continuously until the wax mixture is entirely dispersed in the water.

A Shellac dispersion can be added if desired

Morpholine Water-Resistant Rubless Polish

Method 1

This water-resistant, rubless polish is a translucent solution if prepared as directed. When spread evenly over a surface and allowed to evaporate, it dries to a hard film of high brilliance. The water resistance of the film increases for several hours after application and finally the coating is unaffected by water.

It is essential that a good grade of light-colored carnauba wax be used in the following formula:

Carnauba Wax 20.0
Oleic Acid 4.0
Morpholine 2.5
Water 120.0

For successful operation in making a rubless polish, a steam-jacketed kettle and a hand-operated paddle or slow speed, large-bladed propeller are recommended. The wax should not be allowed to cake around the sides of the kettle at any time.

Melt the wax in the oleic acid, stirring occasionally to break up the lumps. Bring the temperature to 95°C. and stir until well mixed.

Add the morpholine and continue stirring until the whole mixture becomes clear. Since the flash point of morpholine is 100°F., this addition should not be made in the presence of open flames. If the wax is malted by means of a gas burner, the gas should be turned off during the addition of the morpholine.

About 20 lbs. of water, which has been heated to the boiling point, is added and stirring is continued until a clear, viscous mixture is obtained.

Add the remainder of the boiling water, a small amount at a time, with steady stirring. Each portion should be well incorporated before another addition is made. The mixture becomes increasingly viscous and should be of the appearance of petrolatum when about one-half of the water has been added. After this stage has been reached, the mixture begins to thin out.

After about two-thirds of the water has been added, and the mixture has become definitely thinned, the remaining water can be added slowly, but continuously, with constant stirring.

The polish should be covered and stirred at intervals until cool, to prevent caking on the top.

A resin dispersion improves the spreading and flow-out of the polish.

Method 2

The technique of making a morpholine rubless polish can be simplified by the use of Tergitol wetting agent 4, and less time and effort are required to produce a more uniform product. The dried film of a polish made by this method is more even than a film of polish made by the previous method, with no impairment of its water-resistant properties. The purpose of the Tergitol wetting agent in the rubless polishes is to disperse the hot wax mixture more quickly into the hot water and to produce an emulsion with a desirable size of wax particle, which should dry to a smooth wax film of good luster. This wetting agent also produces a desirable viscosity in the emulsion at all times and permits the manufacture of a superior product.

Carnauba Wax No.1 20.00
Tergitol Wetting Agent 4 0.75
Morpholine 2.50
Oleic Acid 4.00
Water 120.00

Less tergitol wetting agent 4 is usually required in a polish made with carnauba wax No.2 or 3 or carnauba wax substitutes, such as the higher melting hydrocarbon waxes, than in one made with carnauba wax No.1. The addition of too much wetting agent produces an almost clear polish, which dries with a bright, though less even, film.

The completed formula plus the resin dispersion contains about 15% total solids. About 30 lb. more water can be added to the above formula at any time to produce a polish with about 13% total solids content.

A hot water - or steam-jacketed kettle and a hand-operated paddle or slow-speed, large-bladed, motor driven propeller are recommended for successful operation in making rubless polishes.

Melt the carnauba wax in the oleic acid, stirring occasionally to break up the wax lumps. Bring the temperature of the melted wax and oleic acid to 95° to 97°C.

Stir in the morpholine and continue stirring until the mixture becomes clear. Since the flash point of morpholine is 100°C. this addition should not be made in the presence of open flames. If the wax is melted by means of a gas burner, the gas should be turned off during the addition of the morpholine.

Stir in the Tergitol wetting agent 4 and continue stirring for about 3 minutes after the mixture becomes clear. The temperature should be maintained at 95° to 97°C.

Heat the water to boiling temperature while the wax is melting. Add all of the water (98° to 100°C) to the melted wax mixture and stir until a uniform dispersion is obtained. The water should all be added in about 10 to 20 seconds.

The emulsion should be stirred for 5 to 10 minutes after adding the water; it can then be covered and stirred at intervals until it has reached room temperature or it can be cooled quickly by pumping through a cooling system or by running cold water through the water jacket on the mixing kettle.

A resin dispersion, such as Manila loba resin B can be added to increase the spreading and flow out properties.

The melted wax mixture containing the wax, morpholine, oleic acid and Tergitol wetting agent 4 at 95° to 97°C is poured, all at one time, into the water at 98° to 100°C. with stirring: and the stirring is continued until a smooth emulsion is obtained. The polish can than be cooled as above and the Manila loba resin dispersion added. Thus a smaller wax kettle can be used, the water being heated in the larger kettle.

Resin, Shellac, Casein Dispersions

Natural Resin Dispersions

The addition of a resin dispersion increases the spreading and flow-out properties of the rubless floor polishes and improves the smoothness of the dried polish film. Shellac is preferred with the triethanolamine rubless polish, while Manila loba B resin dispersion produces better results in the morpholine rubless polish. A casein dispersion can be used with any of the rubless polishes and probably improves the smoothness of the polish film more than either a shellac or Manila loba resin dispersion. However, the water-resistant properties of the films are noticeably reduced by the casein dispersion, while neither the shellac nor Manila loba resin dispersion affects this property. Excellent leather polishes may be produced with any of the rubless polishes by incorporating the casein dispersion.

Formula

No. 1 No. 2
Manila Loba B Resin (Powdered) 3.5 3.5
Ammonia (28%) 1.2 0.4
Triethanolamine - 0.4
Morpholine - 0.4
Water 32.0 32.0

Preparation of Formula No. 1:

Mix the powdered Manila loba B resin with the ammonia.

Stir in about 10 lb. of water, heated to about 60°C. This produces a gummy mass, which is allowed to stand for several hours or overnight.

Add about 10 lb. more water, heated to 70°C, and stir until a uniform mixture is obtained.

Heat the mixture to about 60°C, with constant stirring, to assist in getting a smooth dispersion.

Stir in the rest of the water.

If the dispersion is not clear at any time, stir in more ammonia, a little at a time, until clarity is obtained. If a small amount of resin remains suspended, it should be removed by filtering the dispersion through a cloth.

The clear, filtered dispersion is allowed to cool and can than be added to the cold polish at any time. About 1 gal. of resin dispersion to 5 gal. of polish produces the desired results. The proportions given make sufficient resin dispersion for the amount of polish produced by any of the rubless polish formulas.

Preparation of Formula No. 2

Dissolve the ammonia, morpholine, and triethanolamine in one-half of the water and stir in the powdered Manila loba B resin.

Warm to about 55°C. and hold at this temperature for about 15 minutes, with constant stirring.

The remainder of the water is then stirred in. the small amount of undispersed material can be allowed to settle and the clear liquid drawn off or the whole dispersion can be strained through several thickness of cheesecloth.

Shellac Dispersion

Shellac (Bleached, Dewaxed) 3.5
Ammonia (28%) 0.5
Water 32.0

Add the ammonia and about one-half of the water to the fresh shellac and warm, with constant stirring, until solution is complete. The shellac may become difficult to disperse if it is kept too long, while Manila loba B resin improves with age in this respect.

Add the rest of the water. The solution should be clear. More ammonia should be added if it is not clear.

Filter, if necessary, cool, and add to the cold polish. About 2 gal. of the shellac dispersion can be added for each 10 gal. of polish.

Casein Dispersion

Casein (Lactic Acid) 3.50
Ammonia(28%) 3.35
Phenol 0.16
Water 32.0

Soak the casein in one half of the water for several hours or over night.

Add the ammonia to the rest of the water, and stir this solution into the soaked casein.

Warm, with constant stirring, to about 60°C. and continue stirring at this temperature until a smooth mixture is obtained.

Add 0.16 lb. (2.5 oz.) of phenol, which acts as a preservative.

The dispersion will be slightly viscous but will become thinner as it stands. It should be aged for at least a week before it is added to the polish unless a slightly viscous polish is desired. If the polish is to viscous when the aged casein dispersion is added, 30 lb. of water can be used to thin it, and the completed polish will contain about 13% total solids. This is well within the range of most of the commercial rubless polishes, especially where the actual carnauba wax content is as high as in the suggested formulas.

The casein dispersion is easily made and keeps indefinitely when a preservative is present. Only sufficient ammonia to disperse the casein should be used, as higher amounts will increase the viscosity of the dispersion.

Polishing Paste

Kieselguhr 1 oz.
Petrolatum ½ lb.
Cottonseed Oil 1 oz.
Subcarbonate of Iron 3 oz.
Benzaldehyde 3 min.
Red Oil 27 min.

The silica is ground to a very fine powder and mixed with the iron. After melting the petrolatum, the cottonseed oil is added, and the powder stirred in. The benzaldehyde is added while cooling, and the compound is run into flat cans or other containers. The paste is applied with a soft rag.

Diamond Dust Abrasive

Beeswax 30
Shellac 15
Resin 5
Melt and mix in Diamond Dust 50

until uniform. Pour into molds and allow to cool.

Abrasive Cleaner

Diglycol Laurate 40
Soap 40
Fine silica 80
Gasoline 100
Water 200
Dilute with water for use.

Lens Polishing Powder

Cerium Oxide 32
Barium Carbonate 8
Barium Hydroxide 1

Polishing Powder

Kieselguhr 2 oz.
Rouge ½ oz.
Prepared Chalk ½ lb.

After thorough mixing, this composition can be used in polishing silver, nickel, and other non-ferrous metals. It is used by rubbing on the metal with a damp sponge or rag which is followed by rubbing with a dry chamois or cloth.

Smoothing Compound for Lucite and Plexiglas

Silica (Powdered # 200 Mesh) 40
Bentonite (Powdered Alkaline Type0 10
Vegetable Potash Soap (Anhydrous Basis) 15
Red Oxide of Iron To color
Water 35

The bentonite is worked into a paste with a minimum amount of the water, the lumps being macerated until a smooth dispersion results. The anhydrous soap is dissolved in the remainder of the water, which is then mixed with the bentonite dispersion. The powdered silica is then added, and finally sufficient red oxide of iron to bring to the desired color.

Polishing Compound for Lucite and Plexiglas

Carnauba Wax 10
V.M. and P.Naphtha 10
Santomerse # 3 (Emulsifying Agent) 5
Silica Smoke (1,000 Mesh) 8
Rouge (Red Oxide of Iron) 2
Boiling Water 65

The carnauba wax is melted and poured into the heated naphtha (85-95°C.) with vigorous agitation. The emulsifying agent is dissolved in the water. The wax solution is then poured, while both solutions are still quite hot, into the water solution with vigorous mechanical agitation. The mixture is continuously stirred until cooled to room temperature. While still hot, the powdered silica and the rouge are added.

NOTE : The above described smoothing compound and polishing compound are designed for manual use, the purpose of which is to remove and repolish scratched and scored surfaces of Lucite and Plexiglas bringing them back to their original transparency, gloss and surface sheen. The compositions are applied with a soft cotton rag and rubbed locally in one direction only until and scratch marks or the rough surface have attained a reasonable degree of polish with the smoothing compound, when the operation is repeated for the polishing compound. Obviously, if there are rough surfaces such as from sawing or filing or deep scratch marks these surfaces will have to be initially finished with a file, followed by #2/0 sandpaper or finer before using the smoothing solution followed by the polishing compound.

Tumbling Barrel Polish

Carnauba Wax 6
Stroba Wax 2
Diglycol Laurate S 26
Water 200
Heat and mix until emulsified.

French Polish Base

Gum Accroides 1
Shellac 3
Alcohol To suit

Black Paste Shoe Polish

Formula No. 1

Ouricuri, Gray Carnauba or Shellac Wax ¾ lb.
Ceresin, Paraffin Wax ½ lb.
Castile or Good Curd Soap 2 oz.
Potassium Carbonate 2 oz.
Soft Water 3 pt.
Water-soluble Nigrosine Black Dye 4-6 oz.

Melt the waxes in one container. Separately boil the water with the soap, alkali and nigrosine. Stir the black water solution into the melted waxes. Cool down quickly.

By the addition of further quantities of water, creams of various consistencies may be prepared, e.g., ½ gal. of water will give a nice firm cream.

Instead of black, the polish can be colored yellow or red with 1-2 oz. of the appropriate dye for floor or furniture polish.

No. 2

A. Soft Water 4 gal.
Water-soluble Nigrosine Water Dye 3 lb.
Potassium Carbonate (or 8 oz. Caustic Soda) 18 oz.
Rosin (Can Be Omitted) 8 oz.

Boil the water; add the nigrosine in small quantities until quite dissolved, and then the other components. Keep just on the boiling point until mixture B is ready.

B. Ouricuri or Gray Carnauba or
Shellac Wax 13 lb.
Paraffin Wax 8 ¾ lb.
Ceresin or Ozokerite 7 ½ lb.
Oil Black ¾ lb.
White Spirit or Pool Distillate 3½ gal.
Turpentine or White Spirit 3 pt.

Melt the waxes and oil black together. Remove the flame and stir in the solvents. Add to the hot black water mixture A with stirring. Cool slightly and pour into tins or glass jars. Alternatively, some manufacturers may prefer to melt the waxes and follow with the solvents and then the black solution. A brown and toney-red boot polish can be prepared in a similar way by substituting the appropriate dyestuff for the nigrosine. The inclusion of ½ lb. Triethanolamine oleate to the boiling water will improve the smoothness of the polish.

No. 3

Acrawax C 10 g.
Ceresin 3 g.
Turpentine 30 cc.

Warm together until clear; mix and pour into containers.

No. 4

Pentawax 286 22 g.
Carnauba Wax 3 g.
Stoddard Solvent 75 cc.

No. 5

A. Carnauba Wax 25 g.
Ceresin Wax 12 g.
Paraffin Wax 10 g.
Trigamine Stearate 2 g.
B. Turpentine 60 cc.
C. Distilled Water 15 cc.
Caustic Soda (50%) ½ cc.

Melt A, add B (hot), and then C (hot). Stir continuously while cooling to a cream consistency. Pour while fluid, but not too soon.

No. 6

Carnauba Wax 45.0
Solvent Naphtha 70.0
Oil-Soluble Nigrosine 0.5
Stearic Acid 15.0
Caustic Soda Solution (50%) 2.0
Hard Soap 2.5
Water 300.0
Water-soluble Nigrosine 0.5

Dissolve the water-soluble dye in half the water. Add the caustic soda solution and, while hot, add the soap and stearic acid. Bring to boiling. Then add the remaining ingredients at about 85 to 90.C. continue stirring until cold. Replacing the nigrosine with other suitable dyes will yield products of other requisite shades of color.

Soft Leather Polish

A. White Mineral Oil 20
Turpentine 15
Carbon Tetrachloride 5
Beeswax 3
Oleic Acid 4
Stir until dissolved, and add
B. Triethanolamine 1.5
Water 31.5

Mix A and stir until the ingredients are dissolved, then add B. stir until a smooth emulsion is formed.

Rubber Foot wear Polish

After the initial gloss of rubbers is dulled the luster can be restored by cleaning with a slightly damp rag and then applying the following solution with a clean rag.sponge or soft brush. Unlike oils and ordinary shoe polishes it will not rot or swell rubber.

Glycerin 100
Water 100
Perfume if desired.

Rubless Floor Wax

(a) Carnauba Wax 60 g.
Paraffin Wax 9 g.
Oleic Acid 15 g.
(b) Borax 3 g.
Ammonium Hydroxide 9 g.
Water 18 g.
(c) Dewaxed Shellac 15 g.
Ammonium Hydroxide 9 g.
Water 372 g.

Melt (a) together over direct heat, oil bath, or water bath, in a glass, stainless steel, or enamel vessel. Heat to about 95°C.

Dissolve the borax in the water, heat to 80 to 85°C, stir in ammonium hydroxide and add (b) to (a), with thorough mixing to give a dark, nearly transparent, viscous, water-in-oil emulsion. Heat (c) together, with stirring, until the shellac dissolves completely, and the temperature is 95 to 100°C. Have this ready, and begin to add it a little at a time to the mixture of (a) and (b). Mix rapidly and thoroughly as each portion of shellac solution is added, adding 15 to 20 cc. at a time. When about 50 to 100 cc. of shellac solution has been added, sharp decrease in viscosity will be noted. Then add the balance of the shellac solution rapidly, with very thorough mixing. This results in phase inversion to wax-in-water emulsion and should yield a semitransparent product. Continue to stir until cool. Cooling may be hastened by a cold-water bath. This wax emulsion now contains 20% solids, and may be diluted with 340 g. cold water to give 850 g. wax dispersion containing 12% solids, the usual concentration for use.

Bright-Drying Floor Wax Emulsion

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 21.2
Durez 219 Resin 21.2

Heat at 325 to 350°F., hold and stir until resin is dispersed, add:

Carnauba Wax 42.4
Oleic Acid 18.0

Bring the temperature to 200°F. and add the blend of:

Morpholine 23.3
Water 11.6

Stir well and hold at temperature for 15 to 30 minutes. While stirring, add slowly:

Water (at 200°F.) 494.0
Cool rapidly and add:
Shellac Solution 151.0

No. 2

(a) Carnauba Wax 42.5
(b) 219 Durez-Candelilla Wax 42.5
(c) Cottonseed Fatty Acid 9.5
(d) Triethanolamine 10.8
(e) Ammonia 3.0
Borax 4.7
Water (Warmed to 180°F.) 16.0
(f) Boiling Water 828.0

Melt (a) and (b) together at 205°F. Add (c) and (d) and stir thoroughly. Without agitation other than that of pouring add(e). Lumps will form from localized cooling, but these will re-dissolve. With a high-speed agitator running in large tank of (f), pour in the above base mix. This will produce an excellent emulsion. Then add the shellac solution and cool as quickly as possible.

[img src/g/c/ni-183/5.jpg]

No. 3

Durez Wax Base 85.0
Cottonseed-Oil Fatty Acids 9.5
Heat in a wax kettle at 195 to 200°F., then add:
Triethanolamine 10.8

Stir well, hold at temperature for 15 minutes, then add the following solution :

Borax 4.7
Ammonia 3.0
Water 16.0

Dissolve the borax in the water by heating to 180°F., cool and add the ammonia. Add the solution to the base slowly and stir cautiously to distribute. React for at least 20 minutes and pour into :

Boiling Water 828.0

Use high speed agitator in the water to completely disperse the base. Cool rapidly and add :

Shellac Solution 200.4

No. 4

Durex Wax Base 85.0
Oleic Acid 11.5

Heat in a wax kettle at 195 to 200°F until fluid then add:

Triethanolamine 13.6

Stir well, hold at temperature for 15 minutes, add the following solution:

Borax 4.7
Ammonia 3.0
Water 20.0

Dissolve the borax in the water by heating to180°F. Cool and add the ammonia. Add this solution to the base slowly and stir cautiously to distribute React for at least 20 minutes and pour into:

Boiling Water 824.0

Use high speed agitator in the boiling water to disperse the base. Cool rapidly and add:

Shellac Solution 200.4

No. 5

Durez Wax Base 42.5
Carnauba Wax 42.5
Oleic Acid 9.5

Heat in a wax kettle at 195 to 200°F., then add :

Triethanolamine 10.8

Stir well, hold at temperature for 15 minutes then add the following solution:

Borax 4.7
Ammonia 3.0
Water 16.0

Dissolve the borax in the water by heating to 180°F., cool, and add the ammonia. Add the solution to the base slowly and stir cautiously to distribute. React for at least 20 minutes and pour into:

Boiling Water 828.0

Use high-speed agitator in the boiling water to completely disperse the base. Cool rapidly and add:

Shellac Solution 200.4

No. 6

Durez Wax Base 85.0
Oleic Acid 6.5

Heat in a wax kettle at 195 to 200°F until fluid then add:

Triethanolamine 15.0

Stir well, hold at temperature for

15 minutes, then add the following solution:

Borax 4.7
Ammonia 4.0
Water 20.0

Dissolve the borax in the water by heating to 180°F. Cool and add the ammonia. Add this solution to the base slowly and stir cautiously to distribute. React for at least 20 minutes and pour into:

Boiling Water 824.0

Use high-speed agitator in the boiling water to disperse the base, cool rapidly and add:

Shellac Solution 200.4

Lumps will form from localized cooling on addition of the borax-ammonia solution. Stir very little to avoid excessive volatilization of the ammonia.

No. 7

Durez Wax Base 42.5
Carnauba Wax 42.5
Oleic Acid 12.0

Heat in a wax kettle at 195 to 200°F. until fluid, then add:

Triethanolamine 13.5

Stir well, hold at temperature for 15 minutes, then add the following solution:

Borax 4.7
Ammonia 3.0
Water 16.0

Dissolve the borax in the water by heating to 180°F. Cool and add the ammonia. Add this solution to the base slowly and stir cautiously

To distribute. React for at least 20 minutes and pour into:

Water (200-212°F) 828.0

Use high-speed agitator in the hot water to disperse the base. Cool rapidly and add:

Shellac Solution 200.4

Lumps will form from localized cooling on addition of the borax-ammonia solution. Stir very little to avoid excessive volatilization of the ammonia.

No. 8

Durez-Wax Base 42.5
Carnauba Wax 42.5
Oleic Acid 18.0

Heat in a wax kettle at 195 to 200°F. until fluid, then add the following mistune:

Morpholine 23.3
Water 11.6

Stir well and hold at temperature for 20 to 30 minutes while stirring frequently, then pour into:

Water (200-212°F) 494.0

Use high-speed agitator in the hot water to disperse the base. Cool rapidly and add:

Shellac Solution 151.0

No. 9

(a) Carnauba Wax 42.50
Candelilla Wax 21.25
Durez 51185 Resin 26.00
Oleic Aciud 4.75
(b) Triethanolamine 10.80
(c) Ammonia 3.00
Borax 4.70
Water (Warmed to 180°F.) 16.00
Boiling Water 828.00
Shellac Solution 200.40

Melt (a) together at 205°F., then add (b) and stir well. Without agitation other than that of pouring, add (c). Lumps will form from localized cooling, but these will re-dissolve. Pour in the whole mixture into a tank with a high-speed agitator running in the boiling water. Then add the shellac solution and cool as quickly as possible.

No. 10

Refined Carnauba Wax 20.0
Durex 51185 Resin 12.2
Cardis No. 319 Wax 10.0
Oleic Acid or Cottonseed Fatty Acids 1.8

Heat at 195 to 200°F. and stir until uniformly fluid. Then add:

Triethanolamine 4.8

Stir and hold 15 minutes. Then add the following solution:

Borax 2.3
Ammonia Solution (28%) 7.0
Water 10.0

Hold 15 to 20 minutes for formation of clear jelly, then pour the batch into :

Hot Water 390.0

Add 20lb of a standard shellac solution to 100 lb emulsion.

No. 11

Carnauba Wax 42.0 g.
Cardis Wax No. 319 42.0 g.
Soap Flakes 14.5 g.
Triethanolamine 6.0 g.
Borax 4.3 g.
Shellac Aqueous Alkaline Solution (12%) 200.0 g.
Water To make 1,000.0 cc.

Melt the waxes and then add the soap flakes and stir well until dispersed. Keep the temperaature close to boiling. Then add the borax dissolved in equal volumes of water. Then add the triethanolamine. Stir well until incorporated. Add the water a little at a time with stirring. Each addition of water should be stirred until the mass has a salve-like consistency. When about a third of the water has been added, the consistency thins out and at this stage, the water can be added rather rapidly. When cool, add the shellac. The finished emulsion should have a pH of 8.5 to 9. This product gives a very superior high-gloss polish without rubbing.

No. 12

Diethylaminoethanol 2.7
Oleic Acid 6.7
Carnauba Wax 30.0
Water 300.0

No. 13

Ethylethanolamines 2.5
Oleic Acid 6.8
Carnauba Wax 30.0
Water 300.0

In formulae 12 and 13, the wax is melted with a fatty acid, usually red oil (oleic acid), in asteam-jacketed kettle which is equipped with a stirrer. The mixture is held at about 194°F. and stirred until homogeneous. The amine is then added slowly and agitation is continued until the mass is uniform. The water is brought nearly to the boiling point in a separate kettle and added in small portions with continuous stirring. Each portion must be fully incorporated before the next portion is added. The mass gradually thicknes, and then thins upon the addition of more water. After the thinning point is reached, the remainder of the water may be added rapidly. Agitation is essential until the finely dispersed globules of wax solidify.

In order to improve the antiskid and leveling properties of these formulas, a shellac solution may be added to the thinned emulsion. This solution is prepared in a jacketed kettle by dissolving 5 parts shellac in 25 parts water and 0.8 part 28° Be' ammonia (33% by weight) at a temperature of not over 120°F. The solution should be filtered before use.

Borax may be substitued for 25% of the amine in the soap without influencing gloss or tackiness. Streakiness is decreased by the use of borax. An excess of amine over the amount required causes streakiness and loss of stability. An excess of oleic acid decreases streakiness, but also decreases gloss and stability and causes tackiness. Other natural and synthetic waxes and resins may be substituted for carnauba wax.

No. 14

Palmeto Wax 75
Carnauba Wax 12
Sodium Stearate 15
Shellac 35
Borax 15
Ammonia 10
Boiling Water 1590

Melt the waxes together and add the soap with stirring. When the soap is dissolved in the wax, let the temperature drop to 205°F. Add the hot solution of borax in 45 parts water. Stir until a gel is formed. Add 1,300 parts of the boiling water slowly with good stirring. Add a solution of the shellac to the ammonia and the rest of the water.

No. 15

Intawax Amber 85.0
Triethanolamine Oleate 19.8
Ammonia 6.4
Borax 4.7
Shellac 25.0
Water 1,013.0

Heat the wax and triethanolamine oleate together, with agitation, at 200 to 205°F., until molten. Add a hot solution of borax in 3 parts ammonia and 16 parts water. Add 825 parts boiling water with good stirring. Add a solution of the shellac in 3.4 parts ammonia and 172 parts water.

Floor Polish

Formula No. 1

Indusoil (Tall Oil) 13
Triethanolamine 16
Carnauba Wax 111
Borax 9
Shellac 19
Ammonia (28%) 3
Water 829

Mix the wax and Indusoil and heat with stirring to 195°F., maintaining this temperature until all the wax is melted. Slowly add the triethanolamine, stirring constantly until the solution becomes clear. Dissolve the borax in about 20 parts boiling water and add it to the wax solution. Stir for 2 minutes. Heat about 700 parts of the water to boiling and add about 40 parts slowly with constant agitation. Then stir the remaining 640 parts rapidly and thoroughly. Mix and heat the ammonia, shellac, and the rest of the water until solution is complete. After cooling, add this solution to the cooled wax dispersion.

No. 2

Candelilla Wax 7.1 lb.
Yellow Beeswax 2.2 lb.
O.P. Wax 1.7 lb.
Naphtha (Sovasol No.5) 78.4 lb.
Turpentine 10.6 lb.
Orange Dye To suit

No. 3

Ceresin 0.75 lb.
Parraffin Wax 3.25 lb.
Varnolene 4.00 gal.
Oil-Soluble Dye Coloring To suit

No. 4

Carnauba Wax 12 lb.
Cerese FF 4 lb.
Paraffin Wax (135°F) 10 lb.
Varnolene 75 lb.

Heat the waxes until melted. Add the naphtha and stir. Warm until the solution is clear. Pour at 160°F. into a container. Cool.

No. 5

Paraffin Oil 500
Stoddard Solvent 440
Butyl Alcohol 50
Nitrobenzol 10

No. 6

Teglac Resin No. 128 97 lb.
Isopropyl Alcohol 108 gal.
Low-Viscosity Ethyl Cellulose 5 lb.

Heat the alcohol slighly, add the Teglac Resin No. 128 which has been powdered, then slowly add the ethyl cellulose until completely dissolved and clear. Allow to cool.

Dance-Floor Wax

Corn Meal 75
Hydrofol 10
Boric Acid 15
Color To suit

Furniture Polish

Formula No. 1

(a) Carnauba Wax 3
O.P. Wax 3
Paraffin Wax 15
Stearic Acid 2
(b) Stoddard Solvent 25
Kerosene 10
(c) Aqua Ammonia (26°Be') 1
(d) Volclay (Standard 200-Mesh) 2
Water 39

Melt (a) together. Add (b) and adjust to 160°F. Add (c) and stir. Prepare (d) separately and heat to 155°F. Add (d) to the mixture with vigorous stirring.

No. 2

Indusoil (Tall Oil) 43
Carnauba Wax 161
Beeswax 80
Casein 80
Turpentine 139
Naphtha 128
Triethanolamine 20
Water 349

No. 3

(a) Yellow Carnauba Wax 3.20
Beeswax 1.30
Ceresin 1.30
Stearic Acid 2.60
(b) Triethanolamine 1.50
(c) Naphtha 10.0
Veegum 0.75
Water 79.35

Melt (a) on a water-bath. Heat (b) and add slowly to (a) with stirring. Add (c) to this mixture slowly when the temperature is about 90°C.

Add the Veegum to the water slowly, continuously agitating until smooth. Heat this liquid gel, add it to the naphtha wax solution and agitate rapidly until cool.

Perfume for Furniture Polish

Iso-Cyclo Citral-S (Dow) 0.5
Cyclamen Aldehyde 5.0
French Lavender Oil 5.0
French Rosemary Oil 5.0
Amyl Salicylate 6.5
Redistilled Petitgrain Oil 18.0
Cedarwood Oil 60.0

Paste Waxes

Some waxes are practically insoluble in certain solvents when they are cold. When the mixture of solvent and wax is heated, the wax dissolves to form a clear solution. If the mixture is allowed to cool, the wax crystallizes out of solution. The size of the crystals can be controlled by the rate of cooling. If the proper ratio of wax to solvent is heated and then cooled at a controlled rate a firm paste results. A hard paste may be made from carnauba wax and a solvent, but there are properties of toughness, ease of spreading, leveling, ease of polishing, etc., which can be improved by the addition of other waxes and resins. A very common formula for paste wax uses carnauba wax, beeswax, and paraffin in the proportion of 1:1:1.

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 35.0
Paraffin Wax 39.0
Beeswax 18.0
Durez 51270 Resin 8.0

Heat to approximately 325°F., hold until resin is dispersed, then add:

Mineral Spirits (97.5%) 292.5
Turpentine (2.5%) 7.5

The solvent should be warmed to 150°F. to prevent precipitation of the wax. An alternate method is to make a 50% solids solution of the resin in mineral spirits and add prior to thinning. This eliminates the high temperature of 325°F., a top temperature of 250°F. being sufficient.

No. 2

Carnauba Wax 33
Beeswax 33
Paraffin Wax 24
Durez 51270 Resin 10
Mineral Spirits 285
Turpentine 15
Dye As desired

Dissolve the resin in an equal part of mineral spirits, using agitation with or without heat. Warming the solvent and adding the resin in small pieces, with agitation, works well. Melt the waxes at 275 to 300°F. When completely dispersed, add the Durez 51270 Resin solution. Warm the solvent to prevent solidification of the wax and add to the wax-resin blend. Stir well, cool to 160°F., and pour into containers.

Black Shoe Polish

Formula No. 1

Carnauba Wax 6
Candelilla Wax 2
Beeswax 6
Ozokerite 4
Paraffin Wax (M.P. About 52°C.) 14
Turpentine 68
Soluble Nigrosine To suit

Melt the waxes together, then add the turpentine and enough nigrosine to give the desired color.

No. 2

Gray Carnauba Wax 8
Ozokerite 4
Yellow Beeswax 6
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 48-50°C.) 14
Turpentine 68
Soluble Nigrosine To suit

No. 3

(a) Carnauba Wax 15.00
Beeswax 8.00
Ceresin 8.00
Stearic Acid 3.00
2-Amono-2-Methyl-1,3-Propanediol 2.00
Lanolin 3.00
Turpentine 3.00
Veegum 2.00
Water 55.00
Water-Soluble Nigrosine 1.00

No. 4

(b) Carnauba Wax 10.00
Beeswax 7.00
Paraffin Wax 7.00
Stearic Acid 1.50
2-Amino-2-Methyl-1,3-Propanediol 1.00
Turpentine 3.00
Veegum 2.00
Water 66.50
Water-Soluble Nigrosine 2.00

In formulae 3 and 4, heat (a) on a water-bath to 95°C. Add the turpentine slowly with sirring. Add the Veegum to the water slowly, continuously agitating until smooth. Add the nigrosine to this liquid gel. Heat to 70°C. and add to the mixture, stirring constantly.

Mix mechanically until cool.

Leather Polish

Formula No. 1

Indusoil (Tall Oil) 50
Carnauba Wax 110
Naphtha 160
Triethanolamine 10
Water 670

No. 2

(Saddle Soap)

Veegum 2.30
Water 43.70
Castile Soap 10.00
(a) Neatsfoot Oil 5.00
Beeswax 8.00
Yellow Carnauba Wax 16.00
Turpentine 15.00

Add the Veegum to the water slowly, continuously agitating until smooth. Dissolve the castile soap in this liquid gel with heating. Heat (a) to 95°C. Add the turpentine slowly, with stirring. Add this mixture to the Veegum solution and mix rapidly until cool.

Polish for Edging Leather Straps

Water 1 gal.
Aqualized Gum Tragacanth 2 oz.
Bismarck Brown Solution 6 oz.

White Shoe Dressings

Formula No. 1

Sulfated Fatty Alcohol 1.0
Dextrin 1.0
Disodium Phosphate 0.2
Titanium Oxide 18.0
Water 79.8

No. 2

Methyl Cellulose 5
Sulfonated Oil 2
Titanium Oxide 13
Talc 3
Clay 1
Water 76

No. 3

Boric Acid
Sulfonated Oil 4.0
Sodium Borate 2.0
2.0
Casein 0.5
Titanium Oxide 13.0
Water 78.5

No. 4

(Nonrubbing-off)

Water 73
SoapFlakes 3
Titanium Dioxide 20
Rubber Latex 2
Aqualized Gum Arabic 2

The pigment is added to the solution of water containing the soap and gum arabic. After mixing, the latex is added and stirred well. This dressing will not rub off due to the special binding effect of the rubber latex.

No. 5

Veegum 2.00
Water 81.00
Titanium Dioxide 15.00
Nleatsfoot oil 2.00
Preservative To suit

Add the Veegun to the water slowly, continuously agitating until smooth. Add the titanium dioxide to this liquid gel and mix until uniform. Add the other ingredients to the Veegum mixture and mix thoroughly.

Automobile Polish

Formula No. 1

(a) Mineral Oil 35.00
Tween 60 15.00
Preservative To suit
Veegum 1.25
Water 48.75

No. 2

(a) Mineral Oil 33.00
Tween 60 14.20
Preservative To suit
Veegum 1.18
Water 46.12
Mild Abrasive 5.50

No. 3

(a) Carnauba Wax 5.00
White Beeswax 2.00
Ceresin Wax 2.00
Stearic Acid 3.00
Mineral Oil 10.00
Preservative To suit
Triethanolamine 1.00
Naphtha 18.00
Veegum 2.20
Water 41.80
Mild Abrasive 15.00

Heat (a) and stir until uniform. (Heat No.3. on a water-bath.) Heat the triethanolamine and add it to (a) slowly. Then add the naphtha slowly with stirring. Add the Veegum to the water slowly, continuously agitating until smooth. Add this liquid gel to the mixture and then add the abrasive slowly with mixing.

No. 4

Indusoil (Tall Oil) 40
Carnauba Wax 44
Beeswax 20
Ceresin 20
Naphtha 370
Triethanolamine 13
Water 370
Bentonite 123

No. 5

Mineral Oil 35.0
Naphtha 5.0
Stearic Acid 3.6
Ethylethanolamines 1.4
Water 55.0

Mix together the mineral oil, naphtha and stearic acid and heat to 122°F. Mix the water and amine until a clear solution is formed. Add the oil-naphtha-stearic acid solution to the water and amine. Stir during the addition and continue stirring until cool.

This polish should be shaken before use.

Automobile Polish and Cleaner

Water 194.00 gal.
Isoproply Alcohol 7.00 gal.
Tum Tragacanth 3.50 lb.
Glycerin 100.00 lb.
40% Formaldehyde 10.00 lb.
Neutral Paraffin Oil 27.00 gal.
Petroleum Spirits 17.00 gal.
Pale Blown Castor Oil 3.00 gal.
Snow Floss 240.00 lb.
Color (Green MX Concentrated Crystals) 0.04 gr.
Water 1.00 gal.

Place the water in a mixing tank. Mix the gum tragacanth with the isopropyl alcohol, then add to the water in the tank and start the mixer. Then add the glycerin and formaldehyde. Mix for several minutes. In a separate tank, mix the paraffin oil, petroleum spirits and the pale blown castor oil and pour the mixture into the mixing tank. Then add the snow floss. In a bucket, dissolve the color in water and pour into the mixing tank.

Automobile Finish Haze Remover

Kerosene 68 gal.
Paraffin Oil 4 gal.
Dark Red Oil 9 gal.
Xylol 5 gal.
Bentonite 73 lb.
Air-Float Cream Tripoli 250 lb.
Aqua Ammonia (26° Be') 3 gal.
Water 140 gal.
Isopropyl Alcoh ol6 gal.,

Mix the kerosene, dark red oil, paraffin oil and xylol while adding the bentonite. Then add the air-float cream tripoli, mixing thoroughly. Then pour in the water very slowly with constant mixing. When the mixture is a smooth pasty mass, the water may be added faster. Add the aqua ammonia. Mix for 5 minutes, then add the isopropyl alcohol. Mix for 2 minutes.

Take a sample and let it stand overnight. It should show only slight separation at the top which should go into solution. There should be no pigment separation at the bottom.

Automobile Hand-Rubbing Compound

Kerosene 16.00 gal.
Light Mineral Oil 7.25 gal.
Steam-Distilled Pine Oil 2.75 gal.
Dark Red Oil 23.00 lb.
Seneca D.G. Rose Tripoli 300.00 lb.
Water 20.00 gal.
Sodium Hydroxide (50%) 7.00 lb.

Put the tripoli in a bread-mixing machine. Then the kerosene, light mineral oil, pine oil and red oil into a separate pail. Start the mixer and add the oil mix to the tripoli in the bread mixing machine very slowly. It should take at least 1 hour for the sodium hydroxide solution to drop out.

If the compound is not heavy enough, a little red oil or caustic soda will easily adjust it. Red oil should be tried first.

Stone and Porcelain Polish

(German)

Finely powdered Quartz 92
Soda Ash 5
Ammonium Chloride 3

Glass "Wax" Polish

Formula No. 1

Grit-Free Volclay 4.25
Water 80.75
Diethylene Glycol 10.00
Dicalite 911 or Super Floss 5.00
Brilliant Scarlet (Dye) To suit

No. 2

Bentonite 20
Isopropyl Alcohol 40
Carbon Tetrachloride 15
Naphtha 10
Propylene Glycol Monooleate 15
Water 100

Optical-Glass Polish

Refined Mineral Oil 2
Powdered Starch 1
Water 20

Rough Diamond-Polish Substitute

Coarse Boron Carbide 90
Fine Diamond Powder 10

This has the same polishing efficiency as pure coarse diamond powder.

Lapping Compound

Silica (325 Mesh) 16.5
Water 80.0
Soap Flakes 2.5
Sodium Silicate ("S" Special) 1.0

Stove Polishing Stick

Flake Graphite 12Lampblack 1Crude Scale Wax (M.P. 127°F.) 87

Melt the wax and add the graphite and lampblack, cool the mixture to 100°F. and cast in molds. Use hot stove, apply the stick to the stove and polish with cloth.

Gold Polish

Yellow Carnauba Wax 9.5
Triple-Pressed Stearic Acid 9.5
Superfine Red Rouge 0.6
Alundum (38×600x) 80.4
Melt the mix and cast into bars.

Silver Polish

Formula No. 1

(a) Dicalite 911 15
Soda Ash 1
Veegum 1
Water 83

Mix (a) together. Add the velum to the water slowly, continuously agitating until smooth Add this liquid gel to (a). Heat until uniform. Mix mechanically until cool.

No. 2

Water 27½ gal.
Light Soda Ash 3 lb
Ammonida (26° Be') 3 lb.
Oxalic Acid 6 lb.
Ivory Soap Flakes 30 lb.
Snow Floss 72 lb.
Glycerin 9 lb.
Methyl parasept 3/16 lb.
Sassafrass Oil 5/8 lb.
F.D. & C. Red No.5 4/100 lb.

Heat 25 gal. of the water to almost the boiling point Then add the soap flakes and the methyl parasept and mix until dissolved. In the meantime, in a good sized bucket put in the remaining 2½ gal. water and dissolve the oxalic acid, heating if necessary. Add the ammonia and light soda ash, slowly since a high effervescence will occur due to the liberation of carbon dioxide. Test for pH; if 7or higher, add this to the soap solution. Now add the Snow Floss slowly, mixing until all the lumps are smoothened. The addition of glycerin will help. Finally, add the perfume and color dissolved in 1 pt water.

General Metal Polish

Formula No. 1

(a) Oxalic Acid 13.0 lb
Water 40.0 gal.
Ammonia (26°B'e.) 12.0 lb.

Dissolve the acid in the water. Heat not over 180°F. Then add the ammonia, stirring until well mixed.

(b) Indusoil (Tall Oil) 13.0 lb.
Caustic Soda 1.5 lb.
Water 5.0 gal.
Denatured Alcohol 25.0 lb.
Ammonia (26° Be') 10.0 lb.

Dissolve the caustic soda in the water and add the Indusoil. Stir well and add this to the alcohol. Finally, add the ammonia. Pour (a) into (b) with continuous stirring and add simultaneously 100 to 200 lb. of a suitable abrasive.

No. 2

Indusoil (Tall Oil) 135
Diglycol Laurate 45
Petroleum 135
Alcohol 45
Ammonia (9.9%) 110
Kieselguhr 275
Water (60°C) 255

The Indusoil, diglycol laurate, petroleum and alcohol are stirred and the ammonia added. To the emulsion formed, the kieselguhr and then water are added with stirring.

No. 3

Indusoil (Tall Oil) 160
Mineral Oil 160
Alcohol 400
Ammonia (9.9%) 80
Whiting 200

The ammonia is added to the mixture of oils and alcohol with stirring and then the whiting is slowly admixed.

No. 4

V.M. & P. Naphtha 52.00
Oleic Acid 5.00
FFXX Silica 25.00
Indian Red Oxide 0.25
Aqua Ammonia (26° Be') 3.00

No. 5

E.W. B. No. 57 Silica 30.0
r]Pine Oil 5.0
Red Oil 5.0
Caustic Soda (97%) 0.7
Water 61.3

No. 6

The addition of a wetting agent, e.g. Sulfatate B or Nacconol NRSF ( 3 to 5%) to liquid metal polishes gives more intimate contact between the abrasive and metal and reduces hand labor.

Brass Polish

Powdered Pumice 500 g.
Oxalic Acid 500 g.
Wetting Agent (Goremul A) 10 cc.
Water To make 4,000 cc.

Brass and Bronze Cleaner and Polish

Carnauba Wax 8
Tallow 8
Silex FFXX 53
Kerosene 29
Ammonia 2
Color and Perfume To suit

The wax and tallow are melted and the Silex is admixed. The heat is cut off and the kerosene added and mixed until uniform. The color, perfume, and ammonia are then added as cooling takes place.

Brass, Nickel, and Chrome Polish

Water 10 lb.
Pine Oil 2 lb.
Sodium Oleate 2 lb.
Pulverized Silica (300-Mesh) 5 lb
Concentrated Ammonia 4 oz.

Heat the water to about 80°C. and add the sodium oleate with constant stirring, then the pine oil and silica. Let cool to room temperature (20°C) and add the ammonia with more stirring. This will form a cream emulsion which should not settle out.

Brass-Buffing Soil Cleaner

(Nontarnishing)

Water 1 gal.
Sodium Fish Oil Soap 6-8 oz.
Ammonium Carbonate 0.1 oz.

Use at 160 to 200°F., preferably agitating the work. Immerse first in Stoddard solvent to shorten time of treatment.

Tripoli-Buffing Composition for Brass

Stearic Acid 20
Petrolatum 13
Duponol WS 2
Once-Ground Tripoli 65

Tripoli Cut-and-Color Composition for Brass

Stearic Acid 28
Tallow Stearine 2
Duponol WS 2
Double-Ground Tripoli 68

White-Lime Cut-and-Color Composition for Brass

Stearic Acid 25
Vienna Lime 75

Red Oxide Color Composition for Brass

Stearic Acid 18
Duponol WS 2
Red Iron Oxide 80

Metal-Buffing Compound

Add 3 to 5% Nacconol NR to the buffing composition to facilitate its removal in subsequent cleaning operations.

POLISHES

Silver Polish

Formula No. 1

Diatomaceous Earth (200 Mesh) 20
99% Isopropanol 120
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 50
"Carbowax" 4000 12
Water 95

No. 2

Diatomaceous Earth (200 Mesh) 20
99% Isopropanol 120
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 50
40% Formaldehyde 10
Citric Acid 6
"Carbowax" 4000 12
Water 92

No. 3

Diatomaceous Earth (200 Mesh) 15
Precipitated Chalk 5
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 70
Carbon Tetrachloride 120
"Carbowax" 4000 10

No. 4

Diatomaceous Earth (200 Mesh) 20
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone ("Hexone") 70
Carbon Tetrachloride 120
"Carbowax" 6000 8

No. 5

Diatomaceous Earth (200 Mesh) 20
Methyl Ethyl Ketone 70
Perchlorethylene 30
Carbon Tetrachloride 90
"Carbowax" 6000 8

Metal Polish

Formula No. 1

Pine Oil 6 fl. oz.
Oleic Acid 6 fl. oz.
Caustic Soda Solution (1 lb./gal. NaOH) 6 fl.oz
Pulverized Silica (300 Mesh) 1½ lb.
Ammonium Hydroxide 2 fl.oz.
Water To make 1 gal.

No. 2

Polyethylene Glycol 1500 35
"Tergitol" Dispersant NPX 3
Citric Acid 5
Sodium Chloride 5
Bentonite 8
"Multi Cell" 000 19
Water 25

No. 3

Polyethylene Glycol 1500 50
"Tergitol" Dispersant NPX 3
Bentonite 9
"Multi Cell" 000 21
Water 29

Stir the polyethylene glycol, water, and "Tergitol" until a clear solution is obtained. For formula 1, add the citric acid and sodium chloride and stir until dissolved. Then, for all three formulae, add the "Multi Cell" and the bentonite and stir until a smooth paste is obtained.

Rust-Preventing Metal Polish

Petroleum Spirits (B.P. 90-120°C.) 79
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 140-145°F) 10
Paraffin Wax (M.P.180-185°F) 7
Petroleum Sultanate 1
Aluminum Stearate 1

Electro polishing Nickel-Chrome and Plain-Chrome Stainless Steel

Polyethylene Glycol 600 40
85% o-Phosphoric Acid 100
Water 15

The polyethylene glycol inhibits the solution so that it attacks only the peaks of the microscopically jagged surface, leaving the low points untouched. This leveling action results in smoothness and brightness. The three liquids in this solution are miscible at any temperature. The solution itself requires only a low voltage, is non hazardous and nearly odorless, and does not form any sludge. In addition, it has good throwing power and good deburring action. It produces a highly passive surface and gives a bright luster to both nickel-chrome and plain-chrome steels.

Chemical Nickel Polish

% by volume
Glacial Acetic Acid 60-70
Nitric Acid 40-30
Hydrochloric Acid ½

Clean the nickel and treat with this solution.

Glass and Metal Polish

Very Fine Grade Diatomaceous Silica 6
Bentonite 2
Isopropyl Alcohol 15
Ammonia 2
Emulsifying Agent 2
Water 73

Metal-Buffing Composition

Formula No. 1

Abrasive Grit 60
Water 80
Glue 1
Diglycol Stearate 2

Heat the water, glue, and stearate and mix until uniform. Mix in the grit and stir until cool. Apply this to the metal instead of to the buffing wheel.

No. 2

a. Stearic Acid 200
Triethanolamine 100
Water 1500
b. Carborundum (300 Mesh) 2000
Chromic Oxide 50

Heat a and mix until uniform; cool to room temperature and mix in b. This gives better and faster polishing, long wheel life, and lower costs than solid buffers.

No. 3

Aluminum Oxide 75
Azelaic Acid 16
Polyethylene Glycol 4000 9

Electric-Shaver Sharpening Paste

Polyethylene Glycol (M.W.1500) 16-63
Polyethylene Glycol (M.W. 300) 20-33
Levigated Aluminum Oxide 16-50

Glass-Grinding Fluid

Camphor 62
Turpentine 90
Ether 45
Use with powdered emery.
Keep away from flame or sparks.

Abrasive Diamond Paste

Diamond powder, compounded in an oily medium in the form of a paste for lapping and polishing, is becoming increasingly important in many industrial applications. It is an economical diamond-powder application, specially where good adhesion to the grain is required, such as when fast rotating laps are employed. In addition, as a paste, the abrasive is easier to handle and store than loose diamond powder or powder that has been mixed with a light oily substance, such as olive oil.

The value of such a paste is apparent for two main reasons. First, the work can be cleaned readily and thoroughly by application of water for occasional inspection during and on completion of the lapping, polishing, or cutting operations. Second, the salvage of the used diamond powder is greatly simplified since, on addiing water to the paste, the diamond powder together with the abraded metallic particles will settle.

The following properties were found to be desirable for the paste:

  • Solubility or dispersibility in water.
  • No tendency to dry out, "roll up," or to become so viscous as to be unworkable after a prolonged period of working.
  • Good adhesion to the work-piece.
  • The abrasive should be held in suspension and show no signs of settling.
  • The paste should be colorless or white, so that it can be colored to correspond with designated various micron sizes of the diamond.

Diglycol sterate S, polyethylene glycol 400 monostearate, and "PEG" 42 have been found satisfactory as such carriers when dispersed in ethylene or propylene glycols to give a consistency similar to that of low-melting petrolatum; 25 to 28% diglycol stearate S and 50 to 55% "PEG" 42, or polyethylene glycol 400 monostearate in ethylene glycol give a suitable consistency. The dispersion is made by dissolving the ester in hot glycol at a temperature above the melting point of the ester, with thorough stirring while the dispersion is cool, until a smooth, creamy paste results. Water is unsatisfactory as a dispersing medium.

The powdered diamond itself can be readily and uniformly dispersed in these pastes by efficient mechanical mixing. An alternative procedure would be the melting of the paste followed by the addition of the correct amount of the diamond-paste abrasive. The entire mixture may then be cooled to room temperature, with thorough stirring.

Since the pastes are white, they can be dyed easily so that the micron size of the diamond-powder abrasive suspended in the paste may be designated by a specific color. The dye may be introduced into the paste by melting it and adding a small amount of the dye with subsequent thorough stirring and cooling to obtain an evenly colored product. It has been found that oil-soluble dyes dissolve readily in these pastes and if the paste is dissolved in water, the dye also dissolves in it.

Silicone Furniture Polish

Silicon Oil 2.2
Oxidized Micro-Crystalline Wax 3.6
Mineral Sprits 94.2

Silicone Auto Polish

Formula No. 1

a. Dimethyl Polysiloxane (350 cp.) 4
Petroleum Solvent (B.P.150-193°C.) 19
Kerosene 2
Morpholine Oleate 4
Water 16
b. Diatomaceous Earth 14
Water 41

Emulsify a by mixing and passing through a colloid mill. Then add a suspension of b and mix well.

No. 2

Silicone ("DC"-200, 300-500 cp.) 2.0
Kerosene or Mineral Spirits 8.0
"Armac" 18D 0.5
Water 89.5

Mix and heat the silicone, kerosene, and "Armac" thoroughly to dissolve the "Armac." Add the water slowly, with constant agitation, and run the emulsion thus formed through a homogenizer to obtain finer particle size and to improve stability. This formulation yields an economical auto polish which cleans the surface as it is applied and dries to a glossy silicone film.

Silicone Cleaner Polish

SiliconePoil 2.0
Oxidized Micro-crystalline Wax 1.0
Oleic Acid 2.0
Mineral Spirits 36.6
Morpholine 0.9
Diatomaceous Silica 9.8
Air-Floated Clay 2.4
Water 44.7

Heat first four items to 140°F. and mix. Slurry last four items and heat to 140°F. Add former solution to slurry slowly with high-speed agitation.

Silicone-Wax Polish

Formula No. 1

Beeswax 0.9
Microcrystalline Wax 1.5
Magnesium Oxide 1.5
"Polysiloxane" 3.0
Aluminum Stearate 1.2
Naphtha 91.9

No. 2

"Canawax" 10
L-41 Silicone Oil (500 centistokes) 12
Oleic Acid 12
Naphthol Mineral Spirits 225
Morpholine 5½
Diatomaceous Silica 60
Air-Floated Clay 15
Water 275

The clay and silica are first added to the water containing the Morpholine and thoroughly agitated until a thin slurry is obtained and heated to 60°C. The silicone oil, "Canawax," oleic acid, and 10 to 20% of the solvent are heated to 90°C. and mixed until all the wax has been dissolved. The remaining solvent is heated to 40°C. or above and added to the hot wax solution. Any procedure can be used that will bring the wax into solution at a final temperature near 60°C. This mixture is then added slowly to the water slurry of silica and clay with rapid agitation. The emulsion forms easily. After all of the solvent solution has been added, agitation is continued, while the emulsion is cooled to room temperature. The product is then ready for packaging. An impeller-type mixer is used.

Furniture Polish

Formula No. 1

Rose Mineral Oil 70
Soya Fatty Acids 8
Light Blown Castor Oil 1½
"Glaurin" ¾
2-Amino 2-Methyl I-Proponol 36
Water 40

No. 2

Polyethylene Glycol 400 Monooleate 7.5
Diglycol Stearate 4.5
Light Mineral Oil 40.5
Vanillin 0.1
Water 47.4

Solvent-Type Paste Floor Polish

Beeswax 3
Sugar-Cane Wax 3
Carnauba Wax No. 3 3
Yellow "Superla" Wax 3
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 135-137°F.) 10

This represents the 28% of solids to be added to 72% of mineral spirits.

Solvent-Type Paste Wax Polishes

Formula No. 1

Beeswax 2
Sugar-Cane Wax 4
Carnauba Wax No. 3 4
Plastic Microcrystalline Wax (M.P. 165°F.) 3
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 131-133°F) 10
Commercial Mineral Spirits 87

No. 2

Beeswax 3
Sugar-Cane Wax 3
Carnauba Wax No. 3 3
Plastic Microcrystalline Wax (M.P. 165°F) 3
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 131-133°F.) 10
Commercial Mineral Sprits 49

In preparing paste wax, using these formulae, it is suggested that the temperature of the wax base is held at approximately 165°F. and about one fifth of the naphtha at 135°F. is mixed with the wax. The remainder of the naphtha should be at about 90°F. The wax-naphtha mixture should be poured into final containers at as low as 110°F. Formula 2 should be poured near 120°F. In order to obtain the best results with each formulation, the temperatures of the two portions of naphtha should be adjusted to provide a consistency for immediate pouring which will cause a solid wax film to form on the surface about 6 minutes after the pouring.

Liquid-Type Wax Polishes

Formula No. 1

Sugar-Cane Wax 4
"Cardis" 319 3
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 131-133°F.) 3
Commercial Mineral Spirits 65

No. 2

Sugar-Cane Wax 4
"Cardis" 319 2
Paraffin Wax (M.P. 131-133°F.) 2
Plastic Microcrystalline Wax (M.P. 165°F.) 2
Commercial Mineral Spirits 65

Floor-Polish Paste

"Estawax" 10 Paraffin Wax (138°F. AMP) 10 Stoddard Solvent 80 Heat the solvent to 180°F. and add the molten waxes. Stir until a clear solution is obtained. Cool the solution to 160°F. and pour into containers.

Buffing Paste Polish

Sugar-Cane ("Duplicane") Wax 501 14
Stearic Acid 2
Brown or White "Warco" 180 4
Naphthol Mineral Spirits
(Special Light Naphtha) 80

Oil Polish

Formula No. 1

Light Mineral Oil 48.0
50% Sulfonated Castor Oil 16.0
Oleic Acid 6.6
Monoethanolamine 0.5
Water 60.0

No. 2

Light Mineral Oil 48.0
50% Sulfonated Castor Oil 16.0
Oleic Acid 6.6
Morpholine 0.6
Water 60.0

No. 3

Light Mineral Oil 40.0
Boiled Linseed Oil 8.0
Oleic Acid 4.0
Morpholine 1.0
Water 60.0

Dissolve the oleic acid in the oils and stir in the amine. Stir for about 5 minutes. If the mixture is not clear, add oleic acid, a little at a time, until clarity is attained. Add the oil solution to the water, with vigorous stirring, to form a creamy, stable emulsion.

The clear oil solution can be marketed with directions to mix it with an equal amount of water before use, pointing out that it can be stored as an oil to be mixed with water when desired. The addition of 0.07 to 1.00 parts by weight of a 10% aqueous solution of "Cellosize" hydroxyethyl cellulose WSLH to these emulsions assures stability over a longer period of time.

When these polishes are to be used on automobile or other lacquered surfaces, a small amount of a fine abrasive is frequently added as an ingredient that cleans by friction.

Paste Shoe Polish

Formula No. 1

"Estawax" No. 25 12
Paraffin Wax (138°F. AMP) 13
Stoddard Solvent 70
Turpentine 5
Optional

Oil-Soluble Dye heat the solvent to 180°F. and add the molten waxes. Stir until a clear solution is obtained. If a dye is used, add it while stirring. Cool to 160°F. and pour into containers.

No. 2

Carnauba Wax 14
Paraffin Wax 10
Turpentine 38
Petroleum Thinner 38

The waxes are dissolved in the solvents at 170°F. The blend is then cooled to 140°F. and poured.

Liquid White-Shoe Dressing

"Titanox" AWD 15.00
Glue 5.0
Bentonite 1.5
Soap 0.50
Preservative 0.25
Water 77.75

Disperse the pigment and bentonite in one half of the water. Dissolve the soap, glue, and preservative in the remainder of the water, hot. Add this solution to the pigment slurry and mix thoroughly.

MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES

The designations microcrystalline and amorphous waxes were long used synonymously, although the first is more accurate. These waxes differ from refined paraffin wax in the size and structure of crystals, and in that they are tougher, more flexible, and have a higher tensile strength and melting point. They are also more adhesive and less lustrous and greasy. They bind solvents, oils, etc., much better than paraffin wax does and thus prevent their sweating-out.

It should be noted in general that:

  1. High penetration value and/or high refractive index indicate flexibility.
  2. Waxes of high penetration value generally have more tack."
  3. Flexibility is not a function of melting point.
  4. Oil content influences flexibility only to a limited degree.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICROCRYSTALLINE AND PARAFFIN WAXES

Both paraffin and microcrystalline waxes are separated from crude petroleum, but the process of manufacture and the resulting products are quite different.

As crude petroleum is subjected to distillation by heating in a still at atmospheric pressure, the following products are removed in the order of their increasing boiling points: light petroleum gases, gasoline, naphtha, kerosene, gas oil, paraffin wax distillate, light neutral lubricating-oil fractions, and a residue in the still that will not distill overhead at atmospheric pressure without decomposition. Paraffin wax is separated from the paraffin-wax distillate by a relatively simple process, while the microcrystalline wax, which cannot be distilled without decomposition, is separated by a complex series of solvent separations from the residue remaining in the still.

Paraffin wax, which has very little affinity for oil, is separated from the paraffin-wax distillate by cooling and filtering in a common plate-and- frame filter press where the wax is retained on canvas filter leaves and the distillate oil passes through the canvas and is removed. Oil remaining in the wax filter cake is removed by a sweating process which involves casting the wax in thin sheets and gradually raising the temperature to a point slightly below the melting point of the wax. In this process, the remaining oil runs out of the wax sheet leaving a paraffin wax, which usually contains less than 0.5% oil.

Microcrystalline wax is present in the residual fraction from the still along with heavy residual lubricating oil and asphalt. Asphalt must be removed from the residue by conventional sulfuric acid treatment or one of the newer selective solvent processes before the wax can be separated. The microcrystalline wax is then removed as crude petrolatum from the residual lubricating oil by any one of several dewaxing processes, which involve dilution with an organic solvent, chilling at 20-40°F., and separation of the crude petrolatum at high-speed centrifuges. Microcrystalline wax has a great affinity for oil and thus the crude petrolatum still contains 40-70% oil. Therefore, it is then mixed with another portion of organic solvent, usually a different solvent from the one used in the initial dewaxing step, and heated to dissolve the wax and oil. The blend is then cooled to precipitate the wax, which is separated from the oil and solvent on a filter. The solvent used for deoiling microcrystalline wax must be polar, whereas for deoiling paraffin wax other types of solvent may also be used. Since the microcrystalline wax holds oil very strongly, the last solvent step is usually repeated to give a wax with lower oil content.

The oil content of the microcrystalline waxes varies with the grade of wax but is usually 2-12% as contrasted with 0.5% in paraffin wax. Chemically, both paraffin and microcrystalline waxes consist of saturated hydrocarbon.

Paraffin and microcrystalline waxes are both long-chain compounds but microcrystalline waxes have much higher molecular weights. The common commercial paraffin waxes have molecular weights of 360-420, which means that the average molecule in these hydrocarbons contains 26-30 carbon atoms. The molecular weight of high-melting point paraffins may run as high as 600. The molecular weight of commercial microcrystalline waxes is 580-700, that is, the average molecule contains 41-50 carbon atoms. This molecular weight difference accounts for the fact that the paraffin waxes can be distilled at atmospheric pressure while the microcrystalline waxes decompose when distillation is attempted.

Extensive X-ray diffraction work has indicated differences in the chemical structure of the paraffin and microcrystalline wax molecules in addition to their molecular weight. Paraffin waxes have been found to consist mainly of straight chain molecules.

In some paraffin waxes a very small quantity of aromatic hydrocarbons may also be present. The microcrystalline waxes contain some straight-chain molecules, but a large proportion of branched-chain molecules. The branched chains in the microcrystalline waxes are probably located at random along the carbon chain while in paraffin wax; they are near the end of the chain. There are indications that microcrystalline wax also contains a much higher concentration of ring-type compounds than paraffin wax.

Microscopic examination of paraffin and microcrystalline wax shows a striking difference. Paraffin wax has large, well-formed crystals both when crystallized from the melted wax and from solvents. Microcrystalline wax forms small irregular crystals from the melted wax, but no well-formed crystals of any size from solvents.

It can be seen that in the highest-boiling fraction, the malcrystalline and needle types are present in a greater total amount than the plate type. These waxes yield a much lower melting point for a given boiling point. For this reason, they are usually almost completely lost in paraffin refining.

These types represent Buchler and Graves' "soft wax" and they also constitute the bulk of microcrystalline or amorphous waxes obtained from higher-boiling distillate and residues.

FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF PETROLEUM WAXES

A new method of fractionating waxes, called zone precipitation, separates crystalline from non-crystalline petroleum waxes through differences in solubility when a solution of the waxes is cooled.

The following tables indicate the possibilities of this method. The wax used was a microcrystalline wax (m.p. 175°F) from a North Louisiana crude.

The direction of motion of the dissolved waxes was characteristics. Components of low melting point and high solubility moved towards the hot zone; those of high melting point and low solubility moved in the opposite direction.

Figure 1 shows that fractionation, as measured by?T, improved as liquid viscosity in the molten zone is decreased.

Fractionation also improved with an increasing number of zone passes, and when the ratio of solvent to wax was increased from 1:1 to 3:1; but further increase to 6:1 did not produce further improvement. The increase to 3:1, however caused a decrease in viscosity in the molten zone. Results in zone precipitation are better with poor solvents.

PROPERTIES OF MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES

Melting Point

The melting point of commercial paraffin waxes is, in general, much lower than that of microcrystalline waxes. Paraffin waxes usually melt at 126 - 134°F, and microcrystalline waxes at 145 - 195°F. The melting point, however, is not sufficient for distinguishing them because paraffin waxes melting up to 170°F are available, and microcrystalline waxes have been prepared with a melting point as low as 130°F.

Paraffin waxes are brittle but microcrystalline waxes are tough, resisting fracture. Most grades of microcrystalline wax are plastic and tend to flow under compression, whereas all grades of paraffin wax will shatter under compression.

Oil added to most grades of microcrystalline wax will increase its plasticity. Addition of oil to a paraffin wax will yield not a plastic product, but one with greatly reduced strength which tends to crumble when handled.

Paraffin wax is transparent; microcrystalline wax is opalescent. Various grades may be white, brown or black in color.

Films of paraffin and microcrystalline waxes of the same color and thickness transmit different amounts of light and thus films of paraffin wax appear more transparent than those of microcrystalline-wax films.

Paraffin wax forms a stronger gel in turpentine than does microcrystalline wax in the same ratio of melting point and solvent.

If a glass rod is dipped into a solution containing a precipitate of microcrystalline wax in mineral oil and is withdrawn, the solution will drain away, leaving only a think layer of oil on the rod. If the solution contains a precipitate of paraffin wax, crystals will remain on the rod, because the surface tension of the crystals of paraffin wax is less than that of the oil, whereas that of the microcrystalline-wax crystals is greater than that of the oil.

Paraffin wax contracts to a greater extent when passing from the liquid state to the solid state than do microcrystalline waxes. A test to differentiate between paraffin and microcrystalline waxes has been based on this behavior.

The Saybolt Universal viscosity at 210°F for microcrystalline waxes is usually 70 - 100 seconds; that of paraffin wax, 40 - 50 seconds.

The refractive index at 212°. for paraffin waxes is usually 1.430-1.433 and for microcrystalline waxes, 1,435-1445.

The tensile strength of paraffin wax of very low oil content, (0.1% or less) is high, but the addition of even 0.5-1% oil will greatly reduce the tensile strength (up to 50%). The reduction of tensile strength of microcrystalline wax with the same addition of oil will be about 5%. This phenomenon is due to the fact that oil weakens the structure of paraffin wax, but it is so readily absorbed by microcrystalline waxes that a more plastic product results which imparts plastic flow under tensile stress.

The extensibility is much greater with microcrystalline wax than with paraffin wax. Addition of oil will increase the extensibility of most microcrystalline waxes, but does not affect that of paraffin wax.

Cast in small rods, most microcrystalline waxes will bend without breaking at temperatures considerably below their melting point. Paraffin waxes cast in the same way usually break at or near their melting point.

Compatibility

Microcrystalline waxes are compatible in all proportions with other mineral waxes, most vegetable waxes, and resins. This property has made them valuable as agents for increasing melting point and hardness, and for decreasing blocking, tack, sweating, and other undesirable qualities in wax blends.

Laminating Properties of Microcrystalline Waxes

Adhesion Test

The adhesion test measures the force required to tear apart a test specimen prepared by laminating a square of unwaxed cellophane on either side of a square of waxed cellophane. An unlaminated edge of each of the outer cellophane squares is placed in a clamp on a machine similar to that used for measuring the strength of paper. One clamp is slowly drawn away from the other by a motor-driven screw until the squares have been separated. A lever attached to the stationary clamp moves along a scale and indicates the relative amount of force required to tear that laminated squares apart. The higher the adhesive strength of the wax, the higher is the test value obtained.

Bleed Test

In this test, a sample of the wax is melted, and five droplets (6-8 mm in diameter) are placed on a filter paper (Whatman No.1). When the droplets have solidified, the paper is placed in an oven at 130.F.for 24 hours. The average value (in millimeters) obtained by subtracting the diameter of each droplet from the diameter of the oil ring that surrounds it is recorded as the bleeding number. The less the tendency of the wax to bleed, the lower is the number obtained.

The adhesion and bleed properties of Multiwax ML 445° as compared to those of other microcrystalline waxes on the market are presented in Table 29.

Table 10 : ADHESION AND BLEEDING OF MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES

Wax ASTM M.P. ASTM Needle Penetration Adhesion at 77°F Bleed Test
Multiwax ML445 163 30 33 1
Wax A 175 12 1 0
Wax B 156 21 2 4
Wax C 155 24 6 5
Wax D 167 27 5 6
Wax E 164 34 43 4
Wax F 158 34 32 4
Wax G 157 36 35 5

The bleed values might indicate that low needle-penetration has been overstressed as a criterion of the suitability of a wax for laminating. It has been held that waxes with relatively high penetration have a greater tendency to strike through the laminating paper. These values do not support this theory.

It may be noted from the preceding table that some waxes have high adhesion at the expense of their bleed characteristics (Wax E, for example). Others have good bleed properties, but low adhesion (Wax A, for example). Obviously, the most suitable laminating wax would be one that has a combination of relatively high adhesion and relatively low bleed characteristics. Such a Combination which depends on the proper selection of raw materials and the manufacturing process is represented in Multiwax ML 445, a wax which is used in increasing quantities as a paper laminant.

Miscibility with Additives

In many applications of microcrystalline waxes, it is essential to know their miscibility with various resins and other additives. The solubilities of a number of products in Petrosene C (microcrystalline wax) were determined on a semiquantitative basis. Table :11 presents data indicating the solubility-temperature relationship for these mixtures. In all cases, 10% of additive was employed so that no attempt was made to determine the maximum solubility. It is expected that the solubility of any resin in paraffin wax will be greater than in Petrosene C and in other microcrystalline waxes it will be of the same order as in Petrosene C. Table : 11 is divided into two sections, one listing the additives soluble up to 10% in Petrosene C. at all temperatures above its melting point and the second listing those which are insoluble or only partially soluble.

Solubility

The solubility of microcrystalline waxes in solvents is a function of the solvent used, the temperature and the amount of wax in the solvent.

Table 11 : MISCIBILITY OF VARIOUS ADDITIVES WITH PETROSENE (MICROCRYSTALLINE WAX)

Percentages Used: Petrosene C-90%; Additive-10%.

Additives Completely Miscible above and at Melting Point

Product Product
1. Cumar Resin P-25 9. Chromium Oleate
2. Amberol-Grade ST-137 10. Diglycol Stearate
3. Opalwax 10 11. Lead Linoleate
4. No. 1 Singapore Damar Gum 12. Copper stearate
5. Batavia Damar A/D 13. Manganese Naphthenate
6. Santo-Resin 14. Manganese Resinate
7. Burgundy Pitch 16. Zinc Stearate
8. Calcium Stearate

Additives Insoluble or Partially Miscible

Product Limit of Miscibility,°F.
1. Cumar Resin V 1½ above 250
2. Cumar Resin P-70 above 240
3. Cumar Resin MH 1½ above 230
4. Amberol M-16 at least above 300
5. Amberol M-82 at least above 300
6. Resin XR9517 above 270
7. Resin BR 8900 above 230
8. Residuum Pitch at least above 300
9. Acacia Gum at least above 300
10. Gum Arabic at lest above 300
11. Gum Kauri at least above 300
12. Cobalt Linoleate at least above 300
13. Nuba No. 2 at least above 300
14. Nubalene Resin at least above 300
15. Nuba No. 3 at least above 300
16. Resin No. 465 at least above 300
17. Nuba No. 1 at least above 300
18. Cobalt Resinate at least above 300
19. Aluminum Oleate at least above 300
20. Aluminum Naphthenate at least above 300
21. Calcium Oleate at least above 300

Fig. 3 : Solubility of bareco waxes in commercial solvents

Fig. 4 : Retention of solvents by bareco waxes

The cloud point is a simple and accurate means of expressing the solubility of waxes in solvents. Above the temperature of the cloud point the wax is completely soluble, whereas at the cloud point and be low the cloudiness indicates at least partial insolubility.

To determine cloud points, the wax was weighed in the solid state and placed in a 250 ml flask. 100 ml of the solvent was then measured into the flask and the flask set up under a reflux condenser to eliminate any possible loss of solvent. Heat was then applied with the burner until the wax was all in solution. The solution was then allowed to cool gradually with constant, gentle swirling and the temperature was noted when the first cloud appeared in the solution. The temperature was taken on a thermometer inserted through the stopper in the flask and extending into the solution.

After the first temperature of cloud was noted the solution was reheated, again allowed to cool, and a second temperature was noted. This operation was repeated until three check readings were obtained. The higher the melting point of the wax, the lower its solubility in any given solvent.

Specific Gravity at Various Temperatures

When microcrystalline waxes solidity, they contract and their specific gravity changes, this has a bearing on their performance in many applications. In the impregnation of electrical or other equipment, for example, where voids are filled with molten wax, it is frequently essential to determine how much contraction will occur on solidification so that adjustments may be made to avoid loss in waterproofing value. In addition, it may be necessary to determine what volume a given quantity of solid wax will occupy when melted and heated to a definite temperature.

In order to obtain this information, representative samples of microcrystalline waxes were held at definite temperatures and their specific gravities measured. The data so obtained are given in Figure:5. Cerese Wax AA, Petrosene B, and Product 2305 were tested. These are the intermediate colored waxes in each of the three series. Since the other waxes differ from these only in color, their specific gravities may be considered comparable. Due to slight variations from batch to batch, other samples of any wax will probably show slightly different values from the figures noted. Based on the available data, however, these variations are not expected to exceed 0.005, except for samples of widely different melting points, in which case, the greatest divergence will be at temperatures near the melting point.

It is interesting to note that, in the solid state, Cerese Wax AA has the highest specific gravity, whereas in the molten state, it has the lowest. Petrosene B is intermediate between Petrolite C2305 and Cerese Wax AA.

Thermal Expansion and Melting Point of Waxes

Pure crystalline substances are very often identified by their melting point. Waxes, being complex mixtures, doe not exhibit sharp melting points, but there is a gradual transition from the liquid to the solid state. This gradual softening results in an abnormally high apparent coefficient of expansion while the wax is still in the solid state. This characteristic of waxes has a bearing on their performance in many applications. The curves in Figure 6 compare this effect for a crystalline paraffin, carnauba wax, and a commercial product, Petrolite 700. The breaking point in the curves may be interpreted as the liquefication temperature in each case.

Fig. 6 : Thermal expansion and melting point of waxes Viscosity

The viscosity of microcrystalline waxes, when melted, is greatly lowered by small additions of ordinary paraffin wax.

OXIDIZED MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES

Oxidized microcrystalline waxes are prepared from the residue on the bottom of the tanks in petroleum refining. This is extracted with methyl ethyl ketone, chilled, filtered, and refined. It is then oxidized in air in the presence of a catalyst, often cobalt or manganese soaps.

Estawax is an oxidized microcrystalline wax with properties as follows:

Estawax 20 Estawax 25
Color, NPA 3 Max. 3 Max.
Melting Point, °F (ASTM E 28-42T) 210-220 210-220
Penetration (100/5/77) 2 Max. 2 Max.
Viscosity, centipoises at 300°F 450-550 200-300

Uses: Phonograph-record component; paste and liquid polishes.

Cardis One is an oxidized microcrystalline wax with a hardness of 1-2 ASTM penetration).

It is easily emulsifiable and yields films of the highest gloss and wear resistance.

Its emulsions dry to highly scuff-resistant films.

It gives translucent and opaque emulsions of the highest quality. Other properties are:

Penetration (ASTM) 1-2
Color 4-5
Melting Point 195-200 F
Acid Number 13-15
Saponification Number 55-60

Mycrox-Wax 114 is an oxidized microcrystalline wax, used as a substitute for beeswax which it resembles in plasticity and emulsifiability. Its properties are as follows:

Setting Point 69°C
Penetration I.P.T. 16-18
Acid Value 20-21
Sap. Value 66-65
Iodine value 4-6
Color Almost White
Foreign Matter 0

Emulsifiable Microcrystalline Waxes

Emulsifiable waxes result from the oxidation of high-molecular-weight microcrystalline waxes. This oxidation forms esters and fatty acids, which impart saponifiability. The emulsifiable waxes are widely used in the manufacture of polishes. They are also used to reduce substantially the amount of vegetable waxes. In many cases they have displaced vegetable wax entirely.

PETROLATUM WAX

Petrolatum wax (mineral jelly) consists of a natural mixture of microcrystalline wax plus 10% of mineral oil, Freed from most of its liquid and semi-liquid hydrocarbons, petrolatum yields an amorphous, white, translucent, plastic wax. It is commercially available under many names. Its plastic and noncrystalline properties make it very useful. It also has good oil-holding capacity and prevents leakage or sweating out of oils. Thus, it can replace ceresin and ozokerite, where their low melting point is not undesirable.

Table 12 : PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL PETROLATUM

Brand of Petrolatum White Fybrene Olive Fybrene
Specific Gravity at 60.F 0.896-0.899 0.896-0.899
API Gravity 26.0-26.5 26.0-26.5
ASTM Melting Point, F 128-133 130.-135
ASTM Consistency (Method D-217) 50-85 30-50
ASTM Consistency (Method D-5) 150-300 75-200
Flash Point, F 460-470 460-470
Fire Point F 520 520
Saybolt Vis. At 210 F 50-55 50-55
Color white Olive Green
Ash. % 0.03 0.03
Saponification Number 0.3 0.3

Raising the Melting Point of Petrolatum

The maximum increase in melting point of petrolatum is usually obtained by adding 3-5%, of a variety of waxes. As 5% white beeswax increases the melting point 2°, 10% increases it 5°, and 20% increase it 9°. Obviously, the optimum amount is somewhere between 10 and 20% beeswax.

An addition of 5% yellow beeswax increases the melting point 2°, 10% increases it 10°and 20% increases it 17°. That is, yellow beeswax is better than white beeswax for increasing the melting point of petrolatum.

Table 13 : MELTING POINTS OF MIXURES; WHITE PETROLATUM AND BEESWAX

Petrolatum,% Beeswax,% M.P. White °F with Yellow
97 3 110 112
95 5 112 114
90 10 115 122
80 20 119 129
100 0 124 142

USES OF MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES

Microcrystalline waxes are used for the laminating of paper, cloth, etc.; for water proofing of papers, boxboard, textiles, wood, etc.; potting compounds for condensers; electric wire insulation; binder for pipe coverings; finishes for leather; polishes for floors, furniture, skis, leather; rust prevention; compounding of rubber; pattern making (sheets and fillets); cosmetics, printing inks, lubricants, records.

They are steadily increasing in value and application in the packaging industry.

Some specialized uses are:

Drum Linings

Microcrystalline waxes are widely used for lining drums. The application of the wax is quite simple. The drum is heated to a temperature that will give the thickness desired. Heated, molten wax is poured into the bung, the opening is closed, and the drum is rolled in such a way as to bring the molten wax into contact with the entire inner surface. The excess is then poured out or removed by other means. Any desired thickness of film can be evenly distributed over the inner surface, with considerable reinforcement at the corners. The quantity required will vary from 0.5 to 3 or 4 lb, depending on the desired thickness. Adhesion will be excellent with the proper wax, if the interior of the drum is absolutely dry.

Vat Linings

Wood or steel vats can be lined with wax in a number of ways. The surface to be coated must be absolutely dry and preferably warm. The wax may then be applied by trowelling (hot, plastic), flushing, mopping, or spraying. In the case of mopping or trowelling, it is good precaution to apply a preliminary thin spray coat and then the second coat while the surface is still warm enough to insure good adhesion.

Table 14 : Wax quantities for vat linings

Diameter and Height. Ft Volumes gal coatings Thickness, in. Quantity of Wax. Lb.
5 X 5 785 0.25 119
5 X 10 1,469 0.25 214
10 X 5 2,937 0.25 285
10 X 10 5,875 0.25 475
10 X 20 11,750 0.25 855
20 X 10 23,501 0.25 1,140
20 X 20 47,002 0.25 1,900

These are approximate figures, but they will serve as guides and multipliers. They are for vertical tanks, with only the bottoms and vertical sides waxed.

Several testing methods are required for exploring commercial applications and many of the methods must yet be standardized. The properties of five additional commercial waxes without the addition of oil, are shown in Table 6. They may be of assistance to commercial users of wax and may help in the formulating of specifications and testing methods.

Table 15 : PROPERTIES OF COMMERCIAL MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES By special testing methods

Type of Wax A B C D E
Color Amber Brown Yellow White Brown
Melting point, °F 156.0 156.0 162.0 163.0 158.0
Penetration, 0.01 cm 40.0 37.0 31.0 25.0 29.0
Contraction, % 10.3 10.7 11.0 11.4 10.0
Plastic Point, °F 13.0 20.0 48.0 55.0 15.0
Tensile Strength, lb/sq, in 78.0 80.0 100.0 116.0 140.0
Compressive Strength, lb/sq. in. 78.0 84.0 102.0 120.0 140.0
Ductility, cm 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.8
Flexibility, number of bends 164.0 168.0 160.0 150.0 200.0

MISCELLANEOUS DATA

Blocking, hardness, and tensile strength of microcrystalline waxes are adversely affected by increased content of branched-chain paraffins. Sealing strength and flexibility are improved by increased content of cyclic and branched paraffins.

Small amounts of Paraflow inhibit excessive growth of crystal, and change the shape from the needle type to small equiaxial grains of uniform size.

Microcrystalline waxes mixed with 5-10 percent polypropylene at 140°C give products of tensile strength and better flexibility and adhesion.

Sealing strength is improved and brittle point is lowered in microcrystalline wax by addition of 2-8.5% of hydrogenated phenanthrenes and chrysenes.

PROPERTIES OF SOME COMMERCIAL

MICROCRYSTALLINE WAXES

AMSCO Waxes

Microcrystalline Properties

Melting Point, (ASTM D-127-49) 155 164 170 175
Color NPA (ASTM D-1500-57) 2 2 2 2
Viscosity, SUS @ 210°F 63.2 98.0 93.7 90.4
Penetration, Std. Needle @ 77°F (ASTM D-1321-57T) 21 41 21 13
Stain Test (KVP) °F 135 122 above 140 above 140
Oil Content % (ASTM D-721-56T) .80 1.36 0.24 0.12
Bareco Bend Test °F +32 +21 +43 +55

Aristowaxes

Type of Wax 130/134 143/150 NC 143/150 165 MB Canco 134
American Melting Point
(ASTM D-87 +3° F) 132 146 148 - - -
Congealing Point,
ASTM D-938, °F 129 143 145 163 152 131
Oil Content, ASTM D-721
% by weight 0.2 0.15 0.04 0.2 0.2 0.3
Saybolt Color, ASTM D-156 +28 +28 +28 +28 +18 +23
Kinematic Viscosity, ASTM
D-445,Centistokes at 210°F 3.7 5.4 4.8 7.3 6.3 3.9
Saybolt Universal Viscosity,
ASTM D-446 SSU at 150° F 48.5 63.2 56.3 - - 50.0
SSU at 175 °F 43.0 52.2 48.4 62.0 57.5 44.0
SSU at 210 °F 38.5 44.0 42.0 50.0 47.0 39.1
SSU at 250 °F 35.4 39.1 37.9 43.0 40.8 35.9
Needle Penetration, ASTM D1321
Mm x 10 at 77 °F 12 12 10 12 13 13
Mm x 10 at 90° F 25 25 14 14 20 24
Mm x 10 at 100° F 75 29 25 18 35 59
Mm x 10 at 110 °F - 50 55 26 58 -
Brinell Hardness Number
UTM 197, Kg/cm2: at 60 °F 80 75 95 80 65 75
Kg./cm2.At 100°F soft 14 30 29 9 soft
Cylinder Penetration, UTM
203, in./min. x 104. at 100 °F soft 10 0.5 - 30 -
blocking Temperature, ASTM
D-1465 °F 97 116 119 135 116 101
Modulus of Rupture, ASTM
1958 App Vi, psi at 32 °F 450 440 440 350 340 460
psi at 73 °F 410 350 400 325 290 420
Tensile strength, ASTM
D-1320, psi at 73 °F 380 340 360 400 280 350
Sealing Strength, ASTM
1958 App V, g/in 10 5 5 28 20 -
With 4% Polyethylene, g/in 13 5 19 tear tear -
Thermal Shock Resistance
Test UTM 256 - - - - - pass
Specific Gravity, 212 °F/39.2°F 0.7525 0.7660 0.7627 0.7737 0.7695 0.7573
Refractive Index at 212 °F 1.4214 1.4275 1.4255 1.4305 1.4305 1.4245
COC Flash Point, ASTM
D-92, °F 430 490 480 515 465 435
Food Packaging Laws pass pass pass pass pass pass

Bareco Waxes

Bareco microcrystalline waxes are featured by high melting points, excellent heat-sealing characteristics, plasticity over a wide temperature range, hardness, high gloss, and a wide range of colors.

Bareco microcrystalline waxes are classified into four groups: (1) hard, (2) plastic, (3) emulsifiable and (4) synthetic.

General Properties

Type of Wax Laminating Coating Hardening
Melting Point, °F
ASTM D-127-49 130/155° 140-165° 165-210°
Needle Penetration at 77 °F
ASTM D-1321-54 T 20-35 18-28 below 5
Color NPA 1-3 1-3 1-3
Minimum Flex
Temperature, °F 0-35° 0-35° above 75°
Oil Content, per cent 1-5 0.5-2 0.0-1
Urea Reactible, per cent 20-35 20-40 50-90
Odor Slight/None Slight/None Slight/None

Bareco Hard Waxes

The Bareco hard microcrystalline wax group includes the hardest and highest-melting-point petroleum-derived waxes available.

Specifications

Product Melting Pt. Minimum °F Penetration 77 °F Maximum Color N.P.A. Maximum Acid No. Sap. No.
Petrolite C-1035 195 3 1½ Nil Nil
Petrolite C-200-7 190 4 Nil Nil
Petrolite C-700 190 4 1½ Nil Nil
Petrolite C-200 190 8 Nil Nil
Petrolite C-500 190 8 2½ Nil Nil
Be Square 190/195 190 7 1½ Nil Nil
Be Square 180/185 180 11 1½ Nil Nil
Starwax 100 180 16 2 Nil Nil

Bareco hard waxes are used in polishes, printing ink, phonograph records, carbon paper, paper coating, sizings, protective coatings.

Bareco Plastic Waxes

Bareco plastic microcrystalline waxes are characterized by ductility, high sealing strength, freedom from odor and taste, low temperature flexibility and strong resistance to moisture-vapor transmission.

Specifications

Product Melting Pt. Minimum °F Penetration 77 °F Maximum Color N.P.A. Maximum Acid No. Sap. No.
Be Square 170/175 170 20 1½ Nil Nil
Ceraweld 155 25 2½ Nil Nil
Ceratak 155 30 2½ Nil Nil
Victory 155 30 2½ Nil Nil
Ultraflex 143 30 2 Nil Nil

The Bareco plastic microcrystalline waxes are used for lamination, packaging, overwraps, water-proofing, cosmetics, sealing compounds, rust preventives.

Bareco Emulsifiable Waxes

Bareco emulsifiable waxes result from the oxidation of high-molecular-weight microcrystalline waxes. This oxidation forms esters and fatty acids, which impart saponifiability.

Specifications

Product Melting Pt. Minimum °F Penetration 77 °F Maximum Color N.P.A. Maximum Acid No. Sap. No.
Petrolite C-15 180 6 5 15/17 45/55
Petrolite C-23 180 6 5 20/25 55/65
Petrolite C-36 180 8 max. 6 30/35 75/85
Petrolite PE-100 195 3 6 15/20 45/55
Petronauba C 180 7 3 22/28 50/60
Petronauba D 185 5 6 20/28 50/60
Petronauba F 180 5 3 15/25 50/60
Petronauba H 195 3 4 15/25 50/60

The Bareco emulsifiable waxes are used in floor, furniture and leather polishes, leather dressings, self-polishing compounds.

Bareco Synthetic Waxes

Bareco microcrystalline waxes are combined or reacted with various resins or other chemical materials to incorporate characteristics not attainable in the waxes alone.

Specifications

Product Melting Pt. Minimum °F Penetration 77 °F Maximum Color N.P.A. Maximum Acid No. Sap. No.
Petrolite C-6500 200 3 4 10/13 30/40
Petrolite C-7500 205 3 2 10/13 25/30
Petrolite R-50 190 2 4½ 40/50 65/80
Petrolite P-20 210 2 3 Nil Nil
Petrolite P-25 210 2 3 Nil Nil
Petrolite WB2 180 5 23/30 70/85
Petrolite WB5 185 3 19/27 50/65
Petrolite PC13 185 8 5 Nil Nil
Petrolite PC44 160 4 5 Nil Nil

Many of the Bareco synthetic waxes are tougher, more flexible and higher melting than carnauba. Certain of the Bareco synthetics are extremely hard and have excellent molding characteristics without being brittle.

Bareco synthetic waxes are used in polishes, carbon paper, casting wax.

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF BARECO WAXES

Petrolite C-1035 Petrolite C-500

DIELECTRIC CONSTANT

°C 60 10 10 60 10 10
80 2.46 2.30 2.47 2.38 2.49 2.48
60 2.37 2.39 2.44 2.42 2.53 2.50
40 2.31 2.25 2.44 2.56 2.74 2.74
20 2.16 2.09 2.45 2.62 2.79 2.79

% POWER FACTOR

80 2.20 2.05 0.11 0.11 0.04 0.12
60 2.10 1.98 0.08 0.04 0.03 0.08
40 1.69 1.64 0.08 0.22 0.04 0.20
20 1.79 1.51 0.33 0.06 0.03 0.17

POTENTIAL BREAKDOWN (V/MIL)

°C 20 40 60 80
Petrolite C-1035 2050 710 550 675
Petrolite C-500 1500 780 625 420

VOLUME RESISTIVITY

Petrolite C-1035 3.8 × 1015 ohms-cm 22°C (55% humidity)
Petrolite C-500 6.4 × 1015 ohms-cm 22°C (55% humidity)

Be Square Waxes

The following table gives the solubility of Be Square Waxes in terms of cloud point for various weights of each wax in 100ml of solvent.

Solvent

Cloud Point,°F

Be Square 170-175 Be Square 190-195
1g 5g 10g 1g 5g 10g
n-Butyl Alcohol 173 196 198 190 203 205
sec-butyl Alcohol 136 150 155 154 167 171
n-Amyl Alcohol 158 174 178 176 192 194
Isopropyl Acetate 143 154 155 164 175 176
Chloroform 94 108 114 103 126 138
Ethylene Dichloride 128 142 144 151 158 160
Carbon Tetra Chloride 90 104 108 102 120 125
Benzene 99 114 118 114 130 135
Toluene 94 109 116 110 128 134
Xylene 98 112 120 112 132 136
Nitrobenzene 147 165 170 166 180 184
Turpentine 92 120 124 112 134 140
V.M.P.Naphtha 105 114 122 120 131 138
Stoddard Solvent 98 115 128 116 134 145
Kerosene 100 122 132 122 140 143
Chlorox 174 5g will not dissolve at b.p. 184 5g will not dissolve at b.p.
Aniline 260 5g will not dissolve at b.p. 264 5g will not dissolve at b.p.
Ethyl Alcohol 1g will not dissolve at b.p. 1g will not dissolve at b.p.
Isopropyl Alcohol 1 g will not dissolve at b.p. 1g will not dissolve at b.p.
Furfural 1g will not dissolve at b.p. 1g will not dissolve at b.p.
Phenol 1g will not dissolve at b.p. 1g will not dissolve at b.p.
b.p.Cellosolve 1g will not dissolve at b.p. 1g willnot dissolve at b.p.

Multiwaxes

Grade M.P. (min) (ASTM D127-49) Penetration (ASTM D1331-54T) Color Viscocity Saybolt @210°F

MOST WIDELY USED GRADES

W835 155°F 60/80 White 80/90
W445 165°F 25/35 White 80/90
ML445 165°F 25/35 Pale Yellow 80/90
BH445 165°F 25/35 Light Amber 80/90
D445 160°F 45/60 Dark Olive 90 min.
D835 155°F 60/80 Dark Olive 90 min.

OTHER GRADES

X145 140°F 35/45 Pale Yellow 60/70
X145A 140°F 35/45 Pale Yellow 70/85
180M 180°F 10/20 Pale Yellow 80/90
180R 180°F 10/20 Dark Brown 80/90
195M 190°F 2/7 Pale Yellow 80/90
195R 190°F 2/7 Dark Brown 80/90

Pearl Waxes

Color From Amber 5 NPA to Yellow 3 NPA
Melting Point 180°F minimum
Penetration at 77ºF 50h 5 sec 30 minutes
Odor None

Shell Waxes

Shellmax No. Color ASTM D-1500 Refractive Index 100 nD M.P. D-127°F Viscocity [email protected] 210°F Penetration @77°F Oil Content %W
500 L2.0 1.4435 141.3 80.0 22 0.9
400 1.5 1.4413 176.4 77.8 13 0.6
800 L6.5 1.4496 166.6 89.8 96 11.1

SOVAWAXES

These waxes are used for coating or laminating, their application being restricted only by the special hardness or melting-point requirements of isolated uses. They are recommended for all applications requiring inert, chemical-resistant, durable, adhesive, flexible coatings or impregnants.

Brand Sovawxa 100 Sovawax 105 Sovawax 110
Melting Point,°F ASTM,
minimum 160 160 160
Needle Penetration at 77°F 20/30 20/30 20/30
Saybolt Viscocity at 210°F 85/95 85/95 85/95
Flash Point, °F 500 500 500
(COC)
Odor OK OK OK
Color, ASTM 3-4 dil. 2-3 2 max.
Flexibility at 0°F OK OK OK

Superflex Waxes

Name M.P. ASTM Penetration @77°F Penetration & @100°F [email protected] 210°F Flexing (°F)
S100 145-150 25Max. 75Max. 80-100 0/+10
L500 150-160 25Max. 85Max. 80-100 +10/+25
M85 160-170 25Max. 95Max. 80-100 +30/+50

Warwick Waxes

Name of Wax M.P. A.S.T.M. D-127-30 Penetration 100g |77°| 5 sec Color N.P.A. Acid Number Saponification value Type
Fortex (R) 195-200 3-4 0-2 0-0 0-0 Microcrystalline Hard & Plastic
Mekon (R) Brown 195-200 3-4 Brown 0-01 0-0 Microcrystalline Hard & Brittle
Mekon (R) Amber 195-200 3-4 6 Max. 0-0 0-0 Microcrystalline Hard & Brittle
Mekon (R) White 195-200 3-4 0-1 0-0 0-0 Microcrystalline Hard & Brittle
Warco (R) Wax 180 White 180-185 4-7 White 0-0 0-0 Microcrystalline Hard & Brittle
Warco (R) Wax 180 Brown 180-185 4-7 Brown 0-0 0-0 Microcrystalline Hard & Brittle
Warco (R) Wax 150-A Yellow 155-165 25 Max. 2Max. 0-0 0-0 Microcrystalline Plastic
Warco (R) Wax 150-A Brown 155-165 25 Max. Brown 0-0 0-0 Microcrystalline Plastic
Warcosine (R) 150-160 30 Max. White 0-0 0-0 Microcrystalline Plastic

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