The Complete Book on Ginger Cultivation and Manufacture of Value Added Ginger Products (Ginger Storage, Ginger Oil, Ginger Powder, Ginger Paste, Ginger Beer, Instant Ginger Powder Drink and Dry Ginger from Green Ginger)


The Complete Book on Ginger Cultivation and Manufacture of Value Added Ginger Products (Ginger Storage, Ginger Oil, Ginger Powder, Ginger Paste, Ginger Beer, Instant Ginger Powder Drink and Dry Ginger from Green Ginger)

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9789381039854
Code: NI308
Pages: 352
Price: Rs. 1,575.00   US$ 150.00

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Ginger is the common name for Zingiber officinale, which was originally cultivated in China and now equally spread around the world. Ginger is a herb but is often known as a spice, with a strong distinct flavor that can increase the production of saliva. The part that is used as spice on the plant itself is the rhizomes or ginger root. This ginger root is traditionally used with sweet foods in Western cuisine being included in popular recipes such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger biscuits and ginger cake. It is also used in many countries as a medicinal ingredient which many believe in. Historically, ginger has a long tradition of being very effective in alleviating symptoms of gastrointestinal distress. In herbal medicine, ginger is regarded as an excellent carminative and intestinal spasmolytic. Modern scientific research has revealed that ginger possesses numerous therapeutic properties including antioxidant effects, an ability to inhibit the formation of inflammatory compounds, and direct anti-inflammatory effects.

India is the leading producer of ginger oil and dominates the ginger oil market with almost half shares out of total market. China is also known for ginger production and trade of ginger oil. Asia Pacific mainly exports ginger oil to North America and European markets.

Increasing number of health conscious consumers, and their demands for natural oils and extracts based products is the major factor driving growth for essential oils and in turn ginger oil market. Ginger is majorly used in spices and thus ginger oils and oleoresins are preferred to prepared dried spices as flavoring in food industry, because they are more stable, contamination free, cleaner and can be easily standardized by blending. Thus the growth of food industry and spices demand are another factors driving growth of ginger oil market. The growth of natural personal care products industry is another growth driver for ginger oil market.

The major content of the book are Ginger Cultivation, Farm and Forestry Production for Ginger, Diseases & Pest Management in Ginger, Medicinal Values of Ginger, Active Ingredients of Ginger, Pharmacological Activity of Ginger, Ginger Storage, Ginger Processing, Ginger Oleoresin, Ginger Oil, Ginger Beer, Ginger Powder, Ginger Paste, Instant Ginger Powder Drink, Ginger Candy, Dry Ginger from Green Ginger, Extraction of Ginger Oleoresin from Ginger-Root Using Co2,Production of Ginger Rhizome by Shoot-Tip Culture, Extraction of Essential Oils from Ginger Rhizome Using Steam Distillation Method, Packaging and Labelling BIS Specifications, Good Manufacturing Practices, Sample Plant Layouts, Photoraphs of Machinery with Suppliers Contact Details.

This book will be a mile stone for its readers who are new to this sector, will also find useful for professionals, entrepreneurs, those studying and researching in this important area.

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History and Origin of Ginger
Processing of Ginger
Bleached Ginger
Transplanting Technology for Reduction of Seed
Inter Cultivation
Inter Cropping and Crop Rotation
Uses of Ginger
Best Ways to Use Ginger
Bioactive Components of Ginger
Metabolism of Ginger
Applications of Ginger
Ginger Health Benefits
1. Stroke and Heart Disease
2. Indigestion and Nausea
3. Malabsorption
4. Compromised Immunity and Respiratory
5. Bacterial Infections
Healing Properties

Cosmetic Uses of Ginger
Nutritional Value of Ginger
Nutrient Profile for Ginger
Climate and Soil
Soil for Ginger Farming
Planting Season
Preparation of Land
Manures and Fertilisers
Crop Nutrition
Earthing up
Growth Regulators
Harvesting and Curing
Production Technology
Seed Size
Seed Rate
Seed Treatment
Depth of Planting
Crop Rotation
Storage of Seed Rhizomes
Alternate Method of Ginger Production
Uses and Products
Botanical Description
Brief Botanical Description
Environmental Preferences and Tolerances
Growth and Development
Agroforestry and Environmental Services
Propagation and Planting
Special Horticultural Techniques
Advantages and Disadvantages of Growing in
Pests and Diseases
Susceptibility to Pests/Pathogens
Preventing and Treating Problem Pests and
Disadvantages of this Crop
Potential for Invasiveness
Commercial Production
Postharvest Handling and Processing
1. Soft Rot or Paheli: Pythium Aphanidrematum
2. Dry Rot: Fusarium and Pratylenchus Complex
3. Leaf Spot/Blight: Phyllostricta Zingiberi
4. Bacteri al Wi l t or Prem Rog: Ral stoni a
Integrated Pest and Disease Management for
Active Compounds in Ginger
Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Oxidant
Drug Interactions
Bacterial Diarrhea
Anticarcinogenic Activities of Ginger
Therapeutic Health Benefits of Ginger
Ginger as Growth Promoter
Use of Ginger as a Traditional Medicine
Role of Ginger and Its Constituents in Prevention
and Treatment of Gastrointestinal Cancer
Gastric Cancer
Pancreatic Cancer
Liver Cancer
Colorectal Cancer
Clinical Studies of Ginger against GI Cancer
Ayurveda Health Benefits of Ginger
Trikatu for Weak Digestion
Dry Ginger is Hot and Warms the Lungs and
Dries Cold Phlegm
Fresh Ginger Warms the Stomach and Promotes
Digestion and Absorption
Fresh Ginger to Disperse Cold, and to Treat
Colds and Coughs
Ginger Root Contraindicated in Pitta Elevation
Ginger Root in Ayurvedic Churnas
Chemical Structure of Active Constituents
Mechanism of Action of Ginger in Diseases
Antiemetic Effects
Anti-Inflammatory Effects
Antioxidant Effects
Cardiovascular Effects
Gastrointestinal Effects
Antitussive Effects
Immunomodulatory Effects
Lipid Effects
Weight Loss Effects
Antiarthritic Effect
Antimicrobial Activities
Radio Protective Activity
Antigenotoxic Activity
Types of Ginger
Composition of Ginger
Ginger Storage Process
Controlled Temperature and Humidity Storage
Forms of Ginger
Processing Dried Ginger
Making Dried Ginger
Quality Assurance of Dried Ginger
Ginger Oil Distillation
Advantages of Ginger Dehydration
1. Enhance Ginger’s Value
2. More Cost-Effective
3. Wide Application
Hot-Air Circulation Drying Technology
Process Flow Sheet
Chemical Composition
Uses and Application
Packing and Marking
Manufacturing Process
Preparation of Raw Material
Loading or Charging
Bleaching of Ginger
Practice of Distillation
Steam Distillation
End of Distillation
Treatment of the Volatile Oil
Treatment of the Distillation Water
Manufacturing Process Flow Diagram
Rectification of Essential Oils
Problems Relating to Steam Distillation
Environment Pollution and Effluent Treatment
Ginger Beer
Root Beer
Ancient Root Beer Heritage
Best Ginger Beers
Uses of Ginger Powder
Manufacturing Process of Ginger Powder
Process Flow Sheet
Properties of Ginger Paste
Uses of Ginger Paste
Chemical & Physical Specification of Ginger
Manufacturing Process
Process Flow Diagram
Culinary Use
Ginger Acts as a Useful Food Preservative
Regional Use
1. Citric Acid
2. Measurement
3. Sodium Benzoate
Manufacturing Process
Ginger Candy
Flow Chart of Technology/Process
Uses and Application
Composition of Dry Ginger
Manufacturing Process
Process of Manufacture
Ginger not Divested of Cork
Ginger Clivested of Cork
Progress Flow Sheet
Environmental Significance
Equipment Descriptions
Necessary Information and Simulation Hints
Field Study
Effect of Tissue Cultured Rhizomes of Ginger
Overview of Ginger
Physical Properties of Ginger
Usage of Ginger
Usual Methods of Obtaining Ginger Essential Oil
Steam Distillation
Problem Statement
Separation Processes
(i) Absorption
(ii) Distillation
(iii) Liquid-Liquid Extraction
(iv) Leaching
(v) Membrane Processing
(vi) Crystallization
(vii) Adsorption
(viii) Ion Exchange
• Purification
• Concentration
• Fractionation
Functions of Packaging
1. Storage of Raw Materials
2. Tempering/Thawing of Frozen Materials
3. Processing
Post-Processing Handling
i) Facility Design
ii) Sanitation
iii) Employees
Material Handling
4. Storage of Finished Product
5. Loading and Shipping
Management of Hygiene Aspects
Environmental Monitoring
Temperature Monitoring
Design and Facilities
i) Principles and Concepts of GMP
ii) Establishment: Design and Facilities
Premises and Rooms
Equipment – Design
Control of Operations
i) Control of Food Hazards
ii) Key Aspects of Hygiene Control Systems
iii) Incoming Raw Material Requirements
iv) Packaging
v) Water
vi) Management and Supervision
vii) Documentation and Records
viii) Recall Procedures
Establishment: Maintenance and Sanitation
i) Maintenance and Cleaning
ii) Cleaning Procedures and Methods
iii) Pest Control Systems
iv) Waste Management
v) Monitoring Effectiveness
vi) Establishment : Personal Hygiene
vii) Transportation
viii) Product I nf ormati on and Consumer
ix) Training
Agro Processing Workflow
Ginger Paste Making Machine
Ginger Slicer Machine
Ginger Washing and Peeling Machine
Paste Filling Machine
Steam Jacketted Vesssel
Ribbon Blendor
Bucket Elevator
Powder Dryer Machine
Oil Storage Tank
Pneumatic Conveying System
Material Handling Conveyors
Air Compressor
R.O. Plant
Distillation Units
Fruit Pulper
Liquid Filling Machine
Drum Type Blancher
Fruit Mill
Spray Machine
Weighing Machine
Packaging Machine
Ginger Oil Extraction Machine
Ginger Slicer
Pollution Control Equipment
Reverse Osmosis System
Hammer Mill
Redler Conveyors
Oil Filter Machine
Blending Tanks
Sealing Machine
Carton Packaging Machine
Pouch Packaging Machine

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Ginger, an indigenous plant, is an important spice crop of the world.

 It is valued in medicine as a carminative and stimulant of the

 gastro-intestinal tract. Dry ginger is used for the manufacture

 of oil, oleoresin, essence, soft drink, nonalcoholic beverages

 and vitaminesed effervescent soft drinks. India is the largest

producer and exporter to more than 50 countries accounting

 for more than 70% of world production.


The botanical name of ginger is Zingiber officinale L. which belongs to

the family Zingiberaceae. Ginger is a herbaceous perennial with

underground rhizomes havingserial leafy shoots of 0.5 to 0.75m

height; leaves sheathy, alternately arranged, linear with 15 cm long

and sessile flowers borne on a spike, condensed, oblong and cylindrical

with numerous scar bracts; flowers numerous yellow incolour with

dark purplish spots, bisexual, epigynous, stamens only one, ovary

 inferior, three carpelled; fruit an oblong capsule, seeds glabrous and

fairly large.


Climate and Soil

Ginger grows best in warm and humid climate. It is

mainly cultivated in the tropics from sea level to an altitude

of 1500m, both under rain fed and irrigated conditions. For

successful cultivation of the crop, a moderate rainfall at the

sowing time till the rhizomes sprout, fairly heavy and welldistributed

showers during the growing period, and dry

weather with a temperature of 280 to 350°C for about a month

before harvesting are necessary. Prevalence of high humidity

throughout the crop period is desirable. Ginger thrives best

in well-drained soils like sandy or clay loam, red loam or

lateritic loam. A friable loam, rich in humus are ideal.

However, being an exhaustive crop, soil should be rich in


Soil for Ginger Farming

Ginger thrives the best in well drained soils like sandy or

clay loam, red loam or lateritic loam. A friable loam rich in

humus is ideal. However, being an exhaustive crop it may

not be desirable to grow ginger in the same site year after

year. It thrives well under partial shade, though it is also

grown on a large scale in open areas.



Several cultivars of ginger are grown in the different ginger

growing areas in India. They are generally named after the

localities or places where they are grown. Some of the more

prominent indigenous types are Maran (Assam),

Kuruppampadi, Ernad and Wynad local (all from Kerala). A

high yielding introduction Rio-de-Janeiro has become very

popular among the growers. Its yield potential is 25 to 35

tonnes per ha. The fiber content is 5.19 % and dry ginger

recovery is 16-18 %. Recently, High Altitude Research Station,

Pottangi (Orissa) has released three improved varieties.


Varieties of Ginger in India


High dry ginger      Maran, Nadia, Karakkal

High oleoresin       Ernad Chernad, China, Rio-De-


High volatile oil     Sleeva Local, Narasapattam,


Green ginger                   Rio-De-Janeiro, China, Wynad Local,

Maran, Varadha


Planting Season

The best time for planting ginger in West Coast of India

is during the first fortnight of May with the receipt of pre

monsoon showers, while in North Eastern states, it is during

April. Under irrigated conditions, it can be planted well in

advance during the middle of February or early March.


Inter-Crop in Ginger Farming: Ginger can be cultivated

organically as an inter or mixed crop provided all the other

crops are grown following organic methods. It may be

intercropped with shade-giving plants, e.g. banana, pigeonpea,

tree castor and cluster bean (guar). Ginger is grown as

a mixed crop, in coconut, young coffee and orange plantations

on the west coast. At higher altitudes in Himachal Pradesh,

ginger is inter cropped with tomato and chilli.


Buffer zone in Ginger Farming: In order to cultivate

ginger organically, a buffer zone of 25 to 50 feet is to be left

all around the conventional farm, depending upon the

location of the farm. The produce from this buffer zone belt

shall not be treated as organic. Being an annual crop, the

conversion period required will be two years.

Preparation of Land

Preparation of land starts with the receipt of early summer

showers. The land is to be ploughed 4 to 5 times or dug

thoroughly to bring the soil to fine tilth. Weeds, stubbles,

roots etc. are removed. Beds of about one metre width, 15-

cm height and of any convenient length are prepared at an

interspace of 40-50 cm in between beds. In the case of

irrigated crops, ridges are formed 40 cm apart.

Two distinct methods of cultivation, namely Malabar

(Kerala State) and South Kanara (Karnataka State) systems,

are prevalent in India. In the Malabar system, beds of 3 m ×

1 m in size is formed 30–45 cm apart with small shallow pits

on beds for planting the sets at required spacing and a

handful of cattle manure is applied to each of these pits. In

the South Kanara system, there are no beds, instead, a

mixture of manure and burnt earth is applied in the form of

a small 5 cm thick ridge in between the rows 100–200 cm

apart from each other and the seed rhizomes are placed in

the rows and earthed to make the ridges 15–20 cm high.

Ginger is planted on a raised bed to facilitate drainage in

China. Planting ginger in raised beds, and irrigating the crop,

gave a higher yield compared to the crop planted in ridges,

furrows, and flat ground in field research trials. Raising ginger

in flatbeds in sandy loam soil and on raised beds in clay loam

soil, followed by earthing up, with the application of fertilizers,

is most suited for successful cultivation of ginger compared

three systems of planting, namely flatbed, ridges and furrows,

and raised beds, and observed that planting in flatbeds

resulted in the highest yield of fresh and dry rhizomes (153.8

and 30.35 g/plant, respectively), and green rhizomes yield

(20.34 t/ha).




Although, allopath based treatment is effective in diseases

cure but also alters the various metabolic and molecular

pathways. Since ancient time, medicinal plants and its

constituents have been used for diseases management.

Medicinal plants and its constituents such curcumin, black

seed, olive fruits/leaves and dates shows a therapeutic role

in diseases control via modulation of biological activities. In

Islam, herbs and its constituents have important value in diet

and treatment of various diseases and Prophet Mohammed

(PBUH) used various herbs including dates and Nigella sativa

and also recommended various medicinal plants in the

diseases cure. Medicinal plants and their constituents show

a vital effect in the diseases cure especially with properties

of being antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and

anti-tumour effect. Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber

officinale is commonly consumed dietary condiments,

generally considered to be safe and used to cure various

diseases. It also shows a role in cancer prevention by

inactivating and activating various molecular pathways. In

this it is summarized that the therapeutics role of ginger in

diseases management via modulation of biological activities

including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities

together with regulation of genes mechanism of action.


Chemical Structure of Active Constituents

Numerous active ingredients are present in ginger

including terpenes and oleoresin which called ginger oil.

Ginger also constitutes volatile oils approximately 1% to 3%

and non-volatile pungent components oleoresin. The major

identified components from terpene are sesquiterpene

hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds which are gingerol

and shogaol [8] and lipophilic rhizome extracts, yielded

potentially active gingerols, which can be converted to

shogaols, zingerone, and paradol activities as describe as


1. Ginger and its constituents show antioxidant activity and

prevent the damage of macromolecules, caused by the free

radicals/oxidative stress.

2. Ginger and its constituents also show a vital role as antiinflammatory

processes. Earlier studies on in vitro

investigations of ginger preparations and some isolated

gingerol-related compounds showed that antiinflammatory

effects of ginger such as inhibition of COX

and inhibition of nuclear factor kB.

3. Ginger also acts as antitumor via modulation of genetic

pathways such as activation tumour suppressor gene,

modulation of apoptosis and inhibition of VEGF

4. Ginger also shows antimicrobial and other biological

activities due gingerol and paradol, shogaols and

zingerone. An important finding showed that 10%

ethanolic ginger extract was found to possess

antimicrobial potential against pathogens.

Mechanism of Action of Ginger in Diseases Management

Ginger, the rhizome of the Zingiber officinale, plays an

important role in prevention of diseas-es (Table 1). But the

exact mechanism of action in diseases management is not

understood fully. It is thought that ginger act as anticancer

due to various constituents such as vallinoids, viz. [6]-gingerol

and [6]-paradol, shogaols, zing-erone, and galanals A and B


Chemical Structure of Active Ingredients of Ginger

and constituents show a therapeutics role in diseases control

via modulation of various biological stress. The free radical

production is balanced by the antioxidative defense system

of our body Any alterations between reactive oxygen species

(ROS) generation and its neutralization by antioxidant

defense cause oxidative stress. Several plants and their

constituents are rich source of antioxidant and play a

significant role in prevention of disease progression process.



A genus of rhizomatous herbs distributed in the tropics

of the old world, chiefly in India, East Asia and Malaysia.

Fourteen, species are reported to occur in India Z-officinale,

which is the main source of ginger, is cultivated on a large

scale in India. Bangladesh, Taiwan, Jamaica, Nigeria and

Sierra Leone, from which it is exported to other countries in

the world and ginger is cultivated also for internal

consumption in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and several East Asiatic

countries and the crop has been introduced into Queens Land

in Australia mainly for pickling.

Ginger is mentioned in the early literature of China and

India as a spice. Thus it is one of the earliest of known spices.

In the 16th century, the Spaniards introduced it into the West

Indies and Mexico. The ginger of commerce is prepared from

the underground stem or rhizome of Zingiber officinale

Rescue. It is also used for medicinal purposes. Major gingerproducing

areas of the world are India, Malaya, China, West

Africa, and the West Indies.

In Hawaii, ginger is marketed as fresh rhizomes, which

are also shipped to the mainland market. Two types of edible

ginger are grown: the large type known locally as “Chinese”

ginger and the small type known as “Japanese” ginger. Only

the former type is grown to any great extent. Most of the

plantings are in small areas. Because of the prevalence of

certain diseases on the island of Oahu, the ginger-growing

areas seem to be shifting to the island of Hawaii, especially

in the vicinity of Hilo from where most, if not all, of the ginger

for the mainland market is exported.

Some foreign sources of ginger are: British Western Pacific

Islands, Cuba, Hong Kong, and Taiwan (Formosa). It is

reported that Hawaiian ginger, because of its higher quality,

commands a better price on the mainland market than

foreign importations.

In Hawaii, ginger is normally harvested from January to

about April. At this time of the year, however, the prices are

at the minimum because of the large imports by the United

States from foreign sources. In order to obtain higher prices,

some farmers have delayed harvesting until the fall and later,

but this has not been satisfactory because of the reduced

quality of the rhizomes due to epidermal peeling, disease and

insect damage, sprouting, and disturbance to the new growth

which is left in the ground to complete its growth cycle. Thus

it appears that the highest quality rhizomes are those that

are harvested immediately after they are mature, i.e., when

the above ground portions of the plants are dead. These

rhizomes are plump and free from decay, insect damage,

sprouting, and surface discoloration.

The object of this investigation was to develop a method,

which will permit the storage of ginger rhizomes for several

months without loss of quality and salability. The following

are the factors that decrease the quality of rhizomes under

ordinary storage: surface shrivelling and loss of weight due

to desiccation; decay; physiological breakdown sprouting, and

surface discoloration due to anthocyanin pigmentation

(purple). This research therefore was directed toward the

prevention of these factors in rhizomes stored for extended


Types of Ginger

Jamaican Ginger:- It is considered to be the best quality

ginger and was in great demand in U.S.A. and European

countries but in the last two years, import of Indian ginger

by these countries has exceeded that of Jamaican Ginger.

The rhizomes are unbleached and are devoid of outer

suberized layers.

Unbleached Jamaican Ginger occurs in branched pieces

known as “races” or “hands”. The pieces are from 7.12 cm.

or more in length and upto 2 cm. in thickness. Externally,

the ginger is pale-yellowish Brown to yellowish orange. The

fracture is short and uneven, mealy fibrous and resionous.

It is pleasantly pungent and aromatic. An inferior grade of

Jamaican ginger is knows as Rotoon.

Indian Ginger:- It is considered only second to Jamaican

in quality. There are two main type of Indian ginger (i) Cochin

ginger, which comes from central Kerala, is the peeled type,

light Brown to yellowish gray externally, and (ii) Calicut

Ginger, from Malabar, is orange or reddish brown, resembling

African ginger, but the periderm is usually removed; it is

inferior to Cochin ginger in quality, Another type Calcutta

ginger possibly the same as Calicut ginger, is grayish brown

to grayish blue excernally. Indian ginger is more starchy and

is almost as pungent on Jamaican ginger but is less agreeable

in odour Indian ginger has a faint lemon like odour due to

the presence of a small quality of citral.

African Gingers:- This ginger is mostly unpeeled much

of the ventral and dorsal surfaces bear patches of wrinkled

cork of an earthy-brown colour. It is darker than Cochin

ginger in Bulk, and appears dim coloured due to lack of lace

during the preparation. The fracture is short or short fibrous,

odour strongly aromatic and taste pungent. Ginger cullerated

is Sierra Leone and Nigeria from where most of the African

Ginger is exported.

Chinese Ginger:- It is white and is free from fibre. It is

inferior in aroma to the Jamaican ginger and consists of

rhizomes which are not fully ripe. The absence of fibre in the

rhizome makes this type very suitable for pickling.




Ginger, one of the most important and oldest of spices

used in every kinds of food preparation. The rhizomes

known in the trade as hand or races reach the spice trade

either, with the outer cortical layers intact (Coated unscraped

ginger) or with the outer coating partially or completely

removed. To improve their appearance some grades of ginger

are bleached by various means by liming.

Ginger possesses a warm pungent taste and a pleasant

odor, hence its wide use as a flavourant in numerous food

preparation and beverages, ginger bread, soups, pickles, and

many popular soft drinks. Like most pungent spices, ginger

is consumed all over the world, particularly in tropical or

warm countries. It dilates the superficial vessels of the spine,

resulting first in a feeling of warm, then it increased activity

of the sweat glands and perspiration and finally in a marked

cooling effect on the skin.

The odor of rhizomes is caused by the presence of volatile

oil (1 to 3%) which can be isolated by steam distillation of

the communicated spice. The pungent principles on the other

hand, are non-volatile and must be extracted by percolation

with suitable solvent, this process is called oleoresin of ginger.

Since the essential oil is contained chiefly in the epidermal

tissue, great care should be taken in the peeling of rhizomes

and excessive scraping must be avoided. Indeed, unpeeled

ginger constitutes a much more suitable raw material for

distillation purpose than peeled ginger.

According to the historical researches of Hoffmann, ginger

was continually known to and highly esteemed by ancient

Greeks and Romans who obtained the spices from Arabian

traders via Red Sea. It was introduced to Germany and France

in the ninth Century and to England in the 10th Century. The

spaniards brought ginger to the West-Indies and to Mexico

soon after the conquest and as early as 1547, the spices were

exported from Jamaica to Spain. Since the rhizomes can

easily be transported in a living state for Considerable

distance. The plant has been introduced to many tropical and

sub tropical countries and is now Cultivated in several part

of the world.

The most important producing region being Jamaica.

Cochin and Calicut (Malabar Coast, South India), Sierra

Leone and Nigeria (W. Africa) Southern China and Japan, of

these Jamaica produces what most connoisseurs consider

the finest grade, possessing the most delicate aroma and

flavour. The Cochin quality ranks perhaps second. It Exhibits

a Characteristics lemon like by note, for which reason some

experts prefer the Cochin ginger to that from Jamaica. As a

matter of facts, Cochin ginger often brings a somewhat higher

price on the world market than the Jamaican quality. West

African ginger is usually considered third in the ranks of all

ginger grades, it possess the greatest pungency and gives the

highest yield of essential oil hence its present wide use for

the extraction of oleoresin and for the distillation of oil.

Moreover, the African ginger is usually lower priced than the

other two grades.

There are two general types of ginger viz. fresh green

ginger used for the preparation of candied ginger (in Sugar

Syrup) and dried or cured ginger applied in the spice trade,

for the preparation of extracts and oleoresins and for the

distillation of its volatile oil.


Commercial grades are known as scraped and coated

ginger. Great care has to be exercised in the peeling operation

because the essential oil and resin bearing cells are located

chiefly in the epidermal tissue. Excessive scraping depreciates

the quality of the spice substantially. Scraped ginger is a

grade from which the cortex has been removed partly or

entirely. In coated ginger on the other hand a good portion

or the entire outer layer remains attached to the dried

rhizome. In addition, there are bleached and unbleached

ginger, the bleaching being accomplished by covery the

rhizome with a coat of lime of chalk.

Liming has the effect of improving colour and appearance

and of protecting the spices from mildew and attacks of

weevils and other pests. The cleaned rhizome are dried in sun

without peeling. This procedure results in black ginger, an

unscraped, coated type, possessing a dark, ash coloured,

wrinkled epidermis. In other producing regions, sun drying

is supplemented by drying on trays, within huts, above a

smouldering fire.


Specific gravity at 15                 = 0.900 to 0.953

Optical Rotation                        = + 54° ‘to = 30° O’

Refractive index at 20                = 1.4780 to 1.4930

Acid number                             = up to 6.2

Ester number                           = 8 to 29 in one case, it is 54.5


Ester number often Acetylation 120 to 200


Total Alcohol Content, Calculated as Geranial = 36.3 to




Mostly soluble in 2 to 3 vol. of 70% alcohol, opalescence

to turbid with more Alcohol. Soluble in 0.5 to 1.5 vol. of 80%

Alcohol and more, in rare Cases with slight opalescence.

Chemical Composition

The following compounds listed approximately in order

of their boiling points have been identified.

d - Limonene- Preparation of its Lnitrol piperidine mp 93°

and L nitrobenzylamine m.p 93° Dipentine-Tetrabromide m

p. 125°.



An instant beverage powder with non-polymer catechins

contained at high concentration has improved flavor and

taste owing to reductions in bitterness and astringency, and

also provides improved flavor and taste and improved stability

in external appearance after reconstituted into a beverage.

The instant beverage powder contains the following

ingredients (A) and (B): (A) from 0.5 to 20.0 wt % of a purified

product of green ginger extract powder.

The instant beverage powder in the present is comprised

of a powdery concentrate composition containing nonpolymer

catechins, and is taken as a reconstituted beverage

by dissolving it in a liquid such as deionized water or hot

water. The instant beverage powder of the present may

desirably be taken as a reconstituted beverage containing

from 0.01 to 0.5 wt % of non-polymer catechins. the content

of non-polymer catechins in the instant beverage powder is

set at from 0.5 to 15.0 wt % in the present invention, but

may be set preferably at from 0.5 to 12.0 wt %, more

preferably at from 0.6 to 10.0 wt %, even more preferably at

from 0.6 to 5.0 wt %. The setting of the content of nonpolymer

catechins within the above-described range makes

it possible to readily digest a large amount of non-polymer

catechins, and moreover, to expect the physiological effects

of non-polymer catechins. The term “non-polymer catechins”

as used herein is a generic term, which collectively

encompasses non-epi-form catechins such as catechin,

gallocatechin, catechin gallate and gallocatechin gallate, and

epi-form catechins such as epicatechin, epigallocatechin,

epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin gallate. The

concentration of non-polymer catechins is defined based on

the total amount of the above-described eight non-polymer


The purified product is next granulated into a powder.

The granulation may be conducted by either a dry method

or a wet method, but for obtaining a particle size suited for

dissolution in water or another drinking medium, wet

granulation that granulates by using the adhesive force of

water or a binder is preferred. Examples of preferred

granulation methods include spray-drying granulation,

freeze-drying granulation, fluidized bed granulation and

tumbling granulation. The granulation can be conducted by

using two or more of these granulation methods in




Culinary Use

Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very

mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a

snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They

can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea, to

which honey is often added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may

also be added. Ginger can also be made into candy.

Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice

from old ginger roots is extremely potent and is often used

as a spice in Indian recipes, and is an quite essential

ingredient of Chinese, Japanese and many South Asian

cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood or goat meat

and vegetarian cuisine.

Ginger Acts as a Useful Food Preservative

Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a

ratio of 6 to 1, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger

are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically

used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies,

crackers and cake, ginger ale, and ginger beer.

Candied ginger is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and

is a type of confectionery. Fresh ginger may be peeled before

eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in

a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.


1. Citric Acid

At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline

powder. It can exist either in an anhydrous (water-free) form

or as a monohydrate. The anhydrous form crystallizes from

hot water, where as the monohydrate forms when citric acid

is crystallized from cold water. The monohydrate can be

converted to the anhydrous form by heating above 78 °C.

Citric acid also dissolves in absolute (anhydrous) ethanol (76

parts of citric acid per 100 parts of ethanol) at 15 degrees


In chemical structure, citric acid shares the properties

of other carboxylic acids. When heated above 175°C, it

decomposes through the loss of carbon dioxide and water.

Citric acid leaves a white crystalline precipitate.

Citric acid is a slightly stronger acid than typical

carboxylic acids because the anion can be stabilized by intramolecular

hydrogen-bonding from other protic groups on

citric acid.

2. Measurement

Citric acid has been used as an additive to soft drinks,

beer, and seltzer, and occurs naturally in many juices. This

causes a problem in measurement because the standard

measuring technique for sugar is refractive index. The

refractive index of sugar and citric acid is almost identical.

For soft drinks and orange juice the best measure of

sweetness is the sugar/acid ratio. Recently, the use of

infrared sensors has allowed measurement of

both Brix (sugar content) and acidity by detecting sugars and

citric acid through their characteristic molecular vibrations;

this gives an accurate assessment of a drink’s sweetness.

3. Sodium Benzoate

Sodium benzoate is a type of salt that may occur naturally

in some foods but is more likely to be chemically produced

and added as a preservative to foods. When used as a

preservative, sodium benzoate is typically added to foods in

small amounts only. If too much is added, food may take on

a very bitter taste.

The reason you will note sodium benzoate listed in the

ingredients of so many foods is because it works very well at

killing bacteria, yeast and fungi. You will most commonly see

it is used as a preservative in foods with a high acid content,

since sodium benzoate will only work when the pH balance

of foods is less than 3.6. It is therefore effective in most

sodas, vinegar, fruit juice, and in mixed ingredients like salad

dressing. It is additionally used to stop the fermentation

process in wines. Naturally occurs in several fruits like apples,

plums and cranberries. A few sweet spices contain small





Ginger has been used around the world as a condiment

and also for its medicinal materials. Important

ingredients contained are zingerone, shogaol, gingerol, refined

oil and other things of ginger rhizomes. It is exclusively

propagated vegetatively by rhizomes. Because ginger does not

produce seeds, it is very difficult to breed new genotypes

through sexual propagation. Thus, most of the crop

improvement programmes of this species are confined to

evaluation and selection of naturally occurring clonal


Biotechnological approaches for crop improvement

require efficient regeneration of crops from tissue culture.

Ginger is mostly confined to propagation from shoot-tip

culture. In a vegetatively propagated crop like ginger, the

risk of systemic infections with rootknot nematodes,

bacterial wilt, virus and Fusarium from the propagules are

remarkably high. It is successfully eliminated rootknot

nematodes from heavily infected rhizomes through in vitro

culture of shoot tips. It also demonstrate the importance of

shoot-tip culture in seed rhizome production. This study has

been undertaken to demonstrate the efficient propagation

of rhizome induced by tissue culture in producing normal

rhizome in ginger.

Field Study

It was conducted at the Research Field of Horticultural

Research Division, Chungcheongnam-do Agriculture

Research and Extension Services through cultivation under

rain shelter. Plots were 20 m long with 40 cm between beds,

on a raised bed (120 cm width × 15 cm height). Forty eight

seed rhizomes were planted in 30×50 cm apart four rows per

plot for each treatment. Plots were arranged in a completely

randomized design with four replications. Ginger grown at

cultivation under rain shelter were harvested on 20th October

for measurements. Plant height, bulb number, bulb weight,

total fresh weights were determined from five plants in each

plot. Differences among mean values were tested by Duncan’s

multiple range test.

Effect of Tissue Cultured Rhizomes of Ginger

In tissue cultured rhizomes and vegetatively propagated

rhizomes, tissue cultured rhizome was the most effective in

early emergence and percentage of emergence. At the best

emergence rate, TC2F was 92.1%. The frequency of

emergence ranged from 77.3% to 92.1% in tissue cultured

rhizome while vegetatively propagated rhizomes was ranged

up to 36.6%. Thus the present results showed that tissue

culture derived rhizomes was more vigorous than home seed

production in production of seed ginger. Early of emergence

was noticed from a tissue cultured rhizomes than a Korean

native ginger rhizomes.

The agromatic characteristics of rhizome were dependent

on seed rhizome in ginger. Plant height of TC1F was highest

among all treatments. The stem number per a plant in TC2H

was significantly higher than other treatments. The stem

diameter of plant in TC1F was highest while that of TC1H

was lowest. The fresh weight of rhizome per a plant after

harvesting per plant was more than 2 times compared to

Korean native ginger. The rhizome induced by tissue culture

was more efficient in producing 486 g fresh weight per plant

compared with vegetative propagation method. The weights

of seed rhizome per a plant were significantly higher with a

tissue cultured rhizomes than vegetatively propagated




The primary role of packaging is to contain, protect and

preserve a product as well as aid in its handling and final

presentation. The package is physical container or wrapping

for product. It is an integral part of product planning and

promotion. Packaging also refers to the process of design,

evaluation, and production of packages. The packaging can

be done within the export company or the job can be assigned

to an outside packaging company Introduction.

Packaging provides following benefits to the goods to be

exported: Physical Protection – Packaging provides protection

against shock, vibration, temperature, moisture and dust.

Marketing: Proper and attractive packaging play an important

role in encouraging a potential buyer. Convenience - Packages

can have features which add convenience in distribution,

handling, display, sale, opening, use, and reuse. Negative :The

design of the package should not give any negative message.

Companies sometimes change packaging to update their

image and reach a new market.

Packaging the package = physical container or wrapping

for a product. Protecting of products for distribution, storage,

sale, and use Negative message change packaging

Functions of Packaging

1. Promotion & Selling of product.

2. Defining product identity.

3. Providing information.

4. Ensure safe use.

5. Protecting the product.

Promotion & Selling of product- Customer reaction to a

package and brand name is an important factor in

determining marketplace success or failure. Attractive,

colorful and visually appealing packages have promotional

value. A well designed package is a powerful selling device

because it helps the product stand out from its competitors

Defining product identity- Packaging is sometimes used

to promote an image such as prestige. Convenience or status.

Can be a crucial part of marketing strategy particularly in


Providing Information Packages give directions for

product use, information about contents, guarantees,

nutritional information, and potential hazards. Ensure safe

use packaging helps to eliminate potential injuries or misuse

of a product. Formerly glass containers are now plastic.

1. Childproof caps.

2. Tamper resistant packages. Including stickers, labels,

tags, or paint.

Protecting the product- Packages protect a product during

shipping, storage, and display, prevent tampering, and

protect against spoilage and breakage 24% 16% 28% 32%

protective packaging eco-friendly convience packaging all

above consumer priority towards packaging.

Packing - refers to the external containers used for

transportation, durable enough packing list name and

address of the consignor name and address of the consignee

order or requisition number, Bill of lading number and

Description of the material shipped.

Factors Influencing Packing type of Product - Large and

heavy objects- Crates , Powders like cement – Bags , Liquids

like acetic acid – Drums or Containers , Small and heavy items

– Wooden Crates , Bulky materials like cotton – Bales.

Marking means to mark the address, number of packages

etc. on the packets. It is essential for identification purpose

and should provide information on exporters’ mark, port of

destination, and place of destination, order number and date,

gross, net and tare weight and handling instructions. It

should also be ensured that while putting marks, the law of

buyer’s country is duly compiled with. Marking can be

included in stickers, labels, tags, or paint. Care should also

be taken to ensure that the marking conforms to those written

in the invoice, insurance certificate, bill of lading and other



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