The most dynamic industry of the century is the petroleum and petrochemicals industry. It has taken the fundamental knowledge of chemistry and chemical engineering and transformed itself from a simple processing industry for fuel and lubricants to an extremely complex chemical process industry which has branched out into synthetic rubber, plastics, fertilizers and many other fields. Petroleum (crude oil) is a mixture of different hydrocarbons. Many useful products can be made from these hydrocarbons. The fractions are separated from one another using a process called fractional distillation. This process is based on the principle that different substances boil at different temperatures. The applications of distillation in petroleum industry are quite varied. The assaying of crude oils and the evaluation many petroleum products depend on distillation. Petroleum products obtained from processes such as distillation often need supplementary purification. Refining is a process of purification of products by means of chemical process. Chemical engineering and petroleum processing have in a very real sense grown up together. Studies on fluid flow, heat transfer, distillation, absorption, and the like were undertaken and applied to wide variety of materials because of need in the petroleum processing field. The largest share of oil products is used as energy carriers: various grades of fuel oil and gasoline. Heavier (less volatile) fractions can also be used to produce asphalt, tar, paraffin wax, lubricating and other heavy oils. Refineries also produce other chemicals, some of which are used in chemical processes to produce plastics and other useful materials. Hydrogen and carbon in the form of petroleum coke may also be produced as petroleum products. Petrochemicals have a vast variety of uses. The use of petroleum hydrocarbons to make synthesis gas has made petroleum and natural gas the world main source of ammonia, the source of almost all nitrogen fertilizers. While petroleum product demand in the western world is relatively stagnant, for developing countries, particularly those in Asia, demand is booming. It is all about growing populations and their escalating need for energy.
Some of the fundamental of the book are the nature of petroleum, crude oil processing, distillation in the petroleum industry, refining of lubricating oils, petrolatum, and waxes, residue fluidized catalytic cracking, chemical thermodynamics of petroleum , benefits of biodiesel produced from vegetable oil, petroleum products used as fuel oils, manufacture of asphalt from petroleum, petroleum waxes, chlorinated waxes, synthesis gas etc.
The book presents information and data which will help oil companies, large scale users of commercial petroleum products in efficient storage, handling and utilization of these products. Different formulae, processes for the production of petroleum products are given in this book. This will be very useful book for new entrepreneurs, existing units, technocrats, researchers, institutional libraries etc.
The Nature of Petroleum
Largest Energy Supplier
Constituents of Petroleum
Aliphatics, or open chain Hydrocarbons
2 Crude Oil Processing
Distillation in the Petroleum Industry
Single stage Processes
Process feed Preparation
Refining by Chemical Methods
Sulfuric Acid Treating
Reactions with Hydrocarbons
Paraffinic and Naphthenic Hydrocarbons
Manner and Effects of Treating
Refining by Physical Methods
Fullers Earth (Attapulgite, Floridin, Florida Earth)
Acid activated Bentonite
Separation of Classes of Hydrocarbons
Refining of Lubricating Oils, Petrolatums, and Waxes
Regeneration of Adsorbents
Solvent Refining Processes
Refining Lubricating Oil Stocks.
Separation of Wax
Residue Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (RFCC or RCC)
FCC versus HCU
5. Chemical Thermodynamics of Petroleum
The Standard Free Energy and Equilibrium
Status of Thermodynamic Data
Applications to Petroleum Processing
Aromatization of Paraffins and Naphthenes
Isomerization of n Butane
Composition, Manufacture, and use of Gasoline
Volatility of Gasoline
Air Fuel Mixtures and Combustion
Phenomena of Knocking
Ethyl Alcohol as an IC Engine Fuel
Alcohols as auto fuels
Issues not in favour of Alcohol
Blending Alcohol and Gasoline
7. Diesel Fuels
8. Bio Diesel
Disadvantages of Vegetable Oil as Diesel Fuel
Benefits of Biodiesel Produced from Vegetable Oil
Disadvantages of Biodiesel produced from Vegetable Oil
Biodiesel Production from various vegetable oils on
Country Source of biodiesel
Economics of Biodiesel Project
Tax Incentives in Developed Countries
World Production Level of Biodiesel
Price in USA
Projected Indian Demand Scenario For Biodiesel
Average annual CAGR for High Speed Diesel
Demand for Biodiesel
Potential Indian Demand for Biodiesel
Choice of Jatropha
Cultivation Practices of Jatropha Plant
Conditions for growth:
Cultivation practices and yield
Jatropha Oil Content
Eco Friendly Biodiesel
Fulfilling basic criteria
9. Kerosene, Absorbent, Oils, and Fuels Oils
Combustion of Fuel Oils
Petroleum Products Used as Fuel Oils
Certain Unusual Crude Oils
Crude Oil Residua
Gas Oils, Distillate Fuel Oils.
10. Lubrication and Lubricants
Friction and Lubrication
Chemical Properties and Composition
Crystallization of Wax
Dewaxing of Heavy Oils
12. Petroleum Asphalts
Chemical and Physical Composition
Carbenes and Carboids
Possible Structures of the Nuclei in Resins, and Asphaltenes
Physical Properties and Tests
Manufacture of Asphalt from Petroleum
Residual or Straight run Asphalts
Air blown Asphalts
Uses of Asphalts
13. Miscellaneous Petroleum Products and Derived Products
Miscellaneous Petroleum Products
Industrial Naphtha Solvents
Paints, Varnishes and Lacquers
Sulfuric Acid Sludge
Petroleum Sulfonic Acids
Chemicals Derived from Petroleum
Chemicals Derived from Olefinic Hydrocarbons.
Secondary Butyl Alcohol
Glycols And Glycerol
Addition of Halogenes
Chemicals Derived from Paraffinic Hydrocarbons
Chemicals Derived from Aromatic Hydro carbons
Fischer Tropsch Process and Products
Propylene Trimer and Tetramer
Other Acrylonitrile Derivatives
Other Epichlorohydrin Derivatives
Allyl A lcohol Derivatives
1,2 Dibromo 3 Chloropropane
1,2,6 Hexane Triol
Higher Propylene Glycols
1,3 Propylene Diamine
Polypropylene Oxide Elastomers
Diacetone Alcohol (DAA)
Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK)
Methyl Isobutyl Carbinol (MIBC)
15. Synthesis Gas
Fuel oil partial oxidation
Reformer off gas purification by low temperature fractionation
Topsfe SEA autothermal process using naphtha
Urea formaldehyde resins
Ethyl 1, 3 hexanediol
Heavy Oxo Chemicals
Substituted Urea, Carbamate and Thiocarbamate Pesticides
Other Phosgene Derivatives
Hydrogenated Fats and Oils
Other hydrogen peroxide derivatives
Fatty Nitriles and Amines
16. Other Petrochemicals
Detergent Raw Materials
Synthetic p Cresol
Synthetic o Cresol
Lubrication and Lubricants
The underlying principles of friction between everyday objets of conventional smoothness seem to have been understood clearly by Leonardo da Vinci (ca. 1500). These principles were formulated by Amontons (1700) as follows:
Friction is proportional to the load normal to the rubbing surfaces.
It is independent of the area of contact.
The third and less significant rule was formulated by Coulomb (1800):
Friction is independent of the velocity of movement. Even the earliest investigators recognized that friction varies with the material and condition of the surfaces in contact; indeed, it is customary to regard the expression
Resistance to tangential motion/Force normal to the surfaces
as an approximate constant for each surface system; it is called the coefficient of friction. A useful distinction is that when motion between the surfaces is started from rest, the constant is known as the static coefficient; when motion is already established, it becomes the kinetic coefficient of friction.
Friction is an important phenomenon in everyday life, but most of the manifestations with which we are familiar are between soft, rough surfaces rather than the hard, polished ones occurring in the bearings of power-transmitting devices. Thus the high friction between a leather shoe sole and a stone pavement, which enables us to stand or walk without slipping, is due to the fact that the irregularities in the floor enter the comparatively soft leather surface pressed down on them. The friction here is due to the irregularities or asperities in the surfaces, which interlock. In a system of this nature, it will generally be found that the coefficient of static friction will increase with the time during which the surfaces have been pressed together and that the kinetic coefficient of friction changes with the velocity of motion. In addition, the static and kinetic coefficients are not the same in value. Where smooth hard surfaces are employed, the static coefficient for the surfaces at once reaches a steady value, which is not very different from that of the kinetic coefficient. It is obvious that what is involved is the slow change in shape of the nonrigid surface, supplemented by change in the degree of interlocking of asperities.
The general "laws" stated above were derived from observation on relatively smooth, relatively rigid surfaces of ordinary cleanness, thus presumably unlubricated. Actually, all surfaces prepared and handled without elaborate precautions bear, by touch or by condensation from the atmosphere, greasy films of marked lubricating value. For smooth metal surfaces so contaminated, coefficients of friction of the order of 0.1 to 0.3 have been observed. As cleanliness is improved, the coefficients rise to the point where relative sliding without damage becomes impossible and seizure occurs; this is discussed below.
The first and second laws need little change from the form in which they were derived by the early natural philosophers; the third needs restatement as follows.
Friction is practically independent of speed when this latter is above a certain minimum value, and decreases slightly with increase of speed a much higher values.
Any explanation of the nature of friction should offer reasonable opportunity for deduction of these rules. The two explanations which have been most attractive since the earliest days are based, respectively, on the resistance to sliding motion offered by interlocking roughnesses of the two surfaces and or the cohesive attraction, among molecules of the surfaces, across the interface. It is obvious that for rough surfaces such as wood, stone, or unfinished metal castings, gross asperities will be the determining factors.
FRICTION AND LUBRICATION
It has been pointed out that friction between carefully cleaned surfaces is quite high, tending to seizure, while the greasy surfaces of daily life will show coefficients near 0.1 to 0.3. Two further stages, in the progression from full lubrication to no lubrication, are recognizable; these are fluid film, thick film, or hydrodynamic lubrication, and thin film or boundary lubrication.
The mode of occurrence of thin-film and thick-film lubrication in ordinary practice may be indicated by the statement that the latter is regarded as the ideal which should prevail in all well-designed journal bearing systems when in normal motion; the former is a somewhat undesired condition existing when bearing systems are starting, stopping, undergoing oil starvation, or are under extremely severe conditions of duty. The various regions of friction and lubrication may then be listed as follows:
Dry friction of clean surfaces practically never prevails except under experimental conditions; the frictional resistance is high, and seizure occurs with extreme readiness. Dry friction of ordinary surfaces in daily life is lower than that of clean surfaces. Here also seizure occurs readily; the so-called laws of solid friction have been deduced from phenomena observed with surfaces of ordinary cleanliness.
Thin-film lubrication represents a transition stage between greasy dry friction and thick-film lubrication. It is an unstable condition and depends for its existence on what is apparently chemical reaction or secondary valence combination between the metals and the lubricant. It is most likely to prevail at times of low oil supply. In many bearing systems, lubrication is inadequate when the parts are moving at lower speeds than those for which they have been designed, as in starting or stopping. Under those conditions thin-film lubrication may prevail.
Thick-film lubrication represents a stable region in which the moving surfaces are separated by a complete film of lubricant, so maintained inspite of the pressure which constitutes tho load on the bearing system. The persistence of the oil film depends on the pumping action of the moving parts (supplemented by the supply pressure usually provided in actual machines), and the case with which this desirable condition is attained depends on the correctness of the bearing design and the proper choice of oil, particularly as to viscosity at the effective temperature.
Recognition of the dependence of friction in bearings upon the variables of the complete bearing system probably began with the observation by Petroff in 1883 that an oil of optimum viscosity could be selceted for each particular service. The voluminous studies of journal-bearing lubrication since that date have served to extend the list of controlling conditions until it includes: