The Complete Book on Biological Waste Treatment and their Utilization

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The Complete Book on Biological Waste Treatment and their Utilization

Author: Dr. H. Panda
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9789381039236
Code: NI251
Pages: 504
Price: Rs. 1,675.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2013
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
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The organic waste stream is composed of waste of a biological origin such as paper and cardboard, food, green and garden waste, animal waste and biosolids and sludges. Organic waste is usually generated as a component of most waste streams. For information on the treatments for managing organic wastes click on the links to the right. Four significant components of this organic, biodegradable stream are from food preparation, agricultural production, livestock manures, and municipal sewage sludge. Organic waste from food sources includes vegetables, fruits, grains, meats, fish, dairy products, etc., and constitutes some 18% of the typical municipal organic waste stream. An average of 1 kg per person per day of organic waste is produced, originating from households, wholesalers & processors, restaurants, and institutions. Urban centers are the major generators of organic food waste. Agricultural waste includes waste made up of those materials such as manure and animal output, in either solid or liquid form from poultry or other livestock operations. It also includes harvest remains from grain, oilseed, vegetable, and orchard crops. Increase in biological waste has led to the increase in biological waste management technology. Waste management is the collection, transport, processing or disposal, managing and monitoring of waste materials.
The book includes organic waste for biological treatment, organic waste forms and treatment strategies, transformation of liquid manure into a solid, modeling of agricultural waste treatments, utilization of Indian waste in livestock feeds etc. This book also explains the different types of organic wastes like waste from tomato, jute, cotton, agro-industries, dehydration process of onion, piggeries, poultry, milk parlour etc. This book describes the methods how organic waste can be converted into useful products like oxalic acid, oxytetracycline, humic acids etc. The book is highly recommended to new entrepreneurs, existing units who wants to get more information of organic waste treatment.

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Contents

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1. Organic Waste for Biological Treatment
Introduction, Physiological basis for Hazardous Organic Compound Degradation, Anaerobic Versus Aerobic Transformations, Examples of Hazardous Waste Amenable to Biological Treatment, Petroleum Components, Beta Oxidation, Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Halogenated Compounds, Halogenated Alkanes and Alkanoic Acids, Halogenated Aromatic and Polycydic Aromatic Compounds, Biodegradation by Mixed Populations, Conclusions
2. Organic Waste Forms and Treatment Strategies
Overview Of Biological Remediation And Waste Treatment Processes, In Situ Treatment, Bioreactor Designs, Examples of Biological Treatment Processes, Treatment of Liquid Wastes, In Situ Treatment for the Remediation of Surface and Groundwater, Bioreactor Treatment of Contaminated Water, Treatment off Solids, In Situ Treatment for the Remediation of Contaminated Soils, Soil Composting and Land Treatment, Bioreactors for the Treatment of Solids, Treatment of Gases, A Summary
3. Transformation of Liquid Manure into a Solid
Possible Processes for Manufacturing Solids from Wet Manure, Methodology of the Selected Process and Design of Plant, Tests of the Plant, Producing the mixture for composting, Producing the pellers, Composting, Drying, Qualities of the Product, Mechanical stability, Odour, Pathogen destruction, Fertiliser, Evaluation of the Process
4. Tomato Waste Water Treatment
Materials and Methods, Experimental cycle, Experimental apparatus, Results, Discussion, Cost Analysis, Conclusions
5. Oxalic Acid From Jute Stick
Methods , Alkali fusion, Nitric acid oxidation, Results and Discussion , Alkali fusion process, Nitric acid oxidation process, Effect of reaction time, Effect of temperature, Effect of catalyst concentration, Effect of nitric acid concentration, Nitric acid oxidation, Conclusions
6. Digestion of Cotton Processing Waste
Methods , Substrate, Analytical methods, Batch fermentation, Bench-scale studies, Experimental plant studies, Gas analysis, Results and Discussion
7. Properties of Sorghum Stalk
Nomenclature, Methods , Selection of materials, Harvesting schedule, Sample preparation, Measurement of physical properties, Strength characteristics of sorghum stalk, Compression strength, Tensile strength, Shear strength, Results and Discussion, Overall and internodal lengths, Moisture distribution, Solid density of stalk, Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Shear strength
8. Fermentation of Fish Waste
Methods, Fish, Sample preparation, Inoculum, Analytical methods, Microbiological examination, Statistical analysis, Experiment 1 , Experiment 2, Experiment 3, Experiment 4, Experiment 5, Results and Discussion
9. Agro-Industrial Wastes
Methods, Results and Discussion
10. Bioconversion of Pretreated Wheat Straw and Sunflower Stalks to Ethanol
Methods, Substrates, Enzyme, Substrate hydrolysis, Analytical methods, Ethanol assay, Ethanol production, Results and Discussion, Pretreatment of wheat straw, Pretreatment of sunflower stalks, Yeast fermentation
11. Modelling of Agricultural Waste Treatments
Chemical Reactor Theory, Microbial Kinetics, Model Implementation, Extension of the Previous Model to Digestion
12. Utilization of Waste of Dehydrated Onion
Methods, Isolation of Yeasts, Maintenance of strains, Preparation of onion juice from waste products of the dehydrated onion industry , Fermentation media, Tests of C and N sources, etc., Onion juice media, Analytical methods, Results and Discussion, Production of fodder yeast in a laboratory medium, Production of fodder yeast in an onion juice medium
13. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Disposal on Land
Methods and Results, Infiltration tests, Small-scale trials of the general effects of application of sludge (POMS) to land Trial1, Application to give Specfic Benefits to Land, Mulching effect (Trial 3), Restoring rintailings (Trial 4), Commercially Practical Methods and Optimum Input Rates for Application to Oil Palms, Preliminary trials, Long-term experiments
(Trial 7), Discussion
14. Studies on Beef-Cattle Manure Slurry
Model Development, Materials, Methods , Measurement of rheological properties, Apparatus and procedure, Results and Discussion, Temperature and total solids effect on limiting viscosity, 0, Temperature and TS effect on K”, Summary and Conclusions
15. Meat Meal and Algae for Calves
Methods , Results and Discussion, Performance of calves, Nutritive value of the ration
16. Manures and Sewage Sludges for Algal Growth
Materials and Methods, Collection and treatment of samples of sludge and manure, Analysis of the wastes, Preparation of media for cultivation of algae, Analysis of properties of waste extracts, Cultivation of algae in various media, Analysis of properties of waste-grown algae, Results, Properties of the wastes, Properties of the waste extracts, Growth rates of algae in various waste extracts, Oven-dried weight of harvested algae, Chlorophyll content of harvested algae, Heavy metal content of harvested algae, Discussion
17. Management and Treatment of Wastes from Large Piggeries
Typical Production Plant Layout and Sewerage, Wastewater Characteristics, Agricultural Applicability of Wastewaters, Wastewater Treatment for Stream Disposal, Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment, Primary treatment, Secondary treatment, Tertiary treatment, Economics of Treatment and Conclusions
18. Tower Digestion of Pig Waste
Methods, Equipment, Seed sludge, Pig manure, Tower operation, Analytical methods, Flocculant testing, Experimental design, Results and Discussion , Tower design changes, Flocculant testing, Tower performance, Flocculant effectiveness in the tower, Prospects for scale-up
19. Nutritive Value of Poultry Waste
Methods, Results and Discussion
20. Digestion of Rabbit and Pig Waste
Methods, Experimental design, Digesters, Substrates, Experimental procedure, Analytical methods, Results and Discussion , Energy production, Rabbit wastes, Mixed substrates: Pig manure and rabbit wastes, Pollution Control, Rabbit wastes, Discussion
21. Chemical Composition of Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Methods, Sampling, Fractionation procedure, Assays, Results and Discussion , Pome, Clarification sludge, Conclusions,
22. Humic Substances from Composed Barks
Methods, Organic fertilizers, Chemical analysis, Extraction of humic matter, Sephadex gel filtration, Results and Discussion, Organic carbon content, Extracting efficiencies of reagents, Influence of extracting solutions, Time of extraction and sample-to-solvent ratio, Number of extractions, Sample particle size
23. Humic Substances From Decomposing Bark
Methods, Raw materials, Chemical analysis, Humic materials, Results and Discussion, Spruce bark, Spruce bark plus hen manure (20%)
24. Particle Size and Tomato Waste Digestion
Experimental Procedures, Results and Discussion
25. Humic Acids on Hydrolysis of Potato Protein
Methods , Materials, Analysis, Experimental procedures, Results, Discussion
26. Effects of Composts on Wheat Yields
Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Composition of composts, Experiment 1. Evaluation of composts on an equal nitrogen basis, Experiment 2. Evaluation of composts when added at a flat rate of 5 t/ha in addition to NPK fertilizers
27. Production of Oxytetracycline
Methods, Maintenance of Streptomyces rimosus 12907, Vegetative medium, Fermentation medium, Production oj oxytetracycline in afermenter (1200 litre), Determination oj amino acids present in fermented mash, Anti-microbial spectrum of oxytetracycline present in the dry mash, Results and Discussion
28. Use of Manure in Fish Farming
Keeping Livestock in the Vicinity of Fish Ponds, Applying Manures to Fish Ponds, Adding Manures to Feeds, Economic Comparison of Feeding and Manuring, Modes of Action of Manure, Direct Consumption of Manure, Manure as a Fertiliser for Autotrophic Production
29. Bacteria in Swine Waste
Materials and Methods, Analytical techniques, Results , Identification, Effect of waste concentration, Effect of pH, Effect of sulfide concentration, Protein production and nutrient uptake, Discussion , Growth characterization, Protein production and treatment capacity, Integration with algal systems
30. Poultry Waste Water as Broiler Feeds
Results and Discussion
31. Utilization of Indian Wastes in Livestock Feeds
Prominence of Salseed Meal, Similarity of Oak Kernels and, Salseed Meal, Oak Kernels in Poultry Mashes, Oak Kernels in Cattle Rations, Importance of a Negative Control in Experimental Designs, Rationing of Animals on the Minimum Adequate Requirement
32. Methane from Cattle Waste
Methods , Herd characteristics, Fermenter substrate, Fermenters, Experimental, Results, Discussion , Methane yield, Temperature effect
33. Treatment of Milking Parlour Wastewater
Methods, Pilot-scale reactor system description, Time allocation and operation of each phase of reactor, Analyses, Results and Discussion
34. Indicators of Pig Slurry Odours
Materials and Methods, Chemical analysis, Odour offensiveness test, Raw slurries of excreta, Treated slurries, Results and Discussion, Non-specific characteristics, Specific odourants, Prediction of odour offensiveness from chemical and biochemical characteristics, Conclusions
35. Pig Liquid Manure
Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion
36. UASB Treatment of Wastes
Introduction, Materials and Methods , Sampling and analysis, Seed sludge, Wastewater characteristics, The 30 m3 semi-technical experimental, pilot plant, RESULTS, Start up and operation, Loading rates and treatment efficiency, Sludge wash out, COD balance and sludge increment, Sludge retention and total methanogenic activity, Discussion, The performance of the reactor at an intermittent feeding, Performance at process temperatures of 20 °C and 30 °C, Sludge retention and sludge wash out, The rate of hydrolysis in the reactor
37. Digestion of Poultry Litter
Methods, Digester feedstock, Digester construction, Digester operation, Analytical methods, Data handling, Solids digestion, Results, Daily fed digesters, Batch digestion, Discussion, Daily fed digesters, Litter composition, Ammonium-N levels, Gas composition and biogas yields, Kinetic model, Batch digestion
38. Beef-Cattle Manure Slurries
Material, Methods, Apparatus, Computational procedure, Modified Reynolds Number, Results, Comparing capillary and rotational viscometer results, The f=NRe correlation for cattle manure slurries, Summary and Conclusions,

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