The small scale sector is assuming greater importance every day. Starting a small scale venture is a reality that has created wide open opportunity and success for those who decided to take the plunge just as it can for you. Setting up a small scale industry is also the easiest and least expensive way to become an entrepreneur. Hundreds of thousands of people start their own businesses every year, and untold more dream about the possibility of becoming their own bosses. While entrepreneurship has its many potential rewards, it also carries unique challenges. To start a business of your own you need to understand the environment to set up an enterprise of you own. To run a successful business, you need to learn all about your existing and potential customers, your competitors and the economic conditions of your market place. An entrepreneur requires a continuous flow of funds not only for setting up of his/ her business, but also for successful operation as well as regular up gradation/ modernization of the industrial unit. To meet this requirement, the Government (both at the Central and State level) has been undertaking several steps like setting up of banks and financial institutions; formulating various policies and schemes, etc. The Government has announced series of steps to promote industrial development by way of rationalization of the policies to encourage the new entrepreneurs as well as existing units. Any unit or new entrepreneur, establishing or implementing the project needs a complete set of plan and finance for making it successful. You do not need to be a genius to run a successful business, but you do need some help. And that is exactly what this book is, a guide into the stimulating world of business ownership and management.
Our Prime Minister unveiled a 19-point action plan for start-up enterprises in India. Highlighting the importance of the Standup India Scheme, Hon’ble Prime minister said that the job seeker has to become a job creator. Prime Minister announced that the initiative envisages loans to at least two aspiring entrepreneurs from the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Women categories. It was also announced that the loan shall be in the ten lakh to one crore rupee range.
A startup India hub will be created as a single point of contact for the entire startup ecosystem to enable knowledge exchange and access to funding. Startup India campaign is based on an action plan aimed at promoting bank financing for start-up ventures to boost entrepreneurship and encourage startups with jobs creation.
Startup India is a flagship initiative of the Government of India, intended to build a strong ecosystem for nurturing innovation and Startups in the country. This will drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities. The Government, through this initiative aims to empower Startups to grow through innovation and design.
Stand up India backed up by Department of Financial Services (DFS) intents to bring up Women and SC/ST entrepreneurs. They have planned to support 2.5 lakh borrowers with Bank loans (with at least 2 borrowers in both the category per branch) which can be returned up to seven years.
PM announced that “There will be no income tax on startups’ profits for three years”
PM plans to reduce the involvement of state government in the startups so that entrepreneurs can enjoy freedom.
No tax would be charged on any startup up to three years from the day of its establishment once it has been approved by Incubator.
The major contents of the book are measuring tapes (steel), carbon potentiometers, auto pistons, wafer biscuits (new), automatic curtain opener, tumbler locks, cement concrete tiles and paving blocks, woven labels, electro cardiogram paper (E.C.G. paper), tomato products, leather chappals, distribution board, v. belts and fan belts, baby bloomer suits, electronic quartz analog clocks, power pack/battery eliminators, table fan, potato/banana wafers, laminated safety glass, HRC fuse links, 1000 VAC, directory section etc.
The present book is a chain of guidelines, which will help you in selection of an appropriate industry in low investment. The project covered in this book can be started with in twenty lakhs, without having much technical knowledge. This will be very helpful to those who want to become an entrepreneur.
Measuring Tapes (Steel)
Steel measuring tapes are used for
measuring length or distances. There are number of measuring devices available
for different purposes for instance steel measuring tape, tailors measuring
tape, measuring scale wooden and steel rulers and soon steel measuring tapes are
used for measuring length or distances. These are hand items being encased in
rolled form. As this is a small compact item, it can be easily carried from
place to place in a pocket or small bags. For sturdiness and easy handling in
outdoor activities such as on construction sites or sports fields or factories
executives prefer to have this item in their pockets. These measuring tapes are
available in various lengths from 1 metre to 30 meters.
Since the dawn of civilization,
metals and materials have played a keyrole in the life of man without effective
utilisation of metals and materials the spectacular engineering achievements of
the present age would not have been possible. Tremendous developments have of
late, taken place in the production of ferrous and non ferrous metals and their
innumerable alloys and this â€˜materials explosion has now reached astonishing
levels compared with the 19th century, when only 20 odd materials were in
industrial use and many which were unheard of or were mere scientific
curiosities then, have now made important contributions to the advancement of
Measuring tapes are frequently used
in land measurement, wall and floor measurements. In construction of buildings,
it has its unique importance keeping in point of view as easy handling due to it
is in form of rolls compacted in a circular case. It also has wide scope in
Due to the rapid growth of
activities for measuring various areas particularly in the field of survey work,
the demand is coming up rapidly. Besides its extensive uses by surveyors, it is
also used by laboratories for determining areas and different institutions. In
view of increasing activities in construction, sports and games, new industries
etc. the demand for measuring tapes will go on increasing. There are very few
units manufacturing this item. An increased demand with development of more
engineering nature of work of linear measurement in schools, science colleges,
architects and engineering workshops and drawing offices have marvellous
inclination towards these measuring tapes.
â€˜Freemanâ€™sâ€™ is the largest
selling brand in India for Measuring Tapes.
In view of increasing activities in construction, sports
and games, new industries etc., the demand for measuring tapes will go on
increasing. There are few units manufacturing this item. Therefore, there is
good scope for new units to come up in this activity in various parts of the
Carbon Potentiometer is an
electronic component classified as variable resistor. Carbon Potentiometer is
used as voltage divider to provide variable output voltage. Carbon
Potentiometers uses carbon as resistive element. There are different types of
Potentiometers like Wire Wound and ceramic type using different materials as
resistive element. Carbon Potentiometer can be classified into logarithmic type
and linear type depending on the mode of operations. Carbon Potentiometers are
manufactured in many shapes and sizes depending on resistance value, power
rating and type of mounting.
Panel mounted type Carbon
Potentiometer are widely used for volume and tone control in consumer and
entertainment electronics. Printed Circuit Board mount type is used as function
controller, measuring and testing equipment, medical electronics, industrial
electronics etc. Carbon Potentiometers are available with and without switches.
There are many varieties of spindles used for carbon potentiometer depending on
the materials and sizes.
Carbon Potentiometer range includes
double potentiometer at the same shaft, high voltage potentiometer, multi turn
potentiometer, miniature potentiometer etc.
Carbon Potentiometers are used for
volume control, tone control and other applications in Consumer Electronics,
Entertainment Electronics, Industrial Electronics, Medical Electronics,
The consumer electronics is
composed of a wide variety of products (some separately covered in the present
exercise). The segments cover:
& White and Colour
Recorders, ACD Players and Music
VCD and DVD Players
Non-entertainment Consumer Electronics
The Indian consumer electronics
industry attained a compound growth rate of about 18% per year between 1992-93
and 1995-96. Although an impressive rate, it had fallen short of the target of
22%. The industry produced goods worth Rs 54 bn in 1995-96. The consumer
electronics sector was expected to record a production level of Rs 117 bn
during 2000-01, a growth rate of only 4.5% over Rs 112 bn in 1999-2000.
Export of electronic hardware from
India had recorded an impressive 22% growth to $605 mn during 1999-00 after two
years of continuous downturn. During 1998-99, India exported electronic hardware
worth $494 mn. In the year 1999-00, the exports of video films and software
increased $102 mn and $169mn, respectively.
The Indian entertainment industry
is expected to almost treble in size to 280 bn by 2005 from Rs 95 bn at present
according to a study done by Arthur Andersen. In India, the ratio of advertising
expenditure (on which depends TV entertainment) to GDP is about 0.4%. TV
broadcasting segment is expected to grow to Rs 85 bn by 2005 and Rs 290 bn by
2010. The current status of the sector is estimated to be around Rs 30 bn. The
cable television segment, the report states, is expected to grow to about Rs 70
bn by 2005 from the current Rs 25 bn. The film industry is expected to touch Rs
40 bn turnover by 2005, up from Rs 13 bn at present.
Production in the country is
estimated to be valued at Rs. 627 billion in 2000-01, out of which component
sector will be about Rs. 55 billion, which will be growing at a faster rate and
therefore more nos. of Potentiometers will be required. The cost of Carbon
Potentiometer depends on the value, power rating and size. Simple type carbon
potentiometer costs from Rs. 10 to Rs. 25. Special type costs from Rs. 45 to Rs.
80. Raw material like resistive material, silicon grease are imported. However,
other raw materials & machinery are indigenously available.
There are few units in the country manufacturing Carbon
Potentiometer. With high quality and competitive price and marketing tie-up,
there is scope for the industry.
Gravity casting in Aluminium alloy
is popularly used for casting of Piston. These engineering piston are used in
automobile industries. The technique has advantages when a component is required
in large quantities. However in automotive applications, properties and
durability are of primary importance. Therefore, it is essential that the best
design should be used and optimum casting techniques with minimum cost should be
adopted. Gravity Die Casting products are used in domestic as well as
international automobile industries.
Piston is a solid or hollow disc
like plunger fitting closely in a bore of a cylinder into which it reciprocates
from Top Dead Centre (TDC) to Bottom Dead Centre (BDC) and in the process
imparts motion to the vehicle.
Piston ring is a metallic ring of
C.I., wrought iron, steel or gun metal etc. Cast iron piston rings are preferred
for IC engines. Piston rings are used as the peripheral part of the piston.
Rings offer a steam-tight or gas-tight joint between cylinder wall and piston.
This arrangement saves leakage of burnt/half burnt fuel mixture and increases
pistonâ€™s efficiency to impart motion.
Depending on piston size, engine
capacity etc, the size of piston rings use in automobile engines is wide and
varied. Every auto-engine uses these essentially in varying numbers and as
compression ring, oil-control ring or spare ring.
The use of piston rings reduces the
piston weight, improves engine performance, restricts road-pollution and saves
the other parts of the engine from damaging.
Improvement in the quality of
components provides the basic parameter for the marketing of products. Following
the same, the automobile industry in India has been able to meet the demand for
piston for the new generation vehicles. No doubt, the tremendous demand for
world class vehicles will generate scintillating prospects of auto-component
industry, particularly the auto-piston.
The automobile industry in India is
at present undergoing considerable expansion and modernisation with technology
and know-how imported from Japan, U.S.A. and Europe. Following the new economic
policy effecting decontrol and incentives, a number of fuel-efficient vehicles
are already in the market and many more are being added every year. The
manufacturers have been updating the technology by way of import of technologies
and modernisation of the existing manufacturing units. The prospects of
auto-piston industry are highly correlated with the development of automobile
The technique of gravity die cast
aluminium alloy components has the following advantages compared to other
methods of castings:
1. High Productivity
2. Good cast surface
finish and appearance.
3. Casted within close
4. Do not require
5. Very thin section can
be cast with ease.
6. Metal wastage in the
casting process is less.
Auto piston is a part of automobile
which reciprocates in the engine cylinder to transmit power to the wheels. It is
generally made of Aluminium.
Pistons are used in automobile industries. The primary
market is expected to continue as the leading market with the trend of demand
growth in order to cater to the requirement of more and more new auto
industries. The demand is expected to expand at an average growth rate of 15% to
20%. The replacement market is also likely to expand.
Wafer Biscuits (New)
The Indian bakery industry is
dominated by the small scale sector with an estimated 50,000 small and
medium-size producers, besides the 15 units in the organised sector. Apart from
the nature of the industry which gravitates to the markets and caters to the
local tastes, the industry is widely dispersed also due to the reservation
policies of the government.
The two major bakery products,
biscuits and bread, account for 82% of all bakery production. The unorganised
sector accounts for about two-thirds of the total biscuit production estimated
at 1.3 mn tonnes. It also accounts for 80% of the total bread production, which
is estimated at 1.5 mn tonnes and around 90% of the other bakery products
estimated at 0.6 mn tonnes. The last includes pasteries, cakes, buns, rusks and
Biscuit is estimated to enjoy
around 37% share by volume and 75% by value of the bakery industry. The
organised sector caters to the medium and premium segments, which are relatively
less price-sensitive. The organised sector is unable to compete at the lower
price range due to the excise advantage enjoyed by the informal sector.
The organised segment in biscuits
has witnessed a steady growth of about 6%, conforming broadly to the growth rate
of GDP. The production crossed the one-million tonne mark in 1995-96 which has
now grown by estimated 30%.
Bakery industry in India is the
largest of the food industries with an annual turnover of about Rs. 3200 crores.
India is the second largest producer of biscuits after USA.
The quantities of bread and
biscuits produced are more or less the same. However, value of biscuits is more
than bread. The industry largely continues to be in the unorganized sector
contributing over 70% of the total production. Bakery products earlier
considered as sick manâ€™s diet, have now become an essential food items of the
vast majority of population. Though bakery industry in India has been in
existence since long, real fillip came only in the later part of 20th century.
The contributing factors were urbanization, resulting in increased demand for
ready to eat products at reasonable costs.
The bakery units are unevenly
spread and are mainly concentrated in Maharashtra, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh,
Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Industrially advanced States like Maharashtra and
West Bengal have very large number of bakery units. The per capita consumption
is very high in industrialized States like Maharashtra and West Bengal. The
Biscuits are becoming quite popular in rural areas as well. Nearly 56-57% of the
biscuits are consumed by rural sector. The higher consumption of biscuits in
rural area could be attributed to its position as a snack.
Britannia, has rationalised its
product portfolio pruning the number of brands from 35 to 25. The company moved
into the mass market for biscuits introducing low-priced varieties under the
umbrella brand, Tiger. The success of this brand has enabled Britannia to expand
its market share in the glucose biscuit market. Its other major brands are
50:50, Marigold, Bourbon, Pure Magic, Nice, Snax Coconut Crunchies, Glucose-D,
Pure Magic, Good-day. Its bread portfolio consists of Britannia, Britannia
Premium Bake, Tiger and Chekkers. The company is now planning to take on
Parleâ€™s premium-end product, Hide & Seek and Milk Bikis.
Britannia has a tie-up with Danone
of France. Danone is one of the largest processed food producers of
Europe-ranking seventh globally. It has a 22% equity stake in Britannia.
Britannia has the option to draw from the product portfolio of Group Danone.
Over the past couple of years, it
has launched a number of dairy products (processed cheese, flavoured milk,
butter, ghee and dairy whitener) and ethnic snack foods such as â€˜alloo
bhujiyaâ€™ and chana choor.
Although MNCs like Nabisco, Arnotts
and United Biscuits ventured into the market, Britannia enjoys a premium
position. It has dispersed plants geared to the four metros which account for a
major part of sales (65%). It also has 20 dedicated small units around the
metros to help produce about 50% of biscuit production.
Britannia Industries, is planning
to launch chocolate-based products and exploring several variants in cheese,
cakes and biscuits. The company has decided to enter into areas where it will
have the potential of becoming number one operator. Britanniaâ€™s latest venture
has been in milk in tetrapak, in the form of lassi and cold coffee.
Britannia is exploring the
possibility of extending its successful biscuit brand, Tiger, into categories
like milk or milk powder. Britanniaâ€™s French partner, Danone, may consider
taking the mass biscuit brand to its other Asian markets like Malaysia and China
as well as Russia.
Britannia Industries has acquired
49% stake in Kwality Biscuits. It has also acquired Kwality Chef and several
other trademarks along with copyrights, designs in labels and packing material.
The four group companies to be merged with Kwality Biscuits are Vajram Traders,
Camilla Investments, Malakala Traders, Mytrayasa Traders. The domain of Kwality
Biscuits include baking, manufacture of biscuits, cakes, breads, buns,
cornflakes and other breakfast foods, popcorn, wheat shreds, pastries and flour.
Britannia is looking for more acquisitions in food business.
Parle is the second largest
producer of biscuits in the organised sector with a market share exceeding 30%.
In the popular brands segment, its Parle G which remains a popular brand in
glucose biscuit segment. In the premium segment, its hide and seek is attracting
competition due to the sway it holds in the market place. In the saltish
biscuits, Monaco has been quite popular, especially in the cocktail circuit.
Parleâ€™s however, derives a major
part of its revenues from the low-priced products. The company has,
nevertheless, outpaced the industry growth in step with the market leader
Sara Leeâ€”with world-wide
interests in foods and beverages, personal and domestic products apart from
intimate wearâ€“has exited from its bakery business in India. Sara Lee Bakery
India, which made a big bang entry into the country in 1998 by acquiring the
biscuit business of confectionery major Nutrine has pulled out. Despite the
excellent distribution network inherited from Nutrine, Sara Leeâ€™s bakery
business suffered mainly due to the onslaught from aggressive players like
Britannia, Parle and Kwality.
Kelloggâ€™s known worldwide for
breakfast cereals, has entered a new product segmentâ€“biscuits. It has launched
Kelloggâ€™s chocos biscuits, an extension of its chocos cereal. Kelloggâ€™s
found that there was an opportunity to carve a niche for itself in the market by
leveraging the core equity of some of its large cereal brands.
Smithkline has succeeded with the
launch of Horlicks (a healthfood brand) biscuits. Nestle has recently taken over
the biscuits manufacturing 1 joint venture with Dabur, Excelsia and converted it
into a wholly-owned subsidiary. Dabur India has divested its entire 40% stake in
the controversial joint venture. Excelcia Food with Swiss major, Nestle SA, thus
existing the biscuit business altogether.
Cigarette major ITC is planning to
enter the processed foods business with a range that would include flour,
confectionery and biscuits. ITCâ€™s expansion into Tprocessed and staple foods
also fits in well with efforts by its international trading arm to extend
operations from farm to factory.
Lancer Foods is launching cookies,
biscuits and namkeens. Vita Gold is positioned against Parleâ€™s Glucose
brand. Lancer Food Products, a recent entrant in the biscuit market, has planned
to set up two additional manufacturing plants at Noida, UP, in 2001-01. The new
plants of Lancer will have a biscuit manufacturing capacity of 150 tonnes per
day as compared to its existing unit which has the capacity to manufacture 20
tonnes of biscuits, 2 tonnes of cookies and 5 tonnes of namkeens per day.
Some 85% of the companyâ€™s total production is exported to countries in Africa
and the Middle East.
Priya Food Products was set up with
an investment of Rs. 26.1 mn has a capacity to produce 5 tonnes of biscuits per
day. In the past near two decades, it has come a long way and today commands a
significant share of the biscuit market.
A study has shown that Bakemanâ€™s
market share has remained stagnant. In contrast, older players like Britannia,
Parle and Smithkline Beecham and a host of new players like Kelloggâ€™s and Sara
Lee have seen their shares expand. Bakeman is planning a major expansion which
is expected to make it the largest biscuit plant under one roof in Asia and the
third largest in the world. It is also revealed that the equation between
unorganised and organised sectors has shifted from 66:34 in 1997 to 60:40.
The size of the bread market is
estimated at Rs. 13 bn. There are a number of producers in both sectors
organised and unorganised.
Bakery products still remain the cheapest of the processed
ready to eat products in the country. The production of Bakery products has
increased from 5.19 lakh tonnes in 1975 to 18.95 lakh tonnes in 1990 recording
four-fold increase in 15 years. Among the bakery products, biscuits occupy an
important place as they contribute over 33% of total products processed. Over
79% of the biscuits are produced by small scale sector consisting of both
factory and non-factory units. The growth rate for bakery products is estimated
at an average of 9.8% per annum. The demand for bakery products will continue to
increase in future. The estimated growth rate of 9.8% is on the lower side
considering the present potentiality of bakery products, particularly in rural
areas, where about 70% of the population lives. Encouraging trends in
consumption of bakery products by population of lower and middle income groups
indicate vast scope for consideration of nutritional enrichment of bakery
Cement Concrete Tiles
and Paving Blocks
Cement Concrete tiles are products
made out of Cement Concrete. These are available in many designs, colours and
surface effects and their usage has also increased tremendously.
Cement concrete tiles and paving
blocks are precast solid products made out of cement concrete. The product is
made in various sizes and shapes viz. rectangular, square and round blocks of
different dimensions with designs for interlocking of adjacent tiles blocks. The
raw materials required for manufacture of the product are portland cement and
aggregates such as sand & stones ships which are available in local market.
Cement concrete tiles and paving
blocks find various applications as in pavements, gardens, footpaths, passenger
waiting sheds, bus-stops, industry and other public places. The product is
commonly used in urban areas. Hence it is advisable to set up the unit in urban
and semi-urban areas as well as near the market.
A lot of face-lift is being given
to roads, footpaths along the roadside. Concrete paving blocks are ideal
materials on the footpaths for easy laying, better look and finish. Whereas the
tiles find extensive use outside the large building and houses, lots of these
materials are also used in flooring in the open areas of public offices and
commercial buildings and residential apartments.
In India, Europe & China, the per capita consumption of
ceramic tiles in India is 1.01 sqm.p.a. and that that of China is 1.22 sq.m.
p.a., other European Countries are 5-6 sq.m. per person p.a.
Tomato, though botanically a fruit
is generally considered a vegetable because of the way in which it is consumed.
Tomatoes are widely grown in all parts of the world. However, the yield per
hectare is the highest (245 tonnes/hect.) in Netherlands. The world average
yield of tomato is 23 tonnes per hectare. Indian average yield of tomato is 9.6
tonnes per hectare. Tomato products such as puree, juice, ketchup are commonly
used commodities in households, hotels and restaurants. By use of these items,
the taste of different food products is enhanced. Tomato puree is used as a
substitute of fresh tomato in cooking. Ketchup is a sweeter and diluted version
of puree (Pulp). Tomato sauce tastes sweet and sour. Both sauce and ketchup are
consumed with food and snacks. Tomato is a valuable raw material used for
processed products such as juice, puree, and paste, ketchup/sauce, and canned
whole. The recent scientific advances have revolutionised tomato processing
Due to increasing standards of
living in the cities and the rapid urbanization taking place in the rural areas,
consumption of tomato based products is going up steadily. At present, the
market of ketchup/puree, specially in the urban areas, is dominated by brands
likes MEGGI and KISSAN. Some Medium and Small Companies are also engaged in its
production. Estimated production of Sauce/Ketchup etc. in North India was around
4000 MT in 1995. The estimated
demand for the products for the same period was 10000 MT which is expected to
grow upto 12000 MT by 2005 AD. Thus, presence of a demand supply gap of 6000 MT
can be observed which may reach a figure of 8000 MT in 2005 AD. Thus, there is
ample scope for a unit to come up in this product sector to cater especially to
the semi urban and rural sectors of north India. Tomato processing in India is
still not very significant. Recently, there was a steady rise in production due
to the entry of multinationals with better market infrastructure and sales
With high fluctuation in market
prices of fresh tomatoes in the urban market, there are good prospects for
tomato juice, and tomato puree in place of fresh tomatoes in household sector.
Besides the boom in the food service sector including fast food chain, has
widened the demand potential for tomato ketchup and soups.
Experiments have shown that advertisement and publicity
have influenced the pattern of consumption of tomato products. Besides, tomato
products have good export potential especially in the Middle East.
The Distribution Board, refers to
an equipment which consists of bus bars, and possible switches, fuse links and
Automatic protective equipment, bypass equipment, for connecting, controlling
and protecting a number of branch circuits fed from one main circuit of a wiring
installation in a building or premises for easy and safe handling of incoming
power supply. These are, also used to protect the electrical distribution system
in turn, connected electrical equipment from being damaged due to various faults
like short circuit, over load, earth leakage, etc.
The Conductor system by means of
which electrical energy is conveyed from bulk power source or sources to the
consumers is known as distribution system, which may be divided into two systems
known as high voltage (primary) distribution and low voltage (secondary
distribution). From generating stations the Electrical Power is usually
transmitted to various Sub-stations, through extra high tension transmission
lines at voltages from 33 to 220 kv and at these Sub-stations this voltage is
stepped down to 11 or 6.6 or 3.3 kV and power at this voltage is conveyed to
different sub-stations for distribution and to the bulk supply consumer.
Similarly at distribution
Sub-stations the voltage is stepped down to 400 volts. From these Sub-stations
various low voltage (400 volts between phases and 230 volt between phase and
neutral) distributed and radiated out to feed the consumer. This system of
distribution of power is known as low voltage or secondary distribution system.
The distribution system is
classified in many ways i.e. according to current A.C. or D.C. distribution, or
according to the character of service i.e. it may be: (i) General light and
power, (ii) Industrial Power, (iii) Railway (iv) Street lights etc. and
according to number of wire, i.e.: (i) two wire, (ii) three wire and (iii) four
wire etc. But now a days AC distribution system almost universally employed.
The choice of the system of power
distribution is determined by the type of power that is available and by the
nature of the load required for particular user i.e.:
2-Way 15A, 250 V
2-Way 15A, 250 V
4-Way 50A, 440 V etc.
The Distribution Boards, by virtue of being a functionally
integral part of any distribution system have vast opportunities of demand.
India is a developing country with a fast growing population and the economic
growth of the country and the demand for any essential item grows as a function
of population. Electrical power demand also grows as a function of population
and commensurately the infrastructural requirement in the power sector grows.
Our present generation capacity is about 1,05,000 MW but projected demand by
2012 is 2,05,000 MW that means an extra 1,00,000 MW has to be produced to meet
the demand. This phased increase in the power generation and transmission and
distribution has by itself, necessitated increased production of electrical
equipment, thereby creating a good scope for the electrical equipment and
V. Belts and Fan Belts
As the name implies, these power
transmission belts have the V-belt cross section. They have various advantages
over flat belts e.g. compactners, quite operation, non slipping grip between
belts and sleeve, absorption of shocks grip between belts and sleeve, absorption
of shocks, smooth starting cleanliness, long service life, low cost and light
bearing loads. The internal structure of standard V-belts varies. Cords are the
â€œback boneâ€ of V-belts. They are located in the upper wide portion. These
cords in the best belts are impregnated and embedded in a rubber compound which
reduces friction between individual strands or fibres and retards heat build up.
This is known as cushion rubber. This is embedded in a mass of solid rubber; it
is known as core. Core is the belt that improves flexibility and increase shock
In starting, monetary stresses
greater than those encountered in running must be withstand, and this core
rubber acts as an absorber for the sudden pull, thus protecting the cords and
cover. When the belt travels around a sleeve. The narrower a portion is
compressed, and the solid rubber must withstand such distortion without
accumulating excessive heat. Special cool running compounds have been developed.
The whole thing is enclosed in rubber fabric jacket or cover which acts as an
envelope to resist wear and protects the inner structure.
V-belts are specially useful for
silent drive between short centre distances and are used for fractional
horsepower drives for domestic appliances and for automatic fan belts. They come
in five standard sizes A, B, C, D, E. The top width of A is 12.7 mm (1/2 in) and
that of E is mm (1) and the thickness varies between the different sizes. When
power transmitted is heavy multiple belts are used in pullies having a number of
grooves as required. More recently, premium industrial belts known as 3V, 5V and
8V belts or wedge type belts have been introduced. In these the ratio of depth
to the top width is greater than in the standard sections, giving a more compact
drive. These constructions are made possible by the use of high tenacity
materials such as polyester cord.
The demand for fan & V-belts
has been estimated by the development penal at around 47.61 million number. It
will thus be seen that there is adequate scope for the development of this item
both in the small scale as well as in the organised sector.
However, as per the recent trends
there is a change over for the use of more sophisticated type of drives such as
narrow width belts, raw egged belts, raw egged cogged belts, space saver belts,
timing belts etc.
Some of the organised units are
taking effective steps to undertake the manufacture of these types of
sophisticated belt in the country.
By and large, plant & Machines for the manufacture of
fan & V-belts are available indigenously for undertaking new types of belts
are required to be imported. Similarly technical know-how for the conventional
fan & V-belts is also available. However, foreign collaboration for new
types of belts are considered on merits. Major raw materials are also available