The Complete Technology Book on Herbal Perfumes & Cosmetics


The Complete Technology Book on Herbal Perfumes & Cosmetics

Author: H. Panda
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8186623620
Code: NI59
Pages: 678
Price: Rs. 975.00   US$ 100.00

Published: 2003
Publisher: National Institute of Industrial Research
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Herbal perfumes and cosmetics have been into usage from time immemorial and are made using natural herbs and ingredients that are healthier and beneficial for the skin. These are less likely to cause any damaging effect and the radiance they add to the skin. These days a number of beauty products that are using the herbal formulae have got lot of attention and have been witnessing a huge rise in demand not only nationally but on international arena. Bath and beauty products use herbs for both their scents and therapeutic qualities. Herbal products are replacing the synthetics products because of its harsh nature.
To exploit the knowledge that has got the genesis in our country the book aims to provide recourse of pragmatic formulae of diversified herbal perfumes and cosmetics. Over all, the book contains formulae, processes, technicalities which are immensely innovative and profoundly utilitarian for new entrepreneur as well as motivate the existing units in quality improvement and cost reduction.
The major contents of the book are creation of herbal perfumes, blending of fragrances, principle of manufacture, infrared spectra of pure herbal products, application of herbal products in body care, facial care, hair care, list of raw materials used for the creation of perfumery, manufacturing procedures for the preparation of toilet products, formulas of different types of perfumery, list of perfumes and cosmetics, photographs and details of machineries, toiletries manufactures and machinery suppliers in directory section.
The book is highly recommended to new entrepreneurs, existing units who wants to diversify from synthetic to herbal products, research centers, professionals and libraries.

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Contents

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1. Introduction of Perfumery
Terminology
Scientific and Medical Aspects
Perfumes and the skin
Technological Aspects
How Does Perfume Appeal?
Choosing a Perfume
An International Industry

2. History of Fragrance
The Ancient World
Orientalia
The Middle Ages
Influence of the Spice Trade
The Americas
Scents and "Sophistication"
The Modern World

3. The Sense of Smell
How the Brain Processes Odour
Essential Oil Absorption through the Skin
Fragrance and Health
Olfactory Deprivation
Odour and Eros

4. Scent and Psyche
Further Therapeutic Applications
Anxiety And Stress
Stimulation
Scent and Soul

5. Classification of Odours and Odorants

6. Creating a Herbal Perfume
Working within a Framework
Price
Packaging
Inspiration
The Practical Foundation
Inspiration : Response to Stimuli
Trial and error
Colours
Jeancard on Composition
Limitations of Published Formulae
The Perfumer's Knowledge of Chemistry
The Method of Carles
Analysing the Properties of Odours
Tone
Volatility
Intensity
Volume
Atmosphere
Tenacity
Fixation
Systematic Recording of Data

7. Raw Materials: Products of Natural Origin
Introduction : Concretes, Absolutes
Concrete Oils
Absolute Oils
Essential Oils derived from Distillation
Essential Oils obtained by Expression
Isolates, etc. from Essential Oils
Natural Odorants as Tinctures
Balsams and Resins
Concrete Oils or 'Concretes'
Absolute Oils
Floral S/eries: Rose Notes
Absolute Oil of Rose de Grasse
Jasmin Notes
Hyacinth Notes
Lilac and Lily
Absolute Oil of Lilac
Lily-of-the-Valley
Orangeblossom Notes
Orangeflower Absolute
Absolute oil of Orangeflower Water
Absolute Oil of Syringa
Tuberose Notes
Absolute oil of Tuberose
Absolute oil of Narcissus
Absolute oil of Jonquil
Absolute oil of Champaca
Absolute oil of Honeysuckle
Absolute oil of Lily
Violet Notes
Absolute oil of Violet
Absolute oil of Parma Violet
Absolute oil of Violet Leaves
Absolute oil of Boronia
Absolute oil of Cassie
Absolute oil of Mimosa
Absolute oil of Iris
Mignonette
Woody Series: Sandal Notes
Peppery Notes
Absolute Oil of Thyme
Caryophyllaceous Notes
Absolute oil of Carnation
Absolute oil of Cloves
Absolute oil of Tobacco Flower
Rural Series: Herbaceous Notes
Absolute oil of Flouve
New Mown Hay Absolute
Absolute Oil of Lavender
Absolute oil of Lavandin
Tea Leaf Absolute
Green Notes
Oakmoss (Mousse de Chene)
Absolute oil of Fern
Absolute Oil of Ivy
Absolute oil of Tree Moss (Mousse d'Arbre)
Vetiver Absolute
Balsamic Series: Resinous Notes
Absolute Oil of Cypress
Absolute Oil of Fir Needles
Vanilla Notes
Absolute Oil of Vanilla
Absolute Oil of Heliotrope
Fruity Series
Absolute Oil of Fig Leaves
Animal Series: Amber Notes
Ambrette Seed Absolute
Angelica Absolute
Cumin Absolute
Labdanum Absolute
Clary Sage Absolute
Maritime Notes
Seaweed Absolute
Musk Notes
Costusd Absolute
Empyreumatic Series: Tobacco Notes
Mate (Vert) Absolute
Melilot Absolute
Tobacco Leaf Absolute
Tonka Bean Absolute
Essential Oils, Terpeneless Oils
Agar
Ajowan
Almond Oil, Bitter
Ambrette Seed
Amyris
Angelica (Angelica archangelica)
Angelica
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Emotional Attribute
Anise (Pimpinella amisum)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Emotional Attribute
Considerations
Associated Oils
Star Anise (Illicium verum)
Araucaria
Arnica
Artemisia (Armoise)
Atractylis
Backhousia
Basil (Ocimum basilicum)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Cosmetic/Skin Use
Emotional Attribute
Considerations
Associated Oil
Reunion Basil (O. basilicum)
East Indian Basil (O. gratissimum)
Hairy Basil (O. canum)
Bay (Laurus nobilis)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Emotional Attribute
Associated Oil
Bay Rum Tree (Pimenta racemosa)
Allspice (P. dioica)
Benzoin (Styrax benzoin)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Cosmetic/Skin Use
Emotional Attribute
Considerations
Associated Oil
Balsam of Tolu (Myroxylon balsamum)
Balsam of Peru (M. balsamum var. Pereirae)
Styrax (Liquidamber orientalis)
Bergamot (Citrus bergamia)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Cosmetic/Skin Use
Emotional Attribute
Considerations
Associated Oil
Birch (Betula lenta)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Cosmetic/Skin Use
Considerations
Associated Oil
Birch Tar Oil
White Birch (B. alba)
Wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens)
Bellary Leaf Oil
Bois De Rose
Buchu Leaf Oil. Barosma betulina (Rutaceae)
Cabreuva. Myrocarpus spp.
Cajuput (Melaleuca cajuputi) etc.
(Myrtaceae). B.C. 3.
Calamus (Acorus calamus) (Aroideae). B.C. 4c.
Camomile
Roman camomile (Anthemis nobilis)
(Compositae). B.C. 3c.
Camphor
Cananga (Cananga odourata) (Anonaceae)
Calendula (Calendula officinalis)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Cosmetic/Skin Use
Associated Oil
Marigold (Tagetes minuta and T. patuh)
Caraway (Carum cravi)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Cosmetic/Skin Use
Emotional Attribute
Considerations
Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Emotional Attribute
Associated Oil
Carrot Seed (Daucus carota)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Cosmetic/Skin Use
Caulophyllum Inophyllum
Cedarwood (Cedrus species)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Cosmetic/Skin Use
Emotional Attribute
Considerations
Associated Oil
Moroccan Cedar (C. Libani)
Atlas Cedar (C. atlantica)
Tibetan Cedarwood (C. deodara)
Thuja (Thuja occidentalis)
Celery (Apium graveolens)
Family
Extraction
Medicinal Action
Chamomile, German (Matricaria recutita,
formerly M. chamomilla)
Chamomile, Roman (Chamaemelum nobile,
formerly Anthemis nobilis)
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum)
Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea)
Clove Bud (Syzygium aromaticum, formerly
Eugenia caryophyllata)
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum)
Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens)
Cassia
Citronella
Java-type citronella Oil
Cognac Oil
Copaiba Balsam Oil
Costus
Cubeb
Davana
Dill (French: Aneth) (Anethum
graveolens) (Umbelliferae)
Elcampane (root) (Inula helenium)
(Compositae). B.C. 1g.
Elemi Oil
Estragon
Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus)
Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
Fir (Abies alba and other species)
Frankincense (Boswellia carterii) 1
Galbanum (Ferula galbaniflua)
Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens)
Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Helichrysum (Helichrysum angustifolium)
Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis)
Inula, Sweet (Inula graveolens, or I. odourata)
Jasmine (Jasminum officinale and
J. grandiflorum)
Juniper (Juniperus communis)
Labdanum (Cistus labdaniferus)
Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia, previously L. vera
and L. officinale)
Lemon (Citrus linon)
Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus)
Lovage (Levisticum officinale)
Marjoram (Origanum marjorana or Marjorana
hortensis)
Melissa (Melissa officinalis)
Mimosa (Acacia decurrens var. dealbata)
Myrrh (Commiphora myrrha)
Myrtle (Mytus communis)
Oakmoss (Evernia Prunastri)
Orange (Citrus sinensis)
Orange Blossom (Neroli) (Citrus aurantium var.
amara)
Patchouli (Pogostemon cablin)
Pepper, Black (Piper nigrum)
Peppermint (Mentha piperita)
Ravensare (Ravensara aromatica)
Rose (Rosa damascena, R. gallica, and others)
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
Rosewood (Aniba rosaeodora)
Sage (Salvia officinalis)
Sandalwood (Santalum album)
Spikenard (Nardostachys jatamansi)
Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia)
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
Tuberose (Polianthes tuberosa)
Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia)
Vetiver (Vetiveria zizanoides)
Violet (Viola odourata)
Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odourata)
Expressed Essential Oils
Citron
Grapefruit
Lemon
Lime
Mandarin
Oranges Bitter
Orange, Sweet
Tinctures, Resins, Balsams
Tinctures
Infusions
Absolutes
Balsams and Resins
Benzoin
Copaiba
Galbanum
Labdanum
Myrrh and Frankincense
Olibanum
Opopanax
Peru Balsam
Styrax or Storax or Liquidambar
Tolu Balsam

8. Natural Isolates and Reconstituted
Essential Oils
Reconstituted Essential Oils
Natural Isolates
Derivatives from Isolates
Aldeyhdes
Ketones
Terpene Chemicals

9. The Rose Fragrance
Historical Background
Perfumery Value
Rose Growing
Nomenclature and Isolates
Extraction Methods
Adulteration
Medicinal Properties of Rose
Economics

10. Production Economics of Jasmine Concrete
Present Position in India
Scope of Jasmine Oil Industry in Tamil Nadu
Economics

11. Fragrances through Kondakov Reaction
of Terpenes

12. Fragrances Through Ozonisation of Terpenes

13. Carvenone

14. Infrared Spectra of Pure Herbal Fractions

15. Raw Materials: Products of Synthetic Origins
Roses Odorants
Jasmin Odorants
Orangeflower and Neroli Odorants
Muguet Odorants
Green Notes
Fruity Notes
Peach
Apricot
Plum
Mirabelle
Strawberry
Raspberry
Blackcurrant
Fig
Hazel
Bitter Almond
Aniseed
The Citrus Oils
Melon
Angelica oils
Woody Notes
Empyreumatic Notes
The Salicylates
Benzyl Salicylate
Isobutyl Salicylate
Methyl Salicylate
Ethyl Salicylate
Phenylethyl Salicylate
Animal Notes
Musks, Synthetic
Civet, Synthetic
Ambergris, Synthetic
Castoreum, Synthetic
Acetates
The Fatty Alcohols, Aldehydes and Acetals
Fatty Alcohols
Fatty Aldehydes
Pseudo-Aldehydes
Acetals
Anisates
Anthranilates
Benzoates
Butyrates
Caproates
Cinnamates
Formates
Phenylacetates
Propionates
Tiglates
Valerates (Valerianates)

16. Principles of Manufacture
Pressing
Maceration
Digestion
Infusion
Absorption or Enfleurage Process
Distillation
Extraction by Volatile Solvents
Ripening, Preservation, Etc.

17. Essential Extracts
Floral Oils
Selection of Site
Raw Materials
Treatment of the Ingredients
Manufacture by Maceration
Concentrating the Preparations
Hastening the Process
Tier System
Another Tire Arrangement
Oil direct from the seeds
Recipes
Bela Oil
Jasmine Oil
Chameli Oil
Champaka Oil
Kantali Champaka Oil
Jahuri Champaka Oil
Dolan Champaka Oil
Nageswar Champaka Oil
Henna Oil
Gul Henna Oil
Musk Henna Oil
Janti Oil
Mallika Oil
Tuberose Oil
Rose Oil
Bakul Oil
Ketaki Oil
Kamini Oil
Lemon Flower Oil
Gandharaj Oil
Madhumalati Oil
Khus Oil
Lotus Oil
Storing

18. Essences and Ottos
Preparation Of Essences
Mode of Preparation
Floral Extracts
Classes Of Essences
Blending
Filtering And Packing
Natural Essences
Bakul
Henna
Musk Henna
Ketaki
Bela
Mallika
Gandharaj
Hasu-No-Henna
Champaka
Jahuri Champaka
Kantali Champaka
Rose
Tuberose
Chameli
Jasmine
Khus
Janti
Orange
Ambergris
Musk
Patchouli
Cloves
Lavender
Pumelo
Cassia
White Rose
Orange
Bergamot
Violet
Rose Geranium
Lemon
Sandalwood
Artificial Essences
Simple Essences
Essences from Country Ottos
Handkerchief Essences
Compound Essences
Preparation of ottos
Floral Ottos
Rose
Bela
Chemeli
Jasmine
Mallika
Madhumalati
Henna
Musk Henna
Champaka
Kantali Champaka
Jahuri Champaka
Dolan Champaka
Nageswar Champaka
Bakul
Ganharaj
Hasu-No-Henna
Patchouli
Tuberose
Keora
Kamini
Khus
Janti
Pumelo
Shephalica
Sandalwood
Artificial Ottos
Marketing

19. Aromatic Waters
Rose And Keora Water
Rose Water and Otto
Keora Water

20. Blending: The Perfumer's Art
Blending for Fragrance
Classifying Odours
Perfume Categories
Floral (F)
Oriental (F/M)
Chypre (F/M)
Green (M/F)
Fougere (M)
Citrus (M)
Perfume Notes
Top Notes
Middle Notes
Base Notes
Perfume Fixatives
Top, Middle and Base Notes
Aspects of Blending
Odour Intensity
Beginning Blending
Therapeutic Blending
Safety
Purpose
Application
Step-by-Step Blending
Required Suppliers
Sample Recipes
Perfume cologne
Ancient perfume formulations
Natural Ingredients in Commercial Perfumes
Perfume Formulas Throughout History
Blending with imagination

21. Body Care
The Aromatic Bath
Floating Aromatic Bath Oils
Dispersing Bath Oils
Aromatic Bath Vinegar
Aromatic Bath Salts
Aromatic Combinations for the Bath
Steam Baths
An Aromatic Bath Experience
Foot or Hand Bath
Aromatic Body Powders
Aromatic Hair Care
An Aromatic Miscellany

22. Facial Care
Beauty Techniques
Cleansers
Steaming
Exfoliates
Masks
Toners
Aromatic Hydrosols
Fragrant Waters
Moisturizers
Herbs and Essential Oils for the Skin
Home Facial Routine
Skin Types
"Normal" Skin
Dry Skin
Oily Skin
Combination Skin
Problem Skin

23. Hair Oil and Toilet Preparations
Scented Hair Oils
Popularity of Hair Oils
Chief Constituents
Base oils
Vegetable Base Oils
Mineral Base Oils
Benzoated Oils
Floral Oils in Hair Oil Making
Incorporation of Perfumes
Manipulations
Filtration And Refining
Filtration of Thick Oils
Refining with Animal Charcoal
Coconut Oil Refining
Deodourising Coconut Oil
Refining Castor Oil
Deodourisaing Castor Oil
Refining Groundnut Oil
Bleaching Groundnut Oil
Addition of scents
Colouring Hair Oils
Marketing

24. Toilet Preparations
Hair Lotions
Lipsticks
Pomades
Pomade A La Rose
Vanishing Cream
Cold Cream
Face Powders
Talcum Toilet Powder
Face Lotion
Sun Burn Lotion
Nail Polishes
Finger-Tip Colouring
Freckle Lotion
Rouge Sticks
Hair Fixative
Non-Greasy Hair Cream
Cantharides Hair Wash
Coconut Oil Shampoo
Lime Juice Cream
Lime Juice Glycerine
Wrinkle Remover
Bindi Liquid
Bindi stick
Liquid Brilliantine
Corn Salve
Stick Cosmetic
Scent Cards
Perfume Tablet
Solid Perfume

25. Toilet Waters
Lavender Water
Amber Lavender
Lily Lavender
English Lavender Water
Ambergris Lavender Water
Eau De Lavender Millefleurs
Odoriferous Lavender Water
Florida Water
Voilet Water
Eau De Cologne

26. Taral Alta
Mode of Preparation
Marketing
Rose
Sandal
Lavender
Lily
Henna
Khus
Violet
Cherry Laurel
Tuberose
Bela
Jasmine
Champaka
Bakul
Rose

27. Flower Perfumes
Rose
Red Rose
Rose damascena
Rose centifolia
Tea Rose
Rose Marechal Niel
White Rose
Jasmin
Orangeflower A
Violet
Parma Violets Absolute, Art.
Violet Base
Acacia
Broom
Carnation
Cyclamen
Fougere (Fern)
Gardenia
Hawthorn
Heliotrope
Honeysuckle
Hyacinath
Iris
Lilac
Lily-of-The-Valley
Linden (Lime Blossom)
Magnolia
Mignonette (Reseda)
Mimosa
Narcissus
Nardo
New-Mown Hay
Nicotiana
Opopanax
Orchid (Orchidee)
Pansy
Peony
Phlox
Stocks
Sweet Pea
Syringa (Philadelphus)
Aldehyde G Blend
Trefle (Clover)
Tuberose
Verbena
Wallflower
Wistaria
Ylang-Ylang

28. Sophisticated or Fantasy Perfumes
Introductory
Curacao Base
Floral Bouquet Perfumes
Bouvardia Bm
Aldehydic Perfumes
Chypre Types
Oriental Perfumes
Green Perfumes
Dominant Note Types
The Ambergris Note
Manufacturing Processes
Alcoholic Strengths
Control

29. Perfumes for Men
Eau de Cologne
Toilet Waters
Modified Colognes
Perfumes for Men

30. Perfumes for Many Purposes
The uses of Perfumes
Perfumes for Soaps
Soap Pefumery Fashions
Perfuming synthetic detergents
Perfumed Disinfectants
Perfuming the Air
Incense and Fumigants
Perfumed Candles
Paints and Polishes
Other Household Products
Perfuming Cosmetics
Adapting the perfume to the Vehicle
Perfuming Creams
Perfuming Powders
Perfuming Lipstick and Nail Lacquer
Hair Preparation Perfumes
Perfumed Aerosols
In Pharmacy And Medicine
Industrial Perfumes
Perfumes for Textiles
Perfumed Ink and Paper
Masking Malodours

Perfume In Agriculture
Perfumed Insecticides
And Many Other Uses
Flavours As Perfumes

31. Fixation of Perfumes

Glossary

Directory Section
List of Perfumes, Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufactures
List of Machinery Suppliers (Indigeneous)

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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Toilet Preparations

HAIR LOTIONS

Hair lotions have a stimulating effect upon the hair follicle. They are generally perfumed with oil of rosemary as it possesses a good stimulating property.

Cantharides Lotion

1
Tincture Cantharides½ dr.
Aqua Sambuci11 oz.
Ess. Rosemary (double)5 dr.

Procedure: Mix and shake well. It well promote the growth of hair.

Millefleurs Lotion

Oil Lavender3 oz.
Essence Lemon3 oz.
Essence Ambergris4 oz.
Oil Caraway2 oz.
Rose Water12 oz.

Procedure: Mix and shake well. To be used after 3 months.

Hungary Lotion

Rectified Spirit1 pint Oil of Rosemary1 oz. Essence of Ambergris2 dr. Rose Water6 oz.

Procedure: Mix together; shake well, and leave aside for 1 month.

Lavenia Lotion

Rectified Spirit1 quart
Rose Water½ pint
Essential Oil of Lemon½ oz.
Otto de Rose15 minims.
Oil of Cloves30 minims.
Oil of Neroli10 minims.

Procedure: Mix the oils in spirit and shake until dissolved. Then add the rose water and allow to mature for about a month.

Odour Delectabilis

Rose Water4 oz.
Orange Flower Water4 oz.
Oil of Lavender1 dr.
Oil of Cloves1 dr.
Oil of Bergamot2 dr.
Musk artificial2 gr.
Rectified Spirit1 pint

Procedure:

Mix together and shake until dissolved well. Use after 1 month.

Hair Stimulating Lotion

I

Cantharidin0.02 grams Acetic ether1 c.c Glacial acetic acid6 c.c. Bay rum250 c.c. Glycerine50 c.c. Water to produce1000 c.c.

Procedure: Dissolve the cantharidin in the acetic ether and add to the bay rum. Then add the other ingredients.

II

Acetum cantharides15 c.c.
Alcohol150 c.c.
Rosemary oil15 c.c.
Bergamot oil10 c.c.
Lavender oil5 c.c.
Rose oil5 c.c.
Glycerine50 c.c.
Water to produce1000 c.c.

III

Quinine Sulphate 2 grams
Tincture of cantharidin 8 c.c.
Eau de Cologne 750 c.c.
Iso-butyl Salicylate 5 c.c.
Orange flower water to produce 1000 c.c.
Procedure: Dissolve the alkaloid in the eau de cologne, add the tincture and the iso-butyl salicylate. Mix the glycerine with 200 c.c. of the water, and add.

IV

Quinine hydrochloride 3 grams Pilocarpine hydrochloride 1 gram Lavender water200 c.c. Glycerine20 c.c. Rose water to produce1000 c.c.

Procedure: Dissolve the alkaloidal salts in the lavender water and proceed as above. Filter, if necessary.

V

Tincture of cantharidin 5 c.c.
Solution of ammonia50 c.c.
Borax25 grams
Glycerine 50 c.c.
Rosemary Oil10 c.c
Alcohol 90 p.c.125 c.c.
Rosewater200 c.c.
Orange flower oil300 c.c.
Water to produce1000 c.c.

Procedure: Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, and borax in the glycerine and water. Then mix the two solutions and make up to volume with water.

VI

Pilocarpine nitrate5 grams
Alcohol90 c.c.
Tincture of cantharidin10 c.c.
Heliotropin5 grams
Verbena oil3 c.c.
Lavender oil2 c.c.
Glycerine of borax50 c.c.
Water to produce1000 c.c.

Procedure: Same as in (V) above.

LIPSTICKS

Lipsticks are now a universally accepted article of make-up and vary in price very much according to the skill of the manufacturer together with the degree of elegance of the presentation of this cosmetic.

The requirements of a good lipstick are that it must not be injurious, it must spread easily without being excessively greasy; its colour must be reasonably permanent; it must not sweat, crack or crumble. In addition to these requirements its colour must be absolutely uniform, unchanging and free mottling.

I

Spermaceti31 parts
Paraffin 5 parts
Cocoa butter 7 parts
Cholesterin 26 parts
Castor oil 4 parts
Benzoated lard8.5 parts
Perfume9 parts
Benzoic-acid1 parts
Bromo-acid (acid eosine)2.5 parts
Butyl stearate5 parts
Colour10 parts

Procedure: Dissolve the bromo acid in the butyl stearate, and add the castor oil. Mix the cholesterin and benzoated lard. Add the bromo acid mixture and the colour. Mix thoroughly and run the mass through a mill four times. Then melt the spermaceti, the paraffin and cocoa butter, and add the colour mass. Mix thoroughly and add the perfume and benzoic acid. When the mass reaches 110° F keep the temperature of the batch at this point while filling the moulds. The best way to do this is to use a small insulated pouring pot which will hold enough to fill one set of moulds. This can be replenished from the main supply from time to time.

Some manufacturers after this procedure melt the waxes and fats together and mix in the colour, bromo acid and perfume. Then they allow the temperature to drop slightly until the batch becomes sufficiently viscous to grind, then the batch is run through the milling rolls several times after which the sticks are moulded. This is an excellent procedure if the milling rolls or mill can be heated, but if a hot mass is run through a cold mill the wax will crystallize and the resulting product will be unsatisfactory.

II

Cocoa butter5 parts
Cetyl alcohol3 parts
Stearic acid4 parts
Paraffin wax 4 parts
Spermaceti5 parts
White beeswax21 parts
Lanolin5.5 parts
Benzoated lard32 parts
Castor oil6 parts
Perfume.9 parts
Benzoic acid.1 parts
Bromo acid2.5 parts
Colour10 parts

Procedure: Proceed as before.

III

White wax 7 oz.
Spermaceti 1 oz.
Liquid paraffin 11/2 oz.
Carmine 2 dr.
Perfume q.s.

Procedure: Melt the waxes over a water bath and the finely powdered carmine is ground in. Then mix the liquid paraffin. Now strain the hot liquid through linen and set aside. When the temperature has come down to 110° F, pour it into moulds to set.

Perfume generally used is about one-half percent coumarin or any other suitable perfume material.

IV

Vaselinec15 oz.
Beeswax 10 oz.
Spermaceti400 gr.
Carmine6 dr.

Perfume to suit

Procedure : Melt and stir. Allow to cool a little before adding perfume. Pour into moulds.

V

Paraffin wax 2 oz.
White Vaseline 3 oz.
White beeswax 1 oz.
Ceresine 3 oz.
Titanium dioxide1 oz.
Carmine6 dr.

Procedure: Proceed as before.

POMADES

The pomades are much in favour as toilet articles. The chief ingredient in all pomades is a soft white basis of white wax, spermaceti, lard, suet, vaseline, etc. When lard, suet, vaseline, etc. are used they should be previously refined and made free of all impurities and obnoxious matters. Other fats such as olive oil, almond oil, etc. may also be employed in conjunction with the above to serve as the basis.

The Mode of Preparation

To prepare the pomade the first step is to melt the pomade stock on a water bath and add the olive and almond oils. Now the pan is removed from fire and when it begins to thicken stir in various scents in proportions at discretion.

In preparing pomades the manufacturers may note that an addition of soap improves pomades. Before perfuming add about 250 parts of soap dissoloved in hot water and bout 1¾ parts of borax to 12,500 parts of pomade stock. This renders the pomade as white as snow and very emollient, which is very difficult to attain by an addition of stearine. This pomade will bear an admixture of one-third water.

In clouring pomades use is generally made of alkanet root, annatoo, gamboge root, chlorophyll, etc. It is usual to tie up the drug in a piece of coarse cloth and dip in a part of the pomade stock. Gentle heat may be applied and the whole squeezed from time to time. The strongly coloured stock may be diluted with ordinary stock to bring it to the desired shade.

I

Procedure: Prepared suet, olive oil, each 8 ounces, lard 4 ounces. Melt on a water bath, then remove the vessel, and, when it begins to thicken, stir in the following scents, in quantity at discretion: Oil of cloves, sixty drops; oil of neroli, twenty drops: oil lavender, sixty drops; oil of bergamot, ninety drops; essence musk, fifty drops; mix. A slight colour may be given to it, according to the fancy of the manufacturers with alkanet root or gamboge root.

II

Procedure: Melt 250 parts of freshly rendered lard and 25 parts of white wax at moderate heat and mix well with 200 parts of vaseline. Add 15 parts of bergamot oil, 3 parts of lavender oil, 2 parts of geranium oil and 2 parts of lemon oil, mixing well.

III

Procedure: Strained suet, ten pounds; white wax, three quarters of a pound. Melt, then stir well in bergamot oil, one ounce; lemon oil, half an ounce; oil of rosemary, quarter of an ounce; oil of lavender, quarter of an ounce; rose water, one pint.

IV

Procedure : Clarified lard, twelve pounds; clarified suet, two pounds; essence of bergamot, one ounce; essence of lemon, half an ounce; oil of lavender, quarter of an ounce; rose water, eight ounces. Melt the first two, then take the pan from the fire and stir in the essences.

V

Procedure : Digest 20 parts of coconut oil and 1 part of benzoin, in coarse powder, in a waterbath for 2 hours. Now have 1 part of carnauba wax, 1 part of ceresine and 5 parts of liquid paraffin melted over a waterbath. Strain the benzoated oil into the molten mass of paraffin. The product may be perfumed as desired with essential oils.

VI

Procedure: Melt 2½ oz. of refined wax a slow fire and then add 8 oz. of coconut oil. On cooling add 15 drops of oil of bergamot and 9 drops of oil of henna and stir well.

VII

Procedure : Take refined coconut oil 8 oz, white wax 2½ oz. oil of bergamot 15 minims, oil of henna 5 minims and proceed as above. Add alkanet root to colour.

VIII

Procedure : Take white wax 2 oz., refined coconut oil 12 oz., rose geranium oil 5 minims and proceed as above. Add tincture carmine to colour.

IX

Procedure : Take pure castor oil 8 oz., white wax 3 oz., otto of rose 5 minims, and proceed as above. Add tincture grass to colour.

POMADE A LA ROSE

I

Procedure: Lard, four pounds; suet, 1 pound; alkanet root q.s. Macerate with heat to give a faint colour, then allow it to cool and before it sets, stir in five ounces of rose water and add otto of rose to perfume.

II

Procedure: Lard, suet, each one-pound; oil of almonds, four ounces. Mix, then add spirit of jasmine, one ounce and a half.

VANISHING CREAM

Vanishing cream is so called because it disappears when rubbed into the skin. It consists of stearic acid partially saponified with alkali, the bulk of the fatty acid being emulsified by the soap thus formed. The main constituent is, of course, water and mucilage of tragacanth or agaragar to prevent the collapsing of the cream and the whole is preserved with a trace of an aldehyde.

I

Procedure: Melt 60 grams of stearic acid in a tared vessel of about 2 litres capacity, over a waterbath, and add 9 grams of sodium carbonate, dissolved in the minimum amount of hot water; to this add 7 grams of glycerine. Keep the mixture on the waterbath for one hour, stirring constantly, but not vigorously; add sufficient water to bring the preparation to 300 grams; then add 300 grams of the hamamelis water. Return the container to the water-bath for a minute or two, stirring the mixture until perfectly smooth. Pour into a warm mortar and beat to a foam. Let it stand for 12 hours, stir with a spatula and pack.

II

Procedure: Mix agar-agar 180 gr., distilled water 8 fl. oz., distilled solution of hamamelis B.P. 12 fl. oz. and allow to stand for a few days with occasional stirring until softened. Strain through muslin. Now heat together stearic acid 360 gr., oil of theobroma 360 gr., sodium carbonate 240 gr., distilled water 12 fl. oz., on a water-bath stirring constantly until combination is completed; transfer to a large jar and whip in the first solution with an egg whisk until a white foamy product results. Perfume to taste. Allow to stand for 14 days so that air bubbles may escape, mix gently and bottle. Large quantities may be made in an emulsifying machine.

The preparation will not show any grit and will keep long.

III

Procedure: Bring 1 lb. of glycerine and 1½pint of water to a boil and add ½ oz. carbonate of potash. Strain through a piece of cloth and heat the whole mass again. In the meanwhile have ¼ lb. of stearine melted over a water bath and pour this slowly over the first liquor. Continue heating till the mass is completely saponified. Then remove it and add 15 drops of oil of bitter almonds and 20 drops of oil of lavender. Beat the whole until cool and pack.

IV

Glycerine8¼ lbs.
Stearic acid (pure) 4 ¾ lbs.
Distilled water 224 fl. Oz.
Spirit 16 fl. Oz.
Liquid ammonia(Sp. Gr. 0.888) 4 ¾ oz.
Terpineol 2 oz.
Synthetic Jasmine otto ½ oz.
Synthetic Musk Crystals 10 gr.
Phenyl acetaldehyde 6 minims.

Procedure: Melt the stearic acid on a water bath at 75.8C. Heat 2 lbs. of the glycerine with 192 oz. of the water to the same temperature, add ammonia, and pour into the melted stearic acid slowly, with constant stirring. Mix the rest of the glycerine and water and heat to 80°C, pour this into the first mixture with constant stirring, and continue the heat stirring for about 15 minutes. Remove from the fire and beat till cold. Mix perfumes with the spirit, and add slowly, with constant stirring to the cream.

Owing to the air and water present, these creams sometimes dry up. To avoid this add glycerine, grease, agar-agar and tragacanth.

V

All in parts by weight
Stearic acid, triple pressed200
Postassium hydroxide-sticks14
Water800
Carbitol40
Perfume10

Procedure: Dissolve the perfume in the carbitol and beat it into the cream at 20°C. To obtain a softer cream decrease the fatty acid and increase the potash.

VI

All in parts by weight
Stearic acid180
Potassium carbonate crystals12
Glycerine50
Water750
Bergamot oil2
Lavender oil1
Ylang-ylang oil1
Vetivert oil1
Geranium oil3

Procedure: Maintain the temperature at least 20 minutes, with vigorous stirring from the commencement of saponification. This will allow the greater part of the carbon dioxide to escape.

VII

All in parts by weight
Stearic acid180
Caustic soda-stick9
Glycerine50
Water750
Coumarin2
Sandalwood oil2
Vetivert oil1
Methyl ionone6

Procedure: Dissolve the caustic soda in 360 parts of the hot water and add to the fatty acid. Mix the glycerine with the remainder of the water at the same temperature and stir in.

VIII

All in parts by weight
Stearic acid200
Fresh lard20
Strong solution of ammonia .88010
Distilled water750
Linalol5
Terpineol8
Ylang-ylang oil2
Coumarin4
Oakmoss resin1

Procedure: Add the ammonia to the hot water, stir, and pour the solution rapidly into the melted fats, triturating briskly all the time.

IX

All in parts by weight
Stearic acid130
Borax crystals58
Sodium carbonate crystals12
Water740
Glycerine50
Rose-geranium oil9
Patchouli oil1

Procedure: Pour the melted stearic acid into the boiling solution of glycerine, water, borax, and soda. Continue to boil until the mixture gelatinises. Cool and add the perfume.

X

All in parts by weight
Stearic acid180
Spermaceti20
Triethanolamine20
Carbitol70
Perfume compound10
Distilled water700

Procedure: Melt the fats and heat the liquid to the same temperature. Mix and stir until cool - add the perfume.

XI

Witch-hazel Foams are made on the same lines as vanishing creams, excepting that a proportion of the water is replaced by distilled extract of witch-hazel, which is added to the already saponified fatty acid:

All in parts by weight
Stearic acid180
Potassium hydroxide12
Water260
Distilled solution of witch-hazel500
Glycerine50

Perfume with rose otto if desired.

XII

Peroxide Creams contain hydrogen peroxide at the time of manufacture, but it seem doubtful if this exists as such when they are used. The only means of securing the presence of available oxygen is by stabilizing the peroxide with methyl parahydroxy benzoate.

All in parts by weight
Stearic acid120
Lanolin, anhydrous20
Borax30
Glycerine100
Water670
Hydrogen peroxide - 20 volumes50
Jasmine6
Bois de rose oil3
Styrax R.1

Add the hydrogen peroxide while the cream is cooling.

COLD CREAM

Cold Cream is an emulsion in which the fat predominates, but the cooling effect produced when it is applied to the skin is due to the slow evaporation of the water contained. The base in general use is white beeswax, and traces of borax are occasionally added to aid emulsification. The perfume generally used is rose-either as aqua rosae or by the addition of otto. The method of manufacture is simple when borax is used, and consists of melting the wax on a waterbath, adding the oil, and warming the whole to about 80°C. The aqueous portion containing the borax is heated to this temperatue and stirred in slowly. The perfume is added when cool, and the cream is potted liquid if a brilliant white surface is desired.

I

All in parts by weight
Almond oil550
White wax145
Borax10
Rose otto5

II

Peach Kernel oil600
Spermaceti20
White wax150
Borax5
Triple rose water215
Phenylethyl alcohol5
Geranium oil-French5

III

Almond oil560
White wax180
Lanolin, anhydrous20
Borax10
Zinc oxide-finely sifted20
Rose rouge5
Rose-geranium oil5

IV

Mineral Cold Creams may be prepared with petroleum oil of 860 sp. gravity as follows:

Phenylethyl alcohol 4
Paraffin liquid570
White wax160
Lanolin50
Borax8
Water200
Geraniol8

V

Procedure: Melt 60 parts of white wax and 100 parts of spermaceti over a water bath, then add 1,000 parts of almond oil leaving the whole on the water bath. Next add 10 parts of castor oil, then 300 parts of rose water, stirring continuously. Finally incorporate 2 parts of oil of rose, 2 parts of oil of geranium and 10 parts of oil of bergamot and place in jars. A trace of methyl violet may be added to ensure that the preparation retains its whiteness.

VI

Procedure: Melt 1 oz. of white wax and 1 oz. of spermaceti; add 8 fl. oz. of oil of sweet almonds in which 1 oz. of camphor has been dissolved with very gentle heat; then gradually add 5 fl. oz. of rose water in which 4 dr. of powdered borax has previously been dissolved beating constanlly with a wooden spatula until cold. Finally add 10 drops of oil of rose. This will yield camphorated cold cream.

VII

Procedure: Take petroleum oil 600 gr., white wax 60 gr., paraffin 140 dr., Eau de Cologne 30 gr., water 200 gr., rose water 200 gr., tincture of benzoin 10 gr., oil of rose geranium 10 drops. Mix the solid matter in the warm oils and pour into the mixture little by little, stirring at the same time Eau de Cologne and the perfumes. Stir well to get perfectly white.

VIII

Procedure: Mix together oil of almonds 425 parts, lanolin 185 parts white wax 62 parts, spermaceti 62 parts. Make a solution of 4.5 parts of borax in 300 parts of rose water. Incorporate the solution to the solid ingredients

.

XI

Procedure: Tame spermaceti 4½ oz.; white wax 3 oz.; fresh oil of almonds, 18 oz.; melt over water bath and pour in a slightly warmed marble mortar and stir briskly to prevent granulation. When the mixture becomes of the consistency of butter, triturate until it has a white, creamy appearance; add little by little, under constant stirring, a mixture of double water of rose, 1½ oz.; odourless glycerine, 1½ oz.; mix for 20 minutes, then add 15 drops of essence of roses and beat for about half an hour, when it will be ready for use.

X

Procedure: Melt 6 oz. of spermaceti and 4 oz. of white wax on a water bath. Add fresh oil of almonds 24 oz. and pour the whole into a slightly warmed mortar under constant and lively stirring to prevent granulation until the mass has a white, creamy appearance and is about the consistence of butter at ordinary temperature. Add little by little, under constant stirring, 2 oz. of rose water and 2 oz. of pure glycerine, mixed together, and finally add oil of bergamot 24 drops, rose oil 6 drops, oil of bitter almonds 8 drops and tincture of ambergris 5 drops. Continue the stirring for 15 or 20 minutes; then immediately put into containers.

FACE POWDERS

In manufacturing face powders the materials should be ground to a very fine state of sub-division and then passed through sieve of at least 100 mesh. For perfect results 120 mesh sieve is recommended.

After grinding and sifting, the ingredients are taken in specified proportion and a small quantity of such a mixture is put in a mortar and rubbed with suitable colour and then mixed with the whole lot and sifted twice to make sure that sub-division of the basic pigments has been accomplished.

Perfumes are next added by spraying the liquid perfumes on to the powder as it falls through the silk sifter. The amount of perfume used should be reduced to a minimum.

I

Procedure: Mix zinc white 5 parts; English precipitated calcium carbonate, 30 parts; best white steatite, 5 parts; wheat of rice starch, 10 parts; triple extract of white rose, 3 parts; triple extract of jasmine, 3 parts; triple extract of orange flower, 3 parts; triple extract of cassia 3 parts; tincture of musk, 8 parts. The whole is to be mixed thoroughly by repeated siftings. Orrisroot in powder may be substituted for the perfumes.

II

Procedure : Take pearl or bismuth white and French chalk, equal parts. Reduce them to fine powder and sift through cloth. Lastly add some artificial perfumes, as desired.

III

Procedure: A face powder of rosy hue may be prepared as follows: Starch 1,000 grams, carmine 20 grams, otto of rose 15 grams, otto of khus khus 15 grams, sandal oil 15 grams.

IV

Procedure: Take oxide of zinc 1 oz.; starch 8¼ oz.; essence of rose 5 to 10 drops; and carmine, as much as required for producing the desired tint.

V

Procedure: Mix 32 parts of bergamot oil, 10 parts of lemon oil and 6 parts of musk infusion with 500 parts of magnesium carbonate. Then triturate 5000 parts of rice starch, 3500 parts of calcium sulphate, 1000 parts of talc and 200 parts of powdered orris. Finally pass through a fine sieve.

VI

Rice Starch600 grams
Maize Starch200 grams
Talcum100 grams
Zinc Stearate50 grams
Zinc Oxide50 grams

VII

Rice Starch500 grams
Zinc Oxide400 grams
French Chalk100 grams
Magnesium Stearate100 grams

TALCUM TOILET POWDER

Procedure:Talc, to be used as a toilet powder, should be in a state of very fine division. Antiseptics are sometimes added in small doses. As a perfume, rose oil may be employed, but on account of its cost, rose geranium oil is probably more frequently used. A satisfactory proportion is ½ dr. of the oil to 1 lb. of the powder. In order that the perfume may be thoroughly disseminated throughout the powder, the oil should be triturated first with a small portion of it, this should then be further triturated with a larger portion, and if the quantity operated on be large, the final mixing may be effected by sifting. Many odouus besides that of rose would, of course, be suitable for a toilet power. Ylang-ylang would doubtles prove very attractive, but its use is rather restricted on account of its high price

FACE LOTION

I

Procedure: Dissolve 10gr. of alum and 1 gr. of zinc sulphate in little water, mix 1 fl. dr. of glycerine with the bulk of water and pour in 1 fl. dr. of tinture of benzoin and 30 drops of essence of Eau de Cologne. Finally add distilled water to make 1 pint and mix well. The result should be a non-separable milky lotion.

II

Procedure: Mix 40 oz. of lactic acid and 80 oz. of pure glycerine 5 gallons of distilled water. Now add 3 oz. of tincture of benzoin. Then colour with 40 grains of carmine and pour gradually a mixture of 1 oz. of commercial glycerine, ½ oz. of ammonia solution in 3 oz. of distilled water. Heat the whole to drive off ammonia and mix intimately. Shake well and set aside for a day, filter and add 1 drachm of solution of ionone and a small quantity of kaolin. Finally filter until clear.

III

Lactic acid, syrupy5 c.c.
Glycerine100 c.c.
Tincture Benzoin10 c.c.
Tincture of Styrax10 c.c.
Patchouli R.1 c.c.
Rose Synthetic4 c.c.
Rose water to produce1000 c.c.

Procedure : Dissolve the perfumes in the tinctures and add to the glycerine. Shake with 800 c.c. of water and then add the acid. Make up to volume with more rose water.

IV

Hydrogen Peroxide 10 Vols. 100 c.c.
Tincture Benzoin10 c.c.
Muguet Synthetic5 c.c.
Rose Water to produce1000 c.c.

SUN BURN LOTION

Zinc Hydroxide (25 p.c.)100 grams
Zinc Carbonate70 grams
Corn Starch30 grams
Glycerine50 c.c.
Tincture of Benzoin50 c.c.
Benzyl Cinnamate2 grams
Heliotropin5 grams
Tuberose Absolute1 gram
Water to produce1000 c.c.

Procedure: Dissolve the perfumes in the tincture of benzoin. Tint the powders with Armenian bole if desired.

HAIR CURLING LOTION

Procedure: Potash (Pure), 7 g; ammonia 3½ g glycerine, 15 g; alcohol, 12 g; rose water, 550 g. Wash hair with soap before application. Make the hair wavy in the wet; tie it up. The will curl on drying.

NAIL POLISHES

I

Celluloid film, cut small250 parts
Amylacetate250 parts
Acetone750 parts
Eosine Aq.s.

Procedure : Mix the last two ingredients and add the first. Allow to stand until dissolved.

II

Stannic oxide300 grams
Talc300 grams
Osmo-Kaolin100 grams
Tragacanth2 grams
Glycerine50 c.c.
Citral1 c.c.
Water to make1000 c.c.

Procedure : Rub the powders in a mortar with the glycerine, perfume and water, then pass through fine muslin.

FINGER-TIP COLOURING

Alkanet½ oz.
Rectified Spirit12 oz.
Rose water4 oz.

Procedure: Macerate for a week, add 10 drops of otto of rose, shake and filter.

A solution of eosine is also used; it should be made with perfumed spirits.

FRECKLE LOTION

I

Potassium chlorate1.2 per cent
Borax7 per cent
Potassium carbonate3.7 per cent
Sugar3.7 per cent
Glycerine9 per cent
Rose water20 per cent
Alcohol10 per cent
Distilled water51 per cent
Perfume0.4 per cent

Procedure: Make separate solutions of the potassium carbonate and potassium chlorate and borax with small quantities of water. Dissolve the sugar in the remainder of the water. Add the glycerine and rose water; mix, then add the other solutions, individually mixing before each addition. Add alcohol and perfumes.

]

II

Acetic acid3 per cent
Lime Juice10 per cent
Glycerine6 per cent
Water70½ per cent
Perfume½ per cent
Alcohol10 per cent

Procedure: Dissolve the concentrated lemon juice in the water and the acetic acid in the alcohol. Mix the perfume with he glycerine and add to the lemon juice solution, then add the acetic acid solution. Mix and filter.

ROUGE STICKS

Rouge sticks are very similar to lipsticks but these are slightly greasy and softer than the latter. The ideal lip rouge will rub on smoothly and also not come off easily. The carmine content should not exceed 20 per cent but the majority are made with much less. If a bright colour is desired, it can be obtained by the addition of zinc oxide.

General method of manufacture consists of melting and straining the fats and rubbing down the pigment in a warmed mortar with them, but for large-scale production, where a perfectly fine, smooth, and grainless article is desired the warmed mass should be milled. Formulas are appended:

I

Liquid paraffin300 c.c.
Lanolin anhydrous150 grams
Ceresin (high m.p.)350 grams
Carmine200 grams
Linalyl cinnamate1 c.c.

Procedure:Mix together.

II

Ceresine300 grams
Almond oil50 c.c.
Soft paraffin500 grams
Zinc oxide50 c.c.
Carmine100 c.c.
Piperonal-vanillone1 gram

HAIR FIXATIVE

Procedure: Dissolve 20 grams of boric acid in a litre of rose water, add 50 grams of pulverised gum tragacanth. After several hours heat the mixture on a water-bath and filter through gauze. Perfume with 5 grams of oil of rose geranium and 2 grams of phenyl ethyl alcohol and finally add 100 grams of tincture of benzoin. Triturate in a mortar and pour into pots.

NON-GREASY HAIR CREAM

Gum tragacanth, pulverized4 dr.
Water1 quart
Alcohol, 90 per cent2 oz.
Cologne water2 oz.
Oil of cloves12 drops

Procedure: Gently boil the tragacanth in water, strain through muslin, and when the mucilage is nearly cold, add alcohol, Cologne water and oil of cloves.

CANTHARIDES HAIR WASH

Acetum Cantharides15 parts
Alcohol150 parts
Rosemary oil15 parts
Bergamot oil10 parts
Lavender Oil5 parts
Rose Oil5 parts
Glycerine50 parts
Water700 parts

Procedure : Dissolve the oils in the spirit and the rest in water. Mix the two solutions and volume with water. Filter bright, using talc or Kieselguhr.

COCONUT OIL SHAMPOO

This is made by saponifying odourless oil with potash. Sometimes other fixed oils are added and these include palm, peanut, etc. , but they have a tendency to decrease the foaming properties of the product and are only used in cheaper grade articles. Usually 1,000 parts of coconut oil require for complete saponification about 300 parts of potassium hydroxide. This is dissolved in 1 litre of water at about 75°C and added to the oil at the same temperature in a steam pan. Saponification can be tested by using phenolphthalein as indicator. If the liquid remains white, further additions of alkali are necessary whereas when it turns red more oil should be added. The heat is continued until saponification has taken place and the product is neutral. It is then diluted to 5 litres with distilled water in which some carbonate of potash has been dissolved.

Coconut Oil1000 parts
Potassium hydroxide300 parts
Distilled Water1000 parts
Potassium Carbonate30 parts
Distilled Water2970 parts

It is now perfumed with any of the stable synthetics, such as linalol, terpineol, methyl acetophenone etc., or such oils as lavender and rosemary.

LIME JUICE CREAM

I

Procedure:Dissolve by gentle heat white wax,½oz.; oil of sweet almonds, 8 oz. gradually add glycerine, 1 oz.; lime water (aqua calcis B.P.) 32 gr. With 1 oz. water also add rectified Sprit, 1½ oz.; essence of lemon, 2 dr.; essential oil of almonds, 5 minims.

II

Procedure: Take white wax 1 part, oil of sweet almonds 20 parts, lime water 22 parts, glycerine 2 parts, oil of lemon part. The advantage of this preparation is that it does not become rancid; on the other hand, it exerts a stimulating effect on the roots of the hair.

LIME JUICE GLYCERINE

I

Almond Oil25 oz.
Glycerine1½ oz.
Lemon Oil1¼ oz.
Lime Water to make80 ft. oz.

Procedure: Mix well by shaking.

II

Almond Oil2 oz.
Glycerine4 oz.
Tincture of Senegal1 dr.
Lime Water2 oz.
Rose Water4 oz.
Oil of Bergamot10 drops
Oil of Lemon20 drops

Procedure: Shake well the oil of almond and tincture of senegal and then add the glycerine, lime water and rose water. Lastly perfume with essential oils. If the cream becomes rancid, add 4 grains of salicylic acid to each pint of the cream.

WRINKLE REMOVER

Procedure: Take white petrolatum, 7 av. oz; paraffin wax, ½ av. oz.; lanolin, 2av. oz.; water, 3ft,oz.oil of rose, 3 drops; vanillin, 2 gr.; alcohol, 1 fl. dr. Melt the paraffin, add the lanolin and petrolatum, and when these have melted pour the mixture into a warm mortar, and with constant stirring incorporate the water. When nearly cold add the oil and vanillin, dissolved in the alcohol. Preparations of this kind shiould be rubbed into the skin vigorously, as friction assists the absorbed fat in developing the muscles, and also imparts softness and fullness to the skin.

BINDI LIQUID

Carmine5 parts
Gum arabic8 parts
Water10 parts

Procedure: Dissolve the gum in cold water and incorporate carmine.

]

BINDI STICK

Wax1-1/8 dr.
Almond oil3 dr.
Carmine6 gr.
Otto of rose6 drops

Procedure : Melt the wax over a water bath, then incorporate the almond oil. Now disolve the carmine in just enough solution of ammonia, put in a warm mortar, and add the bases. Next remove from the water bath and add the otto. Lastly pour the mass in tin moulds.

LIQUID BRILLIANTINE

Castor oil2 oz.
Alcohol (95 p.c.)8 oz.
Oil of neroli5 minims.
Oil of rose geranium10 minims.
Oil of verbena5 minims.
Oil of lemon30 minims.

Procedure : Dissolve the castor oil in the alcohol and then add the essential oils by one by shaking.

The liquid so obtained should be homogeneous.

CORN SALVE

Salicylic acid 6 dr.
Methyl Salicylate 2 dr.
Wool fat 2 oz.
Yellow wax 2 oz.
Benzoated lard 11 oz.'

Mix.

STICK COSMETIC

White wax1½ lbs.
Tallow3 "
Oil of bergamot2 oz.
Oil of cassia3 dr.
Oil of thyme1½ "

Procedure: Mix the essential oils together and keep ready. Next melt the wax and tallow on a water bath. Now slowly stir in the essential oil mixture. Remove from the source of heat but continue stirring for a few minutes more until the mass is about to congeal. Now pour into suitable moulds.

Benzoated lard1½ oz.
White wax3 "
Oil of bergamot1 dr.
Oil of cassia10 minims.
Oil of thyme5 minims.

Procedure: Melt wax, add the lard, and stir until creamy; then add the perfume and pour into suitable moulds.

SCENT CARDS

Procedure: Mix thoroughly coumarin, 10 gr.; vanillin, 10 gr.; heliotropin, 10 gr.; ionone, 10 minims; hyacinthine, 5 minims; essence of musk, 30 minims; otto of rose, 5 minims; rectified spirit, 1 fl. oz. Then soak a piece of blotting paper in the mixture. The cards to be scented are put in a closed box along with blotting paper for a day or so. The cards will imbibe the scent.

PERFUME TABLET

Perfume tablets consist of a compressed mixture of rice starch, magnesium carbonate and powdered orris root with combination of scents and essences, etc. The following are a few typical recipes:

Violet

Ionone, 50 parts; ylang-ylang, 50 parts; tincture musk, strongest, 200 parts, tinture benzoin, 200 parts.

Heliotrope

Heliotropin, 200 parts; vanillin, 50 parts; tincture of musk, 100 parts; tincture of benzoin, 200 parts.

Lilac

Oil of turbentine, 200 parts; lily of the valley essence, 200 parts; tincture of musk, 200 parts; tincture of benzoin, 200 parts. Mix.

SOLID PERFUME

I

Procedure: Melt 8 oz. of hard paraffin, and just as it begins to thicken add 1 oz. of kaolin with which 4 dr. of concentrated essence has been intimately mixed. Finally pour into tin moulds of desired shape and size.

II

Procedure: Mix well finest plaster of Paris 4 oz. and powdered sodium chloride 10 gr. and make into a cream with water. Quickly add the essence, stir and pour into moulds.


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