The Complete Book on Waste Treatment Technologies (Industrial, Biomedical, Water, Electronic, Municipal, Household/ Kitchen, Farm Animal, Dairy, Poultry, Meat, Fish & Sea Food Industry Waste)

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The Complete Book on Waste Treatment Technologies (Industrial, Biomedical, Water, Electronic, Municipal, Household/ Kitchen, Farm Animal, Dairy, Poultry, Meat, Fish & Sea Food Industry Waste)

Author: Prof. Dr. Mahendra Pal
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9789381039670
Code: NI293
Pages: 592
Price: Rs. 1,675.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2015
Publisher: NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES
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About the Book
Waste management is a global problem that continues to increase with rapid industrialization, population growth, and economic development. As the world hurtles towards the urban future, the amount of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is growing very fast. Waste includes any solid material or material that is suspended dissolved or transported in water or deposited on land. Wastes are generally classified into solid, liquid, & gaseous and are broadly classified as household waste; municipal waste; commercial and non-hazardous industrial wastes; e- waste, hazardous (toxic) industrial wastes; construction and demolition waste; health care wastes – waste generated in health care facilities (e.g. hospitals, medical research facilities); human and animal wastes; and incinerator wastes.
In the recent years, modern society has become more responsible when it comes to waste management. The fast industrialization, urbanization, modern technology, and rapidly growing population in India have posed a serious challenge to the waste management. In India, per capita generation rate of municipal solid waste ranges from 0.2 to 0.5 kg/day. At present, the daily generation rate in South Asia, East Asia and the Pacific combined is approximately 1.0 million tons per day.
The current scenario reveals that there is a tremendous scope for the development of waste treatment technologies and is expected to offer significant opportunities in the near future. Sustainability of waste management is the key for providing an effective service that can satisfy the need of end users. Solid Waste Management sector in India has become a very lucrative sector for investors. With a growing urgency for efficient waste management in many cities, there will be more and more employment opportunities in the sector. The participation of different sectors, roll of Government and private organization is important for better management of waste.

This book describes the various waste treatment technologies like; Physical treatment techniques, biological treatment techniques, anaerobic lagoon techniques etc.

It will be a standard reference book for professionals, entrepreneurs, students, teachers, researchers, administrators, and planners of various disciplines who are directly or indirectly involved in the waste management.

About the Author

Dr. Mahendra Pal born on April 10, 1946 in Delhi, and obtained B. V. Sc. and A. H., M.V. P. H., Ph. D. and D. Sc. in 1969, 1975, 1981 and 1998,respectively. Prof. Pal worked at Massey University, Palmerstone, New Zealand (1984), Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium (1985-1986), and Tokyo University, Japan (1989-1990). Prof. Pal has acted as Advisor of over 68 students for D.V.M., M.Sc., and Ph.D. degree both in India, and Ethiopia. He has served in Veterinary and Medical institutes, and published over 475papers in national and international journals. Prof. Pal has published many papers in collaboration with the scientists of Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, USA, Nepal and Ethiopia. He has authored seven books including "Zoonoses" and "Veterinary and Medical Mycology" which are highly appreciated by veterinary and medical scientists. Prof. Pal has developed sunflower seed medium (Pal's medium) in 1980, “PHOL” (Pal, Hasegawa, Ono, Lee) stain, in 1990, “Narayan” stain in 1998 and “APRM” medium in 2015, which are proved very useful for the study of fungi. Prof. Pal is credited to elucidate the etiologic significance of Cryptococcus neformans for the first time with mastitis of goat (1975) and buffalo (1980), Nocardia asteroides in corneal unlcer of cattle (1982), Apergillus fumigatus in keratitis of buffalo calf (1983), Candida tropicalis in human lung empyema (1987), Fusarium solani in corneal ulcer of buffalo (1992) and Trichophyton verrucosum in dermatitis of barking deer (1993). Prof.Pal established for the first time the prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans in the environment of New Zealand, Nepal, and Djibouti. He described for the first time the etiologic role of Candida albicans, and Trichophyton verrucosum in mastitis and dermatitis of camel, respectively in Ethiopia. Prof. Pal is serving as Honorary Member/Associate Editor of nine online journals. His papers are frequently cited as reference by many academicians in their papers, reviews, books, and monographs. Prof .Pal has started M.V.Sc. and Ph.D.in Veterinary Public Health at Veterinary College, Anand, India. He is also an instrumental to start Ph.D.in Veterinary Public Health at Addis Ababa University for the first time in Ethiopia. Prof. Pal is a recipient of several awards, including "Jawaharlal Nehru Award", "Distinguished Teacher Award", and “Life Time Achievement Award." Presently, he is working as Professor of Veterinary Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.


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Contents

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CONTENTS
Dedication
Acknowledgements
Preface
Abbreviations
1. INTRODUCTION
2. TYPES OF WASTES
A. Livestock Farm Wastes
Current Methods for Disposal of Livestock Mortalities
Burial
Burning
Incineration
Rendering
Composting
Future of Livestock Mortality Disposal
Novel Disposal Methods
Carcass Storage and Bioreduction Methods
Reasons for Concern
Pollution Potential of Farm Animal Wastes
Magnitude of the Problem
Properties of Animal Wastes
Physical Properties
Chemical and Biological Properties
Fertilizer Value
Handling of Farm Animal Wastes
Storage of Farm Animal Wastes
Treatment of Farm Animal Wastes
Physical Treatment
Chemical Treatment
Biological Treatment
Composting
Anaerobic Digestion
Lagoon Treatment
Aerobic Treatment
Economics of Farm Animal Waste Treatment
B. Biomedical Wastes
Classification of Biomedical Waste
Handling, Storage, and Transportation of Healthcare Waste
On-site Collection, Transport, and Storage of Waste
Collection
Storage
On-site Transport
Off-site Transportation of Waste
Special Packaging Requirements for Off-site Transport
Handling, Storage, and Transportation of Healthcare Waste
Routing
Biomedical Waste Treatment
Incineration Technology
Non-Incineration Technology
Autoclaving
Microwave Irradiation
Chemical Methods
Selection of Suitable Treatment Technology
Common Treatment Facility
Mobile Treatment/Disposal System
C. Industrial Wastes
Description of Important Industrial Solid Waste
Coal Ash
Integrated Iron and Steel Plant Slag
Phosphogypsum
Red Mud
Lime Mud
Waste Sludge and Residues
Potential Reuse of Solid Wastes
Prevention-A Waste Minimization Approach
Inventory Management and Improved Operations
Modification of Equipment
Production Process Changes
Recycling and Reuse
Waste Management at Source
Collection and Transport of Industrial Wastes
Storage and Transportation
Disposal of Industrial Solid Waste
Health Consequences of Poor Industrial Waste Disposal
Waste Segregation
Combined Treatment Facilities
Landfill
Waste Reduction Techniques
Benefits of Cleaner Production
Industrial Hazardous Wastes
Industrial Nonhazardous Wastes
Radioactive Wastes
D. Abattoir Wastes
Sources of Waste in Red Meat Abattoirs
Best Management Practices
Existing Methods for Disposal of Meat Production Waste
Burial
Composting
Incineration
Rendering
Rendering Industry
Recent Events Affecting the Rendering Industry
Dead Stock Collection, Transportation and Receiving
Dead Stock Collectors and Receivers
Anaerobic Digestion of Protein Rich Substrate
Co-digestion Plant Design and Operation
E. Household/Kitchen Wastes
Disposal of Household Hazardous Waste
Disposal Problems
Disposal Problems in the Trash
Disposal Problems on the Ground
Disposal Problems in Storm Sewers
Worm Composting
F. Municipal Wastes
Anaerobic Digestion Process
Various AD Systems
Important Operating Parameters in AD Process
Waste Composition/Volatile Solids (VS)
pH Level
Temperature
Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio (C/N)
Total Solids Content (TS) / Organic Loading Rate (OLR)
Retention (or Residence) Time
Mixing
Compost
Biogas Composition
Development and Present Status of AD Technology
Historical Background
Types of AD Systems
Single Stage Process
Single Stage Low Solids (SSLS) Process
Single Stage High Solids (SSHS) Process
Multi-stage Process
Multi-stage Low Solids Process
Multi-stage High Solids Process
Batch Reactors
G. Dairy Industries Wastes:
Sources of Wastes
Waste Characteristics
Treatment of Dairy Wastes
Checking of Dairy Effluent
Preventive Attitudes
Waste Management Issues for Dairy Processors
Cheese Making
Whey Condensing
Shell and Tube Condensers
Mechanical Vapor Recompression (MVR)
Ultra Filtration
Reverse Osmosis
Waste Water Treatment Options
Aerated Lagoons
Activated Sludge
Sequencing Batch Reactors
Biological Tower
Spray Irrigation
Ridge and Furrow Systems
Absorption Ponds
Hauling and Land Application
WPDES Permit Issuance
Surface Water Effluent Limits
Land Application of Waste Water
Phosphorus Limitations
Chloride Limitations
Aerated Lagoon Treatment Systems
Winter Spreading of Waste
H. Fish and Seafood Processing Unit’s Wastes
Liquid Effluent
Solid Waste
Other Waste Components
Waste Management
Typical Waste Treatment Scenario
Data on Receiving Environment
Biologically Activated Rock Phosphate Fertilizer
Fish Processing Waste Disposal Practices and Options
Waste Water Characteristics
I. Poultry Farm Waste
Options and Considerations for Poultry Waste Management
Animal Refeeding
Bioenergy Production
Dead Birds Disposal:
Composting
Incineration
J. Electronic Wastes
E-waste in India
Impacts of E-wastes
Impacts of Informal Recycling
Status of E-waste Management in India
E-waste Management Strategies
Electronic Waste Items List
Electronic Wastes: A Rising Global Phenomenon
Electronic Wastes: The Environmental and Human Rights Dimensions
Regulatory Responses to the Electronic Waste Phenomenon
K. Other Wastes
Construction Waste Management
Eliminating Waste
Minimizing Waste
Reusing Materials
Federal Regulations
Management
Project Level-enhancing Project Value and Performance
Organization Level-stewardship of Corporate Values and Priorities
Disposition Level-management of Diversion and Disposal
Construction and Demolition Wastes
Best Management Practices
Process
Collection and Hauling
Containerization and Transport
Prevalence of Common Materials
1. Waste Management Planning
2. Facility Design
3. Construction Contract Requirements
4. Jobsite Waste Reduction
Emerging Issues
Plastic Waste and Its Disposal
Radioactive Waste and Their Environmentally Sound Management
Manual Loading of Waste
Loading of Waste Through Front End Loader and Trucks
Garbage Loaded in Open Trucks Causing Nuisance
Measures to be Taken to Improve the System
Steps to be Taken to Meet the Above Objectives
Transportation of Construction Waste and Debris
Waste Disposal Management
Waste Types that Should not to be Incinerated
Pharmaceutical Disposal
Management of Municipal Solid Waste in India
Waste Management: Global Perspective
Waste Generation
Development Trends for Waste and Wastewater
Global Overview of Waste Management
Landfill CH4: Regional Trends
Wastewater and Human Sewage CH4 and N2O: Regional Trends
CO2 From Waste Incineration
Waste Management and GHG-Mitigation Technologies
CH4 Management at Landfills
Incineration and Other Thermal Processes for Waste-to-energy
Biological Treatment Including Composting, Anaerobic Digestion, and Mechanical
Waste Reduction, Re-use and Recycling
Wastewater and Sludge Treatment
Waste Management and Mitigation Costs and Potentials
Fluorinated Gases: End-of-life Issues, Data and Trends in the Waste Sector
Air Quality Issues: NMVOCs and Combustion Emissions
Reducing Landfill CH4 Emissions
Incineration and Other Thermal Processes for Waste-to-energy
Waste Minimization, Re-use and Recycling
Policies and Measures on Fluorinated Gases
Municipal Solid Waste Management
Wastewater Management
Disposal of Fallen Animals in the Field/Forest
Rendering Industry
Recent Events Affecting the Rendering Industry
Deadstock Collection, Transportation and Receiving
3. HUMAN PATHOGENS IN ANIMAL AGRICULTURE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
Viruses
Chlamydia
Coxiella Burnetii
Bacteria
Aeromonas Hydrophila
Arcobacter
Bacillus Anthracis
Brucella
Campylobacter
Clostridium Perfringens
Escherichia Coli
Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae
Francisella Tularensis
Leptospira Species
Listeria Monocytogenes
Salmonella
Yersinia
Mycotic Agents
Parasites (Protozoans and Helminths)
Ascaris
Balantidium Coli
Cryptosporidium Parvum
Giardia
Toxoplasma
Other Organism
Microsporidia
Faecal Indicator Organisms
4. PATHOGEN REDUCTIONS DURING WASTE
TREATMENT
Manure Solids Waste
Dry Techniques: Composting
Manure Slurry Treatment Techniques
Physical Treatment Techniques
Biological Treatment Techniques
Anaerobic Lagoon Treatment
Multiple Lagoon Systems
Aerated Lagoons and Oxidation Ponds
Anaerobic Digestion
Mesophilic Anaerobic Digestion
Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion
Aerobic Digestion
Mesophilic Aerobic Digestion
Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion
Activated Sludge
Biofiltration
Constructed Wetlands
Overland Flow
Disinfection and Chemical Treatments
Chlorine
Ozone
Chlorine Dioxide
Ultraviolet Light (UV) Irradiation
Lime Stabilization
Pasteurization
Animal Waste Disposal or Recycling Options
Land Application
Spray Fields
5. AEROSOLIZATION OF PATHOGENS
Microbial Detection Analysis Techniques
On-farm Verification of Microbial Reduction by Corrective Measures
Real-time Measurement Techniques
Public Health Hazards due to Wastes
Hazardous Substances Associated with Waste Management
Impact of Waste Management Practices on Health
Individual Pollutants
Health Effects in Communities
Control of Hazards
Safe Work Practices
PPE Hazard Assessment and Training
Systems to Track Hazard Correction
Emergency Preparation
Emergency Preparedness
Current Scenario and Future Challenges of Municipal Solid Waste Management in India
Conclusions
Recommendations
6. APPENDICES
Appendix–I
Appendix–II
Appendix–III
Appendix–IV
Appendix–V
Appendix–VI
Appendix–VII
Appendix–VIII
Appendix–IX
Appendix–X
Appendix–XI
Appendix–XII
Appendix–XIII
Annexure–XIV
Annexure–XV
Annexure–XVI
Annexure–XVII
Annexure–XVIII
Annexure–XIX
Annexure–XX
Annexure–XXI
Annexure–XXII
Annexure–XXIII
Annexure–XXIV
Annexure–XXV
Appendix–XXVI
Appendix–XXVII
Appendix–XXVIII
Appendix–XXIX
Annexure–XXX
Appendix–XXXI
Appendix–XXXII
Appendix–XXXIII
7. GLOSSARY
8. REFERENCES


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