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Investment Opportunities & Business Ideas in Tanzania, East Africa - Identification and Selection of right Project, Thrust areas for Investment, Industry Startup and Entrepreneurship Projects

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CLINKER GRINDING FOR CEMENT - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

The most commonly used cement in the world is Portland cement, which is formed at high temperatures that chemically combine the ingredients into new components, including calcium silicates and calcium aluminates. When the cement clinkers are ground with approximately 5% gypsum, they form Portland cement. These compounds allow cement to set when combined with water and to form strong bonds that can withstand pressure, water immersion, and other elements. In the manufacture of Portland cement, clinker is lumps or nodules, usually 3-25 mm in diameter, produced by sintering limestone and alumino-silicate during the cement kiln stage. Cement clinkers are formed by the heat processing of cement elements in a kiln. Limestone, clay, bauxite, and iron ore sand in specific proportions are heated in a rotating kiln at 2,770° Fahrenheit (1,400° Celsius) until they begin to form cinder lumps, which are also known as cement clinkers. Cement clinkers are usually ground with gypsum to produce the fine powder later mixed with liquid to produce cement, although some manufacturers ship cement clinkers in their lump form to cut down on dust. Cement is heavily relied upon to produce mortar, grouts, and concrete, and cement clinkers are the first stage, post firing, in making cement. Cement has strong bonding qualities when mixed with gypsum and water to form a hydration reaction, and it forms approximately one tenth of concrete, mixed with rocks, sand, and other materials and used in building construction all over the world. Concretes high versatility makes it an ideal tool for building projects of all shapes and sizes, from skyscrapers to pool sides. Concrete can also be recycled when it has outlived its usefulness and converted back into cement clinkers through careful processing. Clinker is ground (usually with the addition of a little gypsum, that is, calcium sulfate dehydrate) to become Portland cement. It may also be combined with other active ingredients or chemical admixtures to produce: ground granulated blast furnace slag cement, pozzolana cement & silica fume cement. The cement industry is one of the main beneficiaries of the infrastructure boom. With robust demand and adequate supply, the industry has bright future. The Indian Cement Industry with total capacity of 165 million tones is the second largest after China. Cement industry is dominated by 20 companies who account for over 70% of the market. Individually no company accounts for over 12% of the market. The major players like L&T and ACC have been quiet successful in narrowing the gap between demand and supply. Private housing sector is the major consumer of cement (53%) followed by the government infrastructure sector. Similarly northern and southern region consume around 20%-30% cement while the central and western region are consuming only 18%-16%. India is the 2nd largest cement producer in world after china. Right from laying concrete bricks of economy to waving fly overs cement industry has shown and shows a great future. Domestic demand for cement has been increasing at a fast pace in India. Cement industry has contributed around 8% to the economic development of India. Outsiders (foreign players) eyeing India as a major market to invest in the form of either merger or FDI (Foreign Direct Investment). Cement industry has a long way to go as Indian economy is poised to grow because of being on verge of development. The company continues to emphasize on reduction of costs through enhanced productivity, reduction in energy costs and logistics expenses. The cement sector is expected to witness growth in line with the economic growth because of the strong co-relation with GDP. Future drivers of cement demand growth in India would be the road and housing projects. As per the Working Group report on Cement Industry for the formulation of the 11th Plan, the cement demand is likely to grow at 11.5 per cent per annum during the 11th Plan and cement production and capacity by the end of the 11th Plan are estimated to be 269 million tones and 298 million tones, respectively, with capacity utilization of 90 per cent. There is a very good scope in this sector and new entrepreneurs should venture into this field. Few Indian Major Players are as under: ACC Ltd. Almora Magnesite Ltd. Ambuja Cement Eastern Ltd. Ambuja Cement Rajasthan Ltd. Barak Valley Cements Ltd. Bhilai Jaypee Cement Ltd. Binani Cement Ltd. Birla Corporation Ltd. Cement Manufacturing Co. Ltd. Century Textiles & Inds. Ltd. Chettinad Cement Corpn. Ltd. Deccan Cements Ltd. Dhar Cement Ltd. Greygold Cements Ltd. Gujarat High Tech Inds. Ltd. Gujarat Sidhee Cement Ltd. Heidelberg Cement India Ltd. Hemadri Cements Ltd. India Cements Ltd. Keerthi Industries Ltd. Lafarge India Pvt. Ltd. Lemos Cements Ltd. Malabar Cements Ltd. Mangalam Cement Ltd. Meghalaya Cement Ltd. My Home Inds. Ltd. N C L Industries Ltd. Namo Cements Ltd. Narmada Cement Co. Ltd. Penna Cement Inds. Ltd. Rain Commodities Ltd. Ramco Industries Ltd. Rishi Cement Co. Ltd. Sagar Cements Ltd. Sainik Finance & Inds. Ltd. Sanghi Industries Ltd. Saurashtra Cement Ltd. Shaktiman Cements Ltd. Shiva Cement Ltd. Shree Digvijay Cement Co. Ltd. Shri Hariganga Cement Ltd. Snhehadhara Industries Ltd. Sorabh Cement Ltd. Sparta Cements & Infra Ltd. Sri Vishnu Cement Ltd. Srichakra Cements Ltd. Sudarshan Cement & Multiprojects Ltd. Tata Chemicals Ltd. Ultratech Cement Ltd. Vinay Cements Ltd. Virgo Cements Ltd. Visaka Cement Industry Ltd. Zuari Cement Ltd.
Plant capacity: 75000 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 433 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 727 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 58.00%
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SORBITOL - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Economics

Sorbitol, a polyol (sugar alcohol), is a bulk sweetener. Sorbitol is produced either from starch hydrolysates, from dextrose syrup, or from dextrose monohydrate. It is a water soluble polyhydric alcohol, having sweet taste and high stability besides properties of humectancy and plasticizing. Sorbitol is about 60 percent as sweet as sucrose with one-third fewer calories. It finds a wide range of application such as oral care, cosmetics, pharma, paints, etc. Sorbitol also combines well with other food ingredients such as sugars, gelling agents, proteins and vegetable fats. It functions well in many food products such as chewing gums, candies, frozen desserts, cookies, cakes, icings and fillings. It is used to manufacture toothpaste, tonics/liquid pharmaceutical formulations, cosmetic products like face creams and lotions, etc. It has a smooth mouthfeel with a sweet, cool and pleasant taste. It is non-cariogenic and may be useful to people with diabetes. In pharmaceutical sector it finds application in vitamin syrups, cough syrups, tablet compounding and many others. A newly developing outlet for sorbitol is its use in producing clarifying agents for polypropylene. Clarifying agents enable polypropylene to substitute for higher cost polymers in food packaging, drinking cups and housewares. Sorbitol meant for other applications, be it food, hygiene products or pharmaceuticals, can be of the "non-crystallizing" type and is produced from starch hydrolysates. Sorbitol is produced either from starch hydrolysates, from dextrose syrup, or from dextrose monohydrate. Sorbitol is manufactured by reaction with hydrogen gas with high pressure hydrogenation of 50% aqueous dextrose solution at 140 to 165 Deg C in 3 to 4 hours with Raney nickel catalyst, using promoters such as salts of magnesium, nickel, molybdenum, iron etc. Generally dextrose is produced in house from Starch by enzymatic process The Indian demand is around 90000 tonnes per annum. In India, Sorbitol is produced only as 70% solution and the operating capacity is around 125900 tonnes per annum. The global demand is around 1.6 million tonnes per annum (both liquid and crystalline) with a growth rate of around 3% per annum. Major Manufacturers • Anil Products Ltd.,Ahmedabad • Gulshan Polyols (Gulshan Sugars & Chemicals Ltd.,) Delhi • Maize Products,Ahmedabad • Gujarat Ambuja Proteins Ltd. Ahmedabad • Sukhjit Starch Chemicals, Punjab • Kasyap Sweetners Ltd., Madhya Pradesh • Roquette America, Inc.US • Atanor S.A.USA • Coyne Chemical,USA • Habib Arkady Ltd.,Pakistan • Mudanjiang Pharmaceutical Group Co. Ltd.China • Pt Sumi Asih Oleochemical Industry,China • Shanghai Haohua Chemical Co., Ltd.Shanghai,China Sorbitol’s good taste, reduced caloric value, versatility and other advantages facilitate its use in a wide variety of products. With the increasing demand for products reduced in calories or fat, sorbitol’s use should increase as well. Considering the application potentials of sorbitol and the feasibility of exploiting the export opportunities, creation of new capacity for Sorbitol can be considered in the country.
Plant capacity: 40.0 Tonnes/DayPlant & machinery: 1
Working capital: N/AT.C.I: 1
Return: 1.00%Break even: 1.00%
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MODIFIED STARCH - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Layout

Starches are modified to enhance their performance in different applications. Starches may be modified to increase their stability against excessive heat, acid, shear, time, cooling, or freezing; to change their texture; to decrease or increase their viscosity; to lengthen or shorten gelatinization time; or to increase their viscostability. Modified starches, starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch, thereby changing the properties of the starch. Modified starches are used in practically all starch applications, such as in food products as a thickening agent, stabilizer or emulsifier; in pharmaceuticals as a disintegrater; or in paper as a binder .Carboxymethyl starch is used as an additive in oil drilling mud. Starches, especially modified starches, are also used as glues in cardboard manufacturing. Starches such as Gum Arabic and Gum Tragacanth are used as the glue for stamps and postal envelopes. They are also used in many other applications. The major Application Sector of modified starches is paper, oil drilling, textile, food / pharmaceutical, etc. Thus starch can be used in numerous possible functional application areas, including adhesion, antistaling, binding, clouding, dusting, emulsion stabilization, encapsulation, flowing aid, foam strengthening, gelling, glazing, moisture retention, molding, shaping, stabilizing and thickening. There are many types of important modified starch. To name a few some of them are physically modified starch, chemically modified starch and enzymatically modified starch. Starches can be modified in several ways to change their function as additives in products. They can be cross-linked, where the chains get stuck together into a mesh. They can be heated to break the long chains down into simpler molecules like dextrin, polydextrin, and maltodextrin. These are simply short starches. Starches can have hydrogen replaced by something else, such as a carboxymethyl group, making carboxymethyl starch. Some Indian manufacturers Gujarat Ambuja Proteins Ltd, Ahmedabad Sahyadri Starch & Chemicals (P) Ltd., Bangalore Tirupati Starch & Chem Ltd., Indore SPA Starch & Chemicals, Mumbai Karandikars Cashell Pvt. Ltd, Mumbai Universal Starch & Chemicals Ltd, Maharashtra The growth rate in demand for Starch/Modified starch is likely to be in tune with the performance and growth rate of downstream sector in the coming years. The Indian demand for the last financial year was around 75000tonnes per annum. The global production of starch is around 37 million tonnes per annum and the global demand is around 4 million tonnes per annum for modified starch. A number of potential applications of modified starch have not been exploited to a large extent. For example, modified starch can be used in various food applications as instant noodles, ham sausages, flavouring, frozen foods, beverages, ice-cream etc. Modified starch also can find application in biodegradable plastics and bioplastics, which is used in packaging, agricultural films, disposable cutlery. There is good potential for modified starch in food applications and prospects for growth seem bright. New entrepreneurs have a very good scope for exploration into such segments.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: 1.00%Break even: N/A
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PRECIPITATED SILICA FROM RICE HUSK ASH - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

Rice husk is an agricultural residue easily available in rice producing countries. India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion & or by gasification. The rice husk contains about 75% organic volatile matter & the balance 25% of the weight of this husk is converted into ash during the firing process, is known as rice husk ash (RHA). This RHA in tern contains around 85%–92% amorphous silica. About more 20 million tones of RHA are produced annually in India. Generally rice husk is not used as cattle feed since its cellulose & other sugar contents are low. So the RHA produced is a great environment threat causing damage to the land & the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being through off for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. Silica is one of the valuable inorganic chemical compounds. It can exist in gel, crystalline and amorphous forms. It is the most abundant material in the earth’s crust. Silica is the major constituent of rice husk ash. With such a large ash content & silica content in the ash it becomes economical to extract silica from the ash, which has wide market & also takes care of ash disposal. Precipitated Silica (also called particulate silica) is composed of aggregates of ultimate particles of colloidal size that have not become linked in massive gel network during the preparation process. It is an amorphous form of silica; the word amorphous denotes a lack or crystal structure, as defined by x-ray diffraction. Early interest in amorphous silica was purely academic. The ash produced after the husks have been burned is high in silica. RHA can be used in a variety of application like: green concrete, high performance concrete, ceramic glaze, water proofing chemicals, roofing shingles, insulator, specialty paints, flame retardants, carrier for pesticides, insecticides & bio fertilizers etc. Precipitated silica is also used as filler for paper & rubber, as a carrier & diluents for agricultural chemicals, as an anti caking agent, to control viscosity & thickness and as a cleansing agent in toothpastes & in cosmetics. The distinguishing feature of the growth of precipitated silica industry in India is that it has classifiably flourished in the small-scale sector. Readily available new materials low capital investment & high rates of return offer a distinct advantage to the small-scale manufacturers to venture into this field. There is a very good scope in this sector. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Gujrat Multi Gas Base Chemicals Private Limited Gujarat Multi Gas Base Chemicals Private Limited, Mumbai Manswill Chemicals Private Limited Wellink Chemical Industrial Company Limited, Nanping Insilco Limited Famous Minerals and Chemicals Private Limited Gujarat Silicon Pvt. Ltd.
Plant capacity: 600 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 53 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 273 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 47.00%
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POTATO POWDER, FLAKES & GRANULES WITH COLD STORAGE - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Production Schedule

Potato is considered to be one of the traditional food items of India. Potato is the staple food for 2/3rd of the world population. India is presently the 3rd largest potato growing country in the world. Potato is one of the important tuber vegetables, which is consumed throughout the year. Its Botanical name is Solanum tuberosum. The main edible part is its tuber. Potato is one of the most important but perishable groups known. Unprocessed foods are susceptible to spoilage by biochemical processes, microbial attack and infestation. The right post harvest practices such as good processing techniques, and proper packaging, transportation and storage (of even processed foods) can play a significant role in reducing spoilage and extending shelf life. Among various methods of preservation, dehydration of vegetables is one of the most popular and oldest methods. Dehydration increases the storage period of vegetables and make them available throughout the year and even in off-season, thus supplying the important nutrients in a concentrated form. Dehydrated foods are top-quality biological products and foods, picked in the peak of their ripeness and after cleaning and trimming, dehydrated with 98% of their moisture taken out. Dehydrated foods are more concentrated source of minerals than any other preserved form of foodstuff. Almost all dehydrated potato products like flakes, granulates and powder forms are not new to households & restaurants. It has good potential in food processing industries, defenses, pharmaceutical industries, hotels and restaurants, caterers, etc. Potato powder, Granules and flakes are processed dehydrated potato products. The processing of potatoes increases the shelf life of potatoes. There are various machines which are required for the processing of potatoes. Most of the machines are indigenously available & very few of them may be imported. There are plenty of well varieties of potato available for processing. There are few good technologists available, for supplying process technology. There is environmental pollution problem within this industry but can be solved using proper treatment. As a whole the products have fair market demand. There is a good scope for new entrepreneurs. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Tipsy-Topsy Exports Superveg Agrotech Pvt. Ltd. Sifter International Nile Valley Company Rice, Spice and Paper Inc.
Plant capacity: 14400 MT Potato Powder,14400 MT Potato Flakes,6000 MT Potato GranulesPlant & machinery: 12900 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 15800 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 34.00%
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OSSEIN/GELATIN - Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue, Plant Economics, Plant Layout

Gelatin is a pure colorless water-soluble glutinous protein derived from natural sources such as the hides and bones of animals (cattle, pig, fish, and poultry). Gelatin is a nearly complete protein lacking only one essential amino acid-tryptophan. It is free of fat, cholesterol and preservatives. Gelatin is considered GRAS, Generally Recognized as Safe, according the FDA. Ossein is the organic matter of animal bones that are rich in collagen. Generally hydrochloric acid is used in extracting ossein from bones and ossein is used for the production of gelatin. The largest use of gelatin is in the food industry, primarily in candies, desserts and dairy products. Gelatin has many physical characteristics that make it suitable for food applications. These characteristics are its melt-in-the-mouth feel, its ability to form thermo reversible gels, and its clarity and bland flavor. Another use of gelatin is in the pharmaceutical industry for hard and soft capsule manufacture, health supplements and micro-encapsulation. Gelatin protects the active pharmaceutical ingredients from exposure to air, light and moisture. Gelatin is also used in the manufacture of photographic products where it’s uniquely suited for the preparation of silver emulsions. There are also a myriad of other applications that use gelatin such as millinery, industrial products, art supplies and scientific research. Gelatin is available in a granular, powder or leaf form. Leaf gelatin is mainly used in culinary applications. Gelatin is produced through a series of processing steps that include demineralization, hydrolysis, extraction, evaporation, purification, drying and blending. Depending on the raw materials used, processing can take anywhere from two weeks to two months. Demand for gelatin is largely driven by the application in soft and hard gelatine capsules. Gelatin capsules are used as oral dosage form in pharmaceutical and neutraceutical feed. The Indian demand is around 12500 tonnes both for the Pharmaceutical and neutraceutical sector (for gelatine capsules) including tablet coating and Food, edible and technical sector. The global demand for gelatine is around 315000 tonnes per annum with a growth rate of around 2% per annum. New entrepreneurs should venture into this field to create new capacities.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: 1.00%Break even: N/A
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POTATO POWDER (AUTOMATIC PLANT)- Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Potato is one of the important tuber vegetables, which is consumed throughout the year. Its Botanical name is Solanum Tuberosum. Potatoes can be consumed in varied forms. In fact, it is a vegetable that can easily be combined with any other food item including other vegetables, cereals, pulses, meat and poultry. The raw materials required for potato powder are fresh potatoes. The forms of its products are single cells or cell aggregates, so we call it potato granules/powder. Potato powder is a highly concentrated and nutritious flour ground from the pulp of cooked potato. The potato powder is used as thickening agent in soups and stems, for breading meat and fish. It is used extensively by the armed forces, the civilian trade and the school lunch programme. The main difference between potato powder and potato starch, is potato powder is the dehydrations of fresh potatoes, they contain all dry matter of potatoes in addition to potato skin, Due to maintain the integrity of potato cell granules as much as possible, potato powder after watering have the nutrition, flavor and taste of cooked potatoes, Potato starch is only one of many ingredients of potato, so potato starch does not have the nutrition, flavor and taste of potatoes. Potato powder contain not only as the same nutrition level as cereal flour, but also rich in vitamin C and a lot of K. Potato powder contain large amounts of dietary fiber and lower fat. Do not contain cholesterol and saturated fatty acid, are convenient to eat and easy to digest and absorb, so they are particularly suitable for elderly and children to eat. Re-mixed potato powder strengthened nutrition is the full price of nutritious food accepted by the world. Potato powder has kept the original flavor of potatoes as much as possible. 70% to 80% of lasting leisure small foods and approximately 30% of convenient foods are potato products, this shows that consumers prefer for the potato flavor. India is one of the major potato producing countries in the world. Almost all states of our country are producing this crop widely. The potato powder is meant only for export. More than 70% of the total indigenous production of potato powder is exported to various countries. Domestic market for dehydrated and powdered potato also exists. The potato dehydration and powder-manufacturing unit has exclusively been reserved on small scale by the Government of India, as per the industrial policy. This product has a very good scope and market potential, new entrepreneurs should venture into this sector.
Plant capacity: 4 MT/DayPlant & machinery: 204 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 478 Lakhs
Return: 37.00%Break even: 46.00%
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Maize (Zea mays L) is one of the most important cereals of the world and provides more human food than any other cereal. Starch is a group of polysaccharides, composed of glucopyranose units joined together by glucosidric linkages. It conforms to the molecular formula, (C6 H10O5)n, where n varies from a few hundred to over one million. Starch is found as the reserve carbohydrate in various parts of plants and is enzymatically broken down to glucose to other carbohydrates according to the metabolic needs of the plants. Industrially, starch is broadly divided into two types viz., natural and modified. Natural starches also designated as unmodified starches or simply starches, are obtained from grains such as sorghum. Starch is also obtained from roots like potato, tapioca and arrowroot, and from the pith of the stems of certain palms such as sago. They are further classified into cereal starches and root starches. The characteristics of the natural starches are changed by chemical or enzymatic action and the products of these reactions are termed modified starches. This group includes dextrins, acid-modified starches, oxidized starches, starch esters, starch ethers, dialdehyde starches, and cationic starches. The roots of tapioca plant (manihot utilissima) forms one of the major sources of starch, ranking next to potato. The starch content of the plant varies between 12 and 33 per cent. The cereal starches, such as maize, wheat, rice and sorghum, are recovered by several processes, of which the wet milling is by far the most important. Starch is an absorbent for water. Starch and Glucose can be used in different end use industries such as in the manufacture of adhesives, sizing and finishing in textiles, thickening agents in gravies, custards, and confectioneries. Sizing papers, Cosmetics, explosives, reagent, face powders, indicators in domestic analysis, water soluble packaging films, book bindings fabrics, distilled liquors, malt sugar, cattle feed ingredient, rubber reinforcing resins etc. Starch in India is mainly used for cotton textile industry, paper and paper products, Biscuits and confectioneries and glucose and dextrose. Commercially glucose is produced from starch only and these two products are generally made in the same unit side by side. One tonnes of glucose needs 1.1 tonne of starch. About 90% of the liquid glucose produced in India is consumed by the confectionery industry. Liquid Glucose and Dextrose are the products of same origin, in liquid form and the late in powder form. Glucose powder (dextrose) is used an invalid food for pharmaceutical purposes. Aqueous isotonic solution (5%) of dextrose is given as intravenous infections to increase the volume of circulating blood shocks and hemorrhage and to counteract dehydration. Vitamin C is a strong monobasic acid and it is used as a powerful reducing agent in neutral and acidic solutions. It is also used medicine. It is an excellent nutritional agent. It is an antioxidant and a preservative in foodstuffs. It is used as a reducing agent in analytical chemistry. The ferric and calcium salts are available for biochemical research. It is also available as the sodium salt. Sorbitol is an organic chemical having varied end uses. It is edible non-crystalline, odorless white powder and having sweet cooling taste. It is highly soluble in water, and slightly in methyl alcohol. In the case of India, starch is being produced from Maize and tapioca. The units producing starch from maize are concentrated in large sector; and the units producing starch from tapioca are largely concentrated in the small-scale sector. There are many units as at present in the country producing starch from Maize and three units producing starch from Tapioca in the organized sector. The capacity for starch from Maize accounts for more than 80 per cent of the installed capacity in the organized sector. As against the organized sector, there are a number of units in the small and cottage sector producing starch mainly from tapioca. As regards glucose it is produced in solid as well as liquid form. The production of glucose is not possible in the small sector and therefore its production is not as widely spread as that of starch. Eight units manufacturing starch in the organized sector also produce liquid glucose simultaneously. The demand for liquid glucose depends mainly upon the growth of medicine, the pharmaceuticals, biscuits and confectionery industries. As such 80% of the total demand for liquid glucose is absorbed by drugs and pharmaceuticals, while only 20% is used in Biscuits, Confectioneries, toothpaste etc. There is a very good scope and ample space in this sector and new entrepreneurs should venture into this field. Capacity Maize Starch 30000 MT/Annum Liquid Glucose 600 MT/Annum Dextrose Monohydrate 3900 MT/Annum Dextrose Anhydrous 3000 MT/Annum Sorbitol 17100 MT/Annum Vitamin–C 150000 Kg/Annum
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: 780 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 2590 Lakhs
Return: 42.00%Break even: 56.00%
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7 AMINOCEPHALOSPORANIC ACID (7 ACA) - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities

7 ACA or 7 Aminocephalosporanic acid is made from Cephalosporin C and is a key intermediate for synthesizing cephalosporin antibiotics, the B lactam antibiotics family. 7 ACA is a starting compound for the production of various semi-synthetic cephalosporins of different generations. These compounds are made by modification of the side chains at positions 3 and 7 of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7 ACA). It is used to produce many cepholosporins pharmaceutical bulks, such as cefazolin sodium, cefotaxime sodium, ceftriaxone sodium, cefoperazone sodium, ceftazime sodium, cefuroxime sodium and so on. Originally, the commercial processes were based on solvent extraction. 7 Aminocephalosporanic acid (7 ACA), until recently it has been produced by chemical deacylation of the natural antibiotic cephalosporin C. The disadvantage of this method is multiple steps, low yield, use of various organic solvents and treatment of a lot of toxic waste. Alternatively, 7 ACA can be produced by a simpler and more environmentally sound process using a bio-catalytic method based on DAAO and glutaryl hydrolase for enzymatic deacylation of CPC to 7 ACA. However, few enzymes capable of this direct deacylation have been discovered, probably because of the unusual nature of the D aminoadipyl side chain of cephalosporin C. Enzyme engineering is a fast growing application in the pharmaceutical market. Cephalosporin is defined as any of a group of broad-spectrum derived from species of fungi of the genus Cephalosporium and is related to the penicillins in both structure and mode of action but relatively penicillinase resistant antibiotics. These antibiotics have low toxicity for the host, considering their broad antibacterial spectrum. They have the active nucleus of beta lactam ring which results in a variety of antibacterial and pharmacologic characteristics when modified mainly by substitution at 3 and 7 positions. Their antibacterial activities result from the inhibition of mucopeptide synthesis in the cell wall. They are widely used to treat gonorrhea, meningitis, pneumococcal, staphylococcal and streptococcal infections. The cephalosporin class of antibiotics is usually divided into generations by their antimicrobial properties. Three generations of cephalosporins are recognized and the fourth has been grouped. Each newer generation of cephalosporins has broader range of activity against gram-negative organisms but a narrower range of activity against gram positive organisms than the preceding generation. The newer agents have much longer half-lives resulting in the decrease of dosing frequency. Accordingly, the third-generation cephalosporins can penetrate into tissues well, and thus antibiotic levels are good in various body fluids. The cephalosporins belong to the family of ? lactam antibiotics. These are named after the reactive moiety of the compounds, the ? lactam ring. In CPC, the four membered ? lactam ring is coupled to a six membered dihydrothiazine ring to form the nucleus, 7 aminocephalosporanic acid (7 ACA), and a side chain, ? aminoadipic acid, is coupled via an amide bond to the nucleus. The total world market for cephalosporins was estimated to be approximately 10 billion US$ in 2000, and ? lactam antibiotics in general accounting for over 65% of the world antibiotic market. According to IMS Health, cephalosporins as single preparation and in combination preparations are ranked 10 in the global drug sales in 2003 by an estimated sales of 8.3 billion US$, the highest ranking for any of the anti infectives classes. The size of the Indian pharmaceutical industry is poised to treble over the decade. It is expected to grow from about USD 6.3 billion in 2005 to about USD 20 billion by 2015, registering a CAGR of 12.3% and outperforming the global average of 9% in 2009 to 10. In terms of scale, the Indian pharmaceutical market is the 14th largest in the world but will graduate to the top 10 by 2015, overtaking Brazil, Mexico, South Korea and Turkey. India’s growth to a USD 20 billion market by 2015 indicates that the incremental growth of USD 14 billion over the coming decade is likely to be the third highest in the world. Demand for 7 ACA is principally determined by the market sales scale of downstream products. In terms of developing trend, ceftriaxone and cefazolin were two mainstream products of 7 ACA. Therefore, the market change in these two products directly affected the change in production-sales relations of 7 ACA. After dosage conversion, according to estimate the use of 7 ACA for making certriaxone accounted for 47.7% of the total consumption of 7 ACA. Obviously, ceftriaxone had become the biggest consumer of cephalosporins raw materials of 7 ACA series, followed by cefazolin. Not only ceftriaxone boosted morale, but cefotaxime, cefazolin sodium, cefoperazone sodium, cefoperazone sulbactam, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, etc were also the direct contributors of the family. At present, major players in the market include Shijiazhuang Pharmaceutical Group Co. Ltd., Fujian Fukang Pharmaceutical Group Co. Ltd., Shanxi Weiqida Pharmaceutical Group Co. Ltd. and Zhuhai United Labs Co. Ltd. At present there is no production of 7 ACA in the country and the demand is met by imports. There is a good scope for capacity creation in India. New entrepreneurs should venture into this sector.
Plant capacity: 150 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 1486 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 2167 Lakhs
Return: 64.00%Break even: 42.00%
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MAIZE & ITS BY-PRODUCTS - Manufacturing Plant, Detailed Project Report, Profile, Business Plan, Industry Trends, Market Research, Survey, Manufacturing Process, Machinery, Raw Materials, Feasibility Study, Investment Opportunities, Cost and Revenue

Maize is one of the main cereal grains which is produced throughout India and is placed 3rd position in agricultural base production though it is not our staple basic food. Maize is constituted by hull, germ, protein, starch and moisture. Maize is generally processed using the dry and wet milling processes. There is dry and wet milling process for manufacturing of by products such as starch, zein, germ and hulls. Starch is used in the manufacture of number of products such as starch esters, starch phosphates, glucose, dextrose, sorbitol, ethyl alcohol etc. Starch is the basic constituent of maize and it is converted to liquid glucose by adopting series of digestion steps on starch. It will be basically enzyme and acid digestion system. It may be enzyme - enzyme system or only acid digestion system. In the production of liquid glucose there is some production of dextrose anhydride. India is the fifth largest producer of maize in the world contributing 3% of the global production. In India, maize is grown in all seasons i.e., kharif, Rabi and summer. Of these three seasons, nearly 90% of the production is from kharif season, 7 to 8% during Rabi season and remaining 1 to 2% during summer season. Since the maize is rain dependent, it is mainly grown during kharif season. Presently, in India, maize is mainly used for preparation of poultry feed and extraction of starch. Out of total arrivals to the mandis nearly 75% of the produce is bought by the poultry feed manufacturers and 20% is purchased by the starch extractors. The wet milling industry in India is limited to certain pockets such as Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Karnataka and Chhattisgarh. There are about 17 wet milling units with a crushing capacity of about 3400 MT of maize/day. Gujarat is the largest producer of starch, having six units with a total crushing capacity of 1350 MT of maize per day, followed by Maharashtra with 5 units and capacity of 1050 MT and Madhya Pradesh with 3 units and capacity of 450 MT maize. There is a good scope to venture into this field for new entrepreneurs. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Anil Products Ltd. Anil Starch Products Ltd. Bharat Starch Inds. Ltd. English Indian Clays Ltd. Gayatri Bioorganics Ltd. Gujarat Ambuja Exports Ltd. Gujarat Ambuja Proteins Ltd. Gulshan Polyols Ltd. Indian Maize & Chemicals Ltd. International Bestfoods Ltd. K G Gluco Biols Ltd. Kamala Sugar Mills Ltd. Karnataka State Agro Corn Products Ltd. Laxmi Starch Ltd. Origin Agrostar Ltd. Pondicherry Agro Service & Inds. Corpn. Ltd. Rai Agro Inds. Ltd. Riddhi Siddhi Gluco Biols Ltd. Santosh Starch Ltd. Santosh Starch Products Ltd. Sayaji Industries Ltd. Sukhjit Starch & Chemicals Ltd. Tirupati Starch & Chemicals Ltd. Unique Sugars Ltd. Universal Starch-Chem Allied Ltd. Wockhardt Health Care Ltd. Cost Estimation: Capacity : 5250 MT/Annum Starch 1125 MT/Annum Liquid Glucose 4500 MT/Annum Dextrose Monohydrous 562 MT/Annum Oxidised Starch 900 MT/Annum Hull 1800 MT/Annum Zien 1050 MT/Annum Germ as by Products
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: 179 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 543 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 59.00%
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  • One Lac / Lakh / Lakhs is equivalent to one hundred thousand (100,000)
  • One Crore is equivalent to ten million (10,000,000)
  • T.C.I is Total Capital Investment
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