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Best Business Opportunities in Telangana- Identification and Selection of right Project, Thrust areas for Investment, Industry Startup and Entrepreneurship Projects

Telangana is a state in the Southern region of India. It has an area of 114,840 km2 and is the twelfth largest state in India. Most of it was part of the princely state of Hyderabad, ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad during the British Raj, joining the Union of India in 1948. Telangana was separated from Andhra Pradesh as a new 29th state of India, with the city of Hyderabad as its capital. Hyderabad will continue to serve as the joint capital city for Andhra Pradesh and Telangana for a period of not more than ten years. Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 114,800 square kilometers (44,300 sq. mi). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid. Telangana region has rich natural resources. About 45 per cent of the forest area in Andhra Pradesh state is in Telangana region while 20 per cent of the country's coal deposits in the country are also found here. Telangana is also rich in limestone deposits that cater to cement factories. Telangana has other mineral resources like bauxite and mica. Perennial rivers Godavari and Krishna enter Andhra Pradesh in Telangana before flowing down through other regions and ending up in the Bay of Bengal. Telangana region is sitting on potential oil and natural gas reserves, according to a report by Director General of Hydrocarbons (DGH). Telangana has a significant amount of Software export in India. While majority of the Industry is concentrated over Hyderabad, the other cities are also becoming significant IT destinations in the state. Hyderabad's IT exports exceeded $7 billion in 2014.There have been extensive investments in digital infrastructure.

 

AGRICULTURE

Rice is the major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane. Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Important rivers of India are the Godavari, Krishna flow through the state, providing irrigation. Telangana agriculture department separated from Andhra Pradesh as part of Andhra Pradesh bifurcation It aims promote agricultural trade and to boost up the agricultural production and productivity in the Telangana.

 

TOURISM IN TELANGANA

Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes Tourism in Telangana. Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places, monuments, forts, water falls, forests and temples. Charminar, Golconda Fort, QutbShahi Tombs, Chowmahalla Palace, Falaknuma Palace and Bhongir Fort, are some of the monuments in the state. The Charminar, built in 1591 CE, is a monument and mosque located in Hyderabad, Telangana, India.

 

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE

Telangana with a population of 351.9 lakhs (according to the 2011 census) accounts for about 3.6% percent of the total population of India. Out of this, 177.0 lakhs (50.2%) are males and 174.9 lakhs (49.8%) are females. The sex ratio of the state is 988 as against the national figure of 943. The population density in the state is 307 persons/Sq.Km. In 2012-13, the services sector at Rs.  1, 14,046 crores, contributed 58.1% to the GSDP (at constant prices). It is followed by industry sector, contributing 27.9% (Rs. 54,687 crores) and the agriculture sector’s contribution of 14% (Rs. 27,450 crores). The services sector had fastest growth  of  11.31%  followed  by  industry  sector  (10.04%)  and  agriculture  sector  (6.89%) between 2004-05 and 2012-13.

The Telangana government has proposed to add 230 crore plants in the next three years under a flagship programme which envisages boosting of tree cover in the state by nearly 8%.

 

FOOD AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING SECTOR

The Telangana government plans to put greater emphasis on value-addition in the farm sector in its industrial policy. The departments of industry and commerce, agriculture and agro marketing would coordinate together to achieve value maximization for farmers. The government is also keen on encouraging e-marketing activities, which involves networking all agriculture mandis in the state so that farmers get access to prevailing prices across important markets and thereby helping them unlock the right value for their produce. The state in collaboration with research institutes in the country would facilitate an ideal adoption of latest practices ranging from seed technology and farm machinery to improve farm productivity. the state government is also considering specific projects such as setting up a pharmaceutical city near Hyderabad and a cotton hub in Warangal district, the largest producer of long-staple cotton. The Telangana government has begun a survey to identify land that can be offered to new industries in the state. The Telangana government is set to announce its new industrial policy under which scheduled castes and scheduled tribe entrepreneurs would be specially encouraged.

Telangana Government is mulling to set up a 'Pharma City' near the state capital in about 8,000 acres. The City will include industries as well as residential colony, and a power plant with 500 MW capacity will be set up adjacent to the pharma city to provide captive, dedicated and uninterrupted power supply to the industry. The pharma city is expected to accommodate about five lakh employees besides their families in the residential colony touching about twenty lakh over a period. Delegation of Drugs Manufacturers' Association that an international consultancy organisation with expertise in developing in the information technology and pharmaceuticals manufacturing sectors may become backbone of Telangana economy, leaving power production, ports and oil and natural gas to play a pivotal role in driving prosperity in the residuary state. Industrial estates should be contacted to design the pharma city. Telangana's per capita income of Rs 24,409 in 2004-05 has phenomenally grown to a whopping Rs 83,020. While Hyderabad has less number of households using open toilets at 0.9 per cent, Mahabubnagar is at 71.1 per cent. The land-locked state is expected to have nearly Rs 4,000 crore surplus budget, but lingering power deficit may force the new government to spend more on the power purchase. Telangana, spread in 1,14,840 square kilometres, has 66.46 per cent literacy rate with a population of 3.52 crore.

 

ECONOMY OF TELAGANA

The Economy of Telangana is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Rice, cotton, mango and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and NagarjunaSagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam. Telangana is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at SingaerniColleries. The population of Telangana is over 35 million now – much more than 30 million for the whole of Andhra Pradesh, including Telangana, at the time of its formation in 1956. The demands on governance have multiplied over this half a century. Apart from commitment to the development of the region, a smaller state being more easily accessible to the common people can intelligently and speedily grapple with their problems.

 

INDUSTRIAL POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR STATE OF TELANGANA

Industrialization will be the key strategy followed for economic growth and development for Telangana, the 29th state of the country. People of the new state have very high expectations from the Telangana State Government for creating jobs for the youth, promote development of backward areas, maximize growth opportunities by optimum utilization of the available resources, harness the talents and skills of the people etc. The Government of Telangana State realizes that industrial development requires large-scale private sector participation, with the government playing the role of a facilitator and a catalyst. The government is committed to provide a graft-free, hassle-free environment in which the entrepreneurial spirit of local, domestic and international investors will thrive to take up their industrial units in the state of Telangana as the preferred investment destination.

The new Telangana State Industrial Policy will be rooted in certain core values, as follows:

 

                • The Government regulatory framework shall facilitate industrial growth

                • Entrepreneurs will thrive in a peaceful, secure and progressive business regulatory                                        environment

                • Industrial development will lead to massive creation of jobs benefitting local youth

                • Industrialization shall be inclusive and facilitate social equality

 

The new Telangana State Industrial Policy will strive to provide a framework which will not only stabilize and make existing industries more competitive, but also attract and realize new international and national investments in the industrial sector. It is expected that the most significant outcome of this approach will be the production of high quality goods at the most competitive price, which establishes “Made in Telangana-Made in India” as a brand with high global recognition. The Industrial Policy Framework has the following mandate for departments that have any responsibility in the industrialization of the State—Minimum Inspection and Maximum Facilitation.

The Government of Telangana State is determined to create an ecosystem in which the ease of doing business in the state matches and even exceeds the best global standards. Telangana State Government is aware that offering a hassle-free system is considered to be of the highest priority by the industrialists, and accordingly the government will implement a very effective industrial clearance system that will go beyond the traditional single window system.

 

THRUST AREAS AND CORE SECTORS

•             Life Sciences including, bulk drugs, formulations, vaccines, nutraceuticals, biological,   incubation centers, R&D facilities and medical equipment.

•             IT Hardware including bio-medical devices, electronics, cellular communications.

•             Precision engineering, including aviation, aerospace, defence.

•             Food processing and nutrition products including dairy, poultry, meat and fisheries.

•             Automobiles, Transport Vehicles, Auto-components, Tractors and Farm Equipment.

•             Textiles and Apparel, Leather and leather value added products like shoes, purses, bags,         artificial   material infused and coated textiles, paper and paper products.

•             Plastics and Polymers, Chemicals and Petro-chemical, glass and ceramics.

•             FMCG and Domestic Appliances.

•             Engineering and Capital Goods, including castings, foundry and Ferro-alloys and other    metallurgical industries.

•             Waste Management and Green Technologies.

•             Renewable Energy and Solar Parks.

•             Mineral-based and wood-based Industries.

•             Transportation/Logistic Hub/Inland Port/Container Depot.

 

Telangana has emerged as a State that provides that right climate for the growth of IT business and is now one of the most preferred destinations in the Country.

The State of Telangana is poised towards creating a benchmark in Information & Communication Technology (ICT) endowed with a high quality state-of-the-art physical & communication infrastructure of international standards, harnessed human resources, and proactive business friendly policies of the Government.

It is estimated that about 20 lakh acres of land is available in the state that has been identified as unfit for cultivation in Telangana. Based on a detailed survey of these land parcels and identification of those parcels that are fit for industrial use, an industrial land bank for the State of Telangana will be developed.

The development of industrial and related infrastructure will be the responsibility of the Telangana State Industrial Infrastructure Corporation (TSIIC). The financial base of the TSIIC will be strengthened and it will be made to function as an effective organization. All lands in the State identified as fit for industrial use will be transferred to the TSIIC.

To support industrialization, the Government of Telangana will earmark 10% of water from all existing and new irrigation sources for industrial use. Water pipelines will be laid as a part of infrastructure creation for each industrial park by TSIIC. The Government of Telangana State recognizes that quality power and uninterrupted power supply are keys to the growth of the industrial sector. The State has a clear short-, medium-, and long-term plans to first overcome the power shortage and eventually become a power surplus state. Accordingly, uninterrupted power supply will be arranged in each industrial park. The Telangana State Government will encourage usage of non-conventional energy for industrial purposes.

The Telangana State Government is committed to encourage the process of industrialization by making various kinds of incentives available to the entrepreneurs. The Telangana State Government also assures an entrepreneur-friendly and graft-free regime of disbursing the incentives. The Telangana State Government will consider providing incentives to the entrepreneurs in the following areas-

•             Stamp duty reimbursement

•             Land conversion cost

•             Investment subsidy

•             VAT reimbursement

•             Interest subsidy

•             Clean production measures

•             Reimbursement of infrastructure development costs etc.

A sound industrial policy has to ensure that the state taxation structure is conducive to industrial growth and state financial resource augmentation. Distortions in the tax structure leads to evasion of taxes and clandestine transport of industrial inputs and outputs to neighbouring states, which may have advantageous tax rates. The presence of important national and state highways, coupled with the availability of resources and opportunities, provides a great potential for development of industrial corridors in the state along these roadways.

The Industrial Corridors that will be developed initially will be:

 

1) Hyderabad-Warangal Industrial Corridor

2) Hyderabad-Nagpur Industrial Corridor

3) Hyderabad-Bengaluru Industrial Corridor

The new Industrial Policy brought out by the Government of Telangana promises to revolutionise the way industrial sector has been viewed by successive governments in this country. A day is not far when the new Industrial Policy of Telangana will shine as an exemplar among the best in the world.

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Profitable Business Ideas & Opportunities in Tempering and Toughening of Flat Glass

Toughened or tempered glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. Tempering creates balanced internal stresses when broken which cause the glass, to crumble into small granular chunks instead of splintering into jagged shards. The granular chunks are less likely to cause injury. Glass is a naturally fragile material. To boost its functional properties and enhance its operational safety, it undergoes the process of tempering. Tempering or toughening is a process where the glass is heated at high temperatures to make it stronger and more resistant to breakage. This process creates a balance in the product’s internal stresses, so that when the glass is broken, it would crumble into tiny granular chunks instead of breaking into sharp, jagged pieces. Because of its increased strength and safety, builders and architects utilize them in a multitude of demanding applications. This includes showers, vehicle windows, refrigerator trays, glass tables, diving masks, glassware, cookware, fireplace grates, bulletproof windows, architectural glass doors and virtually anywhere else that needs safe and strong glass. Tempering is a term used in metallurgy, and defines the degree of hardness and strength imparted to a metal, as by quenching, heat treatment, or cold working. Glass is also 'hardened' the same way, i.e., heated to very high temperatures, then cooled quickly. (The melting point of glass is between 1400°C and 1600°C depending on its composition). This changes the structure of the glass. It has lower stress points and forms cube-like crystalline structures. Because of this, tempered glass shatters into cubes rather than into long, sharp shards so it is a lot safer to use. After toughening, bit becomes highly resistant to heat and shock. Tempered glass is four to five times more resistant to breakage than annealed glass. THE PROCESS OF TEMPERING GLASS Tempered glass goes through a process similar to that of a tempered steel. Stage 1: All toughened glass begins life as a float glass. Before it undergoes tempering, the glass is examined for imperfections. Bubbles, inclusions, and cracks may cause the float glass to break during toughening. So if any signs of such flaws are found, the glass can’t be tempered. Stage 2: Prior to toughening, it must first be cut to the desired shape as it won’t be possible to cut or etch the finished product in its toughened state. Once cut, the edges are smoothed and any burrs produced during etching or cutting are removed. Stage 3: To completely remove the grains of glass that were deposited during sanding, the float glass is thoroughly washed. This also ensures that dirt and any other tiny debris won’t interfere with the tempering. Stage 4: In the tempering process, the surface of the float glass is heated at over 600 degrees Celsius as it travels through a furnace. Some manufacturers heat the glass above its annealing point of approximately 720 degrees Celsius. Stage 5: The scorching glass is then rapidly cooled through quenching by a high-pressure blast of air for a period of three to 10 seconds at various angles. As it cools and begins to shrink, tensile stresses temporarily build-up in the interior zone of the glass while its surface consequently develops surface stresses. These compressive stresses eventually enhance the strength of the glass, making it tougher to break. A properly tempered glass should be able to withstand pressures of a minimum of 10,000 pounds per square inch (psi) and can be expected to break at about 24,000 psi. Beyond the added tensile strength and safety, tempered glass has a greater resistance to thermal shock and thermal stresses. Essentially, it can withstand constant exposure to temperatures as high as 243 degrees Celsius. Toughened glass has hundreds of applications. Used in automobiles, toughened glass windshields and windows reduces the occurrence of deadly cuts and bleeding in case of accidents because the glass breaks into small, cube-like pieces. Because of its structural strength, tempered glass is widely used in architectural applications. Toughened glass acquires a degree of strength for excess of the strength of normal glass sheet or plate glass, which if broken shatters into small and comparatively harmless pieces. It is claimed that the resistance to mechanical stock of toughened plate glass is 4 to 5 times more than that of ordinary plate glass. A toughened glass has better resistance to the vibration, mechanical shock and abrasion. Process of Manufacture: The glass plate is heated to a temperature above its softening point and then subjected to rapid cooling. The glass is suddenly chilled and in this process contracts towards the core. It stretches until it has solidified and is no longer able to contract further at this stage the core is still soft. It contracts against restrained exercise by the solidified upper layer of the glass. This compression is responsible for the strength of the glass sheet, which is limited to about 20,000 lb/sq.inch. Thus it is highly stressed and the resultant force is able to nullify the external impact. The intensity of the stresses depends on the rate of cooling, co-efficient of expansion, thermal conductivity of the glass, its specific heat, elasticity, and certain other physical properties. Toughening Process: The raw plate glass sheet which is free from waviness, distortion etc., is cut to required size and shape and then all the edges are ground and polished as per end use of the product. This is called edge 4 grinding and polishing and is very important for toughening because it will lead to breakages during process. No glass sheet can be toughened without edge grinding and polishing. Washing and Drying: After the edge grinding and polishing the glass sheets are washed manually or by machine and then dried. The glass sheets are fed into the furnace (Electrically operated). The sheets are kept in the furnace above its softening point, which varies according to the composition of glass. After attaining required temperature the glass sheets are removed out of the furnace and placed in the air blowing quenching boxes for 20 to 25 seconds. After quenching glass sheet is toughened. For bend glass toughening, the glass sheets passes through a set of dies (as per shape) after furnace and then to the quenching boxes. Testing: After toughening all the sheet glasses are passed through the polariscope inspection. Tempered glass is also termed as toughened glass as it is believed to be four times stronger than normal glass. Tempered glass, when broken results into harmless granular pieces. In toughened or tempered glass, activities such as drilling, cutting, sandblasting, and machining are not possible. Increasing government initiatives on infrastructure facilities accompanied with widening application outlook in construction sector will favor tempered glass market demand. Improving standard of living along with rising consumer spending on interior furniture designing owing to disposable income and rapid urbanization in India, China and Brazil will stimulate industry growth. Rise in tempered glass market demand owing to high strength, safety, anti-breakage, and heat resistance properties coupled with its wide usage in public buildings including phone booths, bus terminals, canopies gymnasiums and sports arenas should stimulate market demand. Rising government regulatory support to favor infrastructure development towards residential and commercial buildings should stimulate the market growth. Global Tempered Glass Market was valued at $46 billion in 2016, and is projected to reach $65 billion by 2023, registering a CAGR of 5.0% from 2017 to 2023. Tempered glass also known as toughened glass, is known to be four times stronger than simple annealed glass. Tempered glass is produced by heating the silica mix up to 600°C and then rapidly cooling the molten silica. Tempered glass is widely used in automotive window panes, building windows, furniture, and interior activities of buildings. Growth in use of tempered glass in automotive and construction industry drives the market. However, stringent government regulations in the automotive and construction industry restricts the market growth. Increase in construction activities in emerging economies such as India, Indonesia, Brazil, Argentina, and the Middle East offers growth opportunity for the tempered glass market. Tags Flat Glass Tempering, Glass Tempering?, Tempered Flat Glass, Tempering and Bending of Glass, How is Tempered Glass Made? Glass Bending and Tempering, Toughened or Tempered Glass, Glass Industry, Tempered Glass, Toughened Glass, Tempering & Toughening of Flat Glass, Toughened, Tempered & Laminated Safety Glass, Flat Toughened Glass, Glass Toughening, Toughened Flat Glass Manufacture, Toughened Glass Plant, Toughening/Tempering Process of Glass, Flat Glass Industry, Glass Tempering Plant, Flat Glass Toughening, Glass Tempering Process, How to Temper Glass, Processed Glass, Project Profile on Toughened Glass, Tempered Glass Production, Flat Glass Manufacturing, Float Glass Production Process, How is Flat Glass Made? Float Glass Manufacturing Process, Float Glass Manufacturing Process Pdf, Manufacture of Flat Glass, Glass Manufacturing Process, Flat Glass Manufacturing Plant, Glass Industry, Flat Glass Manufacturing Opportunity, Flat Glass Manufacture, Flat Glass Manufacturing project ideas, Projects on Small Scale Industries, Small scale industries projects ideas, Flat Glass Manufacturing Based Small Scale Industries Projects, Project profile on small scale industries, How to Flat Glass Manufacturing Industry in India, Flat Glass Manufacturing Projects, New project profile on Flat Glass Manufacturing industries, Project Report on Flat Glass Manufacturing Industry, Detailed Project Report on Flat Glass Manufacturing, Project Report on Flat Glass Tempering, Pre-Investment Feasibility Study on Flat Glass Tempering, Techno-Economic feasibility study on Flat Glass Toughening, Feasibility report on Flat Glass Toughening, Free Project Profile on Flat Glass Toughening, Project profile on Flat Glass Tempering Download free project profile on Flat Glass Tempering, Startup Project for Flat Glass Tempering, Project report for bank loan, Project report for bank finance, Project report format for bank loan in excel, Excel Format of Project Report and CMA Data, Project Report Bank Loan Excel, Tempered Glass (Toughened Glass), Glass Tempering and Toughening Process
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Investment Opportunities in Production of Caffeine

Investment Opportunities in Production of Caffeine. Extraction of Caffeine from used Tea Leaves. Tea Waste Management Caffeine in pharmaceuticals is considered as a drug that acts as a stimulant for the central nervous system (CNS). It is one of the most widely used drug in the world and is known for containing psychoactive substances. It is a bitter substance containing white crystalline like purine, mostly methylxanthine alkaloid. They are found in seeds, nuts or even leaves of few plants that are said to be native of South America or East Asia. Usually, the main source of caffeine is said to be coffee beans. The main usage of caffeine is to prevent the consumer from drowsiness and improve their performance. Caffeine is found in many beverages like coffee, tea, cola among others and is heavily consumed by most adults globally. Consumption of 400grams of caffeine is safe for an adult but its consumption by adolescents must be limited to prevent from future illness. Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug that acts as a stimulant for the central nervous system (CNS). Caffeine is a naturally-occurring component present in coffee beans, cocoa beans, guarana, and tea leaves. Caffeine is a white crystalline purine, mostly a methylxanthine alkaloid, with bitter taste. The consumption of caffeine in adequate amounts improves the reaction time, alertness, concentration, and lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Moreover, it helps in protecting against various types of cancer, including liver, colon, and colorectal cancers. Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance compound observed in plant constituents such as cocoa beans and expresso, the kola nut, guarana berries, tea leaves and includes a long history of human utilization. Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug which acts as a stimulant for the central nervous system. It is a white crystalline purine, very often a methylxanthine alkaloid consisting of bitter taste. Caffeine has a wide application range, right from food and beverage to pharmaceutical to flavor and fragrance. Caffeine is beneficial in burning fats, improves drastically physical performance, fights depression and fatigue and also protects from many diseases. The consumption of caffeine in adequate amounts improves the reaction time, alertness, concentration, and lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Moreover, it helps in protecting against various types of cancer, including liver, colon, and colorectal cancers. Process of extraction of Caffeine from tea waste Caffeine also comes from tea leaves and other tea wastes. The isolation of caffeine from tea leaves is a difficult task and presents the chemist with a major problem. Caffeine does not occur alone in tea leaves, but is accompanied by other natural substances like cellulose, tannins, flavonoid pigments and chlorophyll from which it must be separated. This separation can be very costly due to involvement of many chemicals and sophisticated laboratory is needed. Apart from this caffeine can also be recovered from the waste tea or from the residue left behind after the preparation of the tea. Tea Waste Tea waste can be used at broad level to recover the residual caffeine. For this purpose firstly the source from where the tea waste is generated has to be identified. Regarding this tea waste generated from various tea processing industries has to be collected and brought to the extraction plant for extraction of caffeine. The extraction of caffeine is known to be a multi-stage counter-current extraction technique. The extraction plant is broadly sub-divided into three sections, namely: • Pre-treatment section. • Extraction section. • Post-treatment section. Extraction of caffeine from tea waste is a three stage process which are described one by one below: 1. Pre Treatment Section The very first step of extraction is called pre-treatment. For this purpose, in the pre-treatment section, tea waste, lime and water are mixed. The mixing ratio of these three ingredients is pre-fixed and always kept constant. After mixing them in the predefined ratio, the mixture prepared is then cooked at elevated temperature in a mixing device called cooker-cum-mixer. The purpose of the pre-treatment is that by cooking the tissues of the tea waste gets loosen which helps in the efficient extraction of caffeine in the extractor. This is the main reason why pre-treatment is done. 2. Extraction Section In this section, a suitable solvent is used to extract caffeine tea waste. In this process, the solvent is recovered subsequently and recycled back to the system. The addition of the solvent leads to the generation of crude caffeine. Complete operation in this section is carried out in a continuous mode other than batch operation. A continuous feed of waste is given to the reactor to maintain the continuity of the reactor system. Inside the extractor, the waste comes in contact with the solvent in counter-current way which leads to the extraction of caffeine in stage-wise manner. Caffeine is recovered from the miscella, a mixture of lime tea waste and water which is stored in the balancing tank in the form of crude caffeine. During this storage all the solvent is removed from the crude caffeine. The removal of solvent from crude caffeine occurs by a solvent recovery method called evaporation. The solvent recovered in this process is recycled back to the extractor. Before it is recycled back to the extractor it is separated from water in solvent-water separator. Crude caffeine is then subjected to the post-treatment which gives pure caffeine. The residual decaffeinated tea waste from the extractor moves to the desolventizer where the entrapped solvent in the tea waste is removed by heating. Solvent recovered through this process is recycled back to the system extractor. 3. Post Treatment In the last step, crude caffeine obtained from extraction section which is kept in the storage tank is processed further in order to obtain the final purified caffeine. Here, in this section, crude caffeine is firstly made to dissolve in hot water to separate it from wax. After that, the remaining coloured solution which contains caffeine is treated with activated charcoal and filtered. The activated charcoal being capable of absorbing all impurities absorbs all the impurities and color. The decolorized caffeine solution left behind is then concentrated by means of evaporation and allowed to crystallize. Caffeine crystals are then separated from mother liquor by centrifuging. By centrifuge the small crystals of caffeine tends to agglomerate and thus caffeine is obtained. The caffeine thus obtained is dried further in a drier and pulverized to convert it into powder form before its packing. The global caffeine market is segmented based on type, application, and geography. Based on type, the market is categorized into synthesized caffeine and natural caffeine. Based on application, the market is segmented into food, beverage, pharmaceutical, flavor & fragrance, and others. The report analyzes the market trends in different regions such as North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, and LAMEA. The global caffeine market is driven by the benefits associated with the intake of caffeine such as enhanced performance, improved concentration, and reduced risk of cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Increased awareness of health fitness has led surge in consumption of sports drinks, which have higher concentrations of caffeine, for use as a performance enhancer. However, government regulations to monitor the quantity of caffeine in food products and beverages could hamper the market growth. The caffeine market is segmented by product and by application. On the basis of product segment the caffeine market can be further divided into synthesis caffeine and natural caffeine. The natural caffeine is recently given much importance due to its presence in the coffee beans, tea and other such related products. Moreover, the synthesis caffeine contains raw materials like chloroacetic or cyanide acid. Furthermore, on the basis of applications the caffeine market can be segmented into food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, flavor and fragrance and others. Food and beverages is the highest growing sector in the caffeine market and is expected to grow during the forecast period. Application in pharmaceuticals and flavors considers a moderate growth and dignified research and development is taking place to boost the segment. 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Business Ideas, Projects & Opportunities in Production of Solar Panel & Electronic Toys

Solar panel refers to a panel designed to absorb the sun's rays as a source of energy to generating electricity and heating. It reduces the amount of electricity coming from fossil fuels by supplying your operations with clean, renewable energy from the sun. Solar panels are also called photovoltaic or PV modules as it directly converts sunlight into electricity. The sun produces enough energy daily to supply 10,000 times the world’s electrical needs. Solar Photovoltaic panels are packaged, connected assembly of typically 6x10 solar cells that generates and supplies solar electricity in commercial and residential applications. Solar panels are not only used for residential rooftop applications, but they are also widely used for applications such as powering electronic devices, individual gadgets, and vehicle batteries. Installing solar panels on a house roof can decrease the household’s carbon footprint by an average of 35,180 pounds of carbon dioxide per year. There is increasing demand for solar panels in the residential rooftop applications. There is significant fall in the prices for key components such as silver and polysilicone that are used to make solar cells. Solar Panels don’t create noise and don’t make any emissions. Price drops for industrial commodities that are used to make solar panels, and higher price expectations for electricity and natural gas are the factors that are expected to drive growth of the solar panels market for the forecast period (2015-2025). Increase in electricity price combined with cheaper solar panels will drive the solar panels market. Global Solar Panel market is expected to witness positive growth within the forecast period on account of increasing government incentives for the adoption of renewable energy alternatives for power generation. A solar panel uses the solar energy to cleanly and efficiently produce electricity. For many years solar was considered as the main pillar of a future renewable energy based system. Demand for a solar panel is increasing prominently all over the world. By providing operations with renewable, clean energy from the sun solar panels reduces the amount of electricity generating from fossil fuels. The solar panel currently available in the market gives high efficiency and long-term warranties will increase the customer preferences towards renewable energy sources. Moreover, the technological innovations coupled with the commercialization of Solar Panel have also been aiding the growth of the Solar Panel market. Rising awareness about the benefits of Solar Panel and depletion of fossil fuels is expected to surge the demand for Solar Panel in the years to come. However, the high cost of installation and maintenance of solar panel is expected to be a major restraint for the global Solar Panel market. Technological advancements and favorable government policies to construct solar power stations are expected to provide growth opportunities for the key players in the market over the coming years. The Solar Panel market can be segmented into categories by product types such as monocrystalline, polycrystalline, and thin-film solar panels. Poly-crystalline solar panel dominated the global Solar Panel market in 2016 owing to the wide range of applications and high efficiency in affordable price range. Mono-crystalline solar panel segment is expected to register remarkable growth within the forecast period due to their ability technological advancement. Global Solar Panel market is expected to witness significant growth within the forecast period on account of increasing government incentives for the adoption of solar panels. Solar panels are photovoltaic that produce electricity with sunlight. Solar Panel continuously generates electricity as long as a source of light is supplied. Solar Panel does not burn fuel, helping to make the process quiet, pollution-free and around two to three times more efficient than combustion technologies. Indian Solar Power Industry is anticipated to have double digit growth during next few years, due to the government’s policy to increase the share of solar power in the country’s energy mix and falling equipment (PV Module) costs globally. Moreover, solar power tariff in India has witnessed a drastic fall over the last few years. With increasing focus of the government on development of renewable energy sector, solar power products market in India is on the verge of expansion. Target for solar power generation capacity in the country has been set at 100 GW by 2022 and this is anticipated to increase development of solar power products in India. Government provides incentives and subsidies for solar power products such as solar pumps and solar lanterns, thereby boosting their adoption across the country. Moreover, development of solar rooftop PV plants is being supported by various mechanisms such as Feed-In Tariff, Accelerated Depreciation Mechanism, Generation Based Incentives, etc., and this is anticipated to boost India solar rooftop PV market in the coming years. Rising development of solar power generation projects is expected to aid in addressing the growing demand for electricity and in turn boost growth in the solar power products market through 2022. The market for solar power products in India is forecast to grow at a CAGR of over 10% through 2022, on account of growing demand for power and increasing focus on reduction of greenhouse gases emissions from the power sector. Development of power transmission and distribution network is projected to increase adoption of grid connected rooftop solar plants in the country through 2022. In addition, implementation of Net Metering Policy across various states in the country is anticipated to boost grid connected solar rooftop plant developments, as it aids in exporting additional energy back to the grid. Nowadays, electronic toys are most popular toys item globally. In addition to that, it comes in a wide price range and features. Also, electronic toys are popular as smart toys. The demand for electronic toys is increasing. Basically, the reasons for the growth are rising personal income and continuous product innovation. The toys are categorized into many in India and the plastic toys have a market share of nearly 80% of the total toy industry in the country. Other types of toys available in the market are fabric toys, paper toys, and wooden toys, metal toys and DIY toys (containing arts and craft toys) that are manufactured mostly by the cottage industry. However, out of these the metal toys are considered to be sharp toys which are harmful for children and a hindrance in their safety that is why these toys are known to be slowly losing its popularity. Another popular category of toys seen today are educational toys and activity toys which help build the mind and body of the child, then there are soft toys, Electronic toys, battery operated toys and board games like chess and monopoly. There are different types of Electronic toys available in the market. Electronic toys with or remote, walkie talkie sets for kids, toy radios, musical toys, hand-held video games, video games used with T.V, Arcade entertainment products, educational toys etc. are popular among Indian children. This report is about a remote controlled car toy. There are a number of Remote controlled Toys in the market. These, include Cars, trucks, playing machines and other equipments. There are differences in the mechanical assembly of these types of toys but the basic Electronic principle is the same. These types of toys have four main units i.e., Transmitter, Receiver, Motor and Power Source. The transmitter sends radio wave which is received by the receiver which is fitted with an antenna. These signals are used to activate the motor. The power source is typically a rechargeable battery pack, but sometimes it's just normal batteries. Electronic toys, and traditional toys will support strong market growth out to 2022. Electronic toys will grow to hold 13.1% of the total toy market in 2022; and arts & crafts, construction toys, and board games will hold a total of 30.5% for the same period. Tags How are Solar Panels made? Solar Panel Manufacturing, How to Start a Solar Panel Manufacturing Company, Solar Panel Manufacturing & Production, Solar Panel Manufacturing Plant Cost, Solar Panel Manufacturing Process Pdf, Solar Panel Manufacturing Equipment, Solar Panel Manufacturing Process PPT, Solar Panel Manufacturing Process Project Report, Solar Panel Manufacturing in India, Solar Panels Manufacturing, Manufacturing of Solar Panels, Solar Product Manufacturing, Solar Panel Technology, How Solar Panels are Manufactured? Production of PV Panels, How to Start Kids Electronic Toys Factory, Electronics Toys Manufacturing Business, Electronic Toys & Games Manufacturing Industry, Electronic Toys Manufacture, Electronic Toys Manufacturing Plant, How to Start a Toy Manufacturing Business in India, Electronic Toys Production, How to Start Toys Business in India, Solar Panel Production, Solar Cell & Module Production, Solar Panel Manufacturing Unit, Solar Panel Energy Production, Solar Industry, Project Profile on Solar Items, How to Start Up a Solar Panel Manufacturing Industry? Solar Panel Manufacturing Plant Business Plan Pdf, Solar Panel Manufacturing Project Report Pdf India, Solar Panels Manufacturing project ideas, Projects on Small Scale Industries, Small scale industries projects ideas, Solar Panels Manufacturing Based Small Scale Industries Projects, Project profile on small scale industries, How to Start Solar Panels Manufacturing Industry in India, Solar Panels Manufacturing Projects, New project profile on Electronic Toys Manufacturing industries, Project Report on Solar Panels Manufacturing Industry, Detailed Project Report on Electronic Toys Manufacturing, Project Report on Electronic Toys Manufacturing, Pre-Investment Feasibility Study on Electronic Toys Production, Techno-Economic feasibility study on Electronic Toys Production, Feasibility report on Solar Panels Manufacturing, Free Project Profile on Electronic Toys Production, Project profile on Electronic Toys Manufacturing, Download free project profile on Electronic Toys Production, Startup Project for Solar Panels Manufacturing, Project report for bank loan, Project report for bank finance, Project report format for bank loan in excel, Excel Format of Project Report and CMA Data, Project Report Bank Loan Excel
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Gas Detectors of L.P.G.

A gas detector is a device that detects the presence of gases in an area, measures and indicates the concentration of certain gases in air via different technologies, often as part of a safety system. When facing unknown environmental hazards invisible to the body’s senses, a gas detector is the first line of defence for worker safety and the portable gas detectors are often part of personal protective equipment (PPE) mandated by businesses and designed to keep personnel safe. Rising demand for ensuring the workers’ safety across various industries such as oil and gas, mining, food processing, increasing need for monitoring combustible gases and chemical agents in oil & gas industry, and several governmental regulations and norms pertaining to precautionary measures for maintaining the health of workers and employees in manufacturing industries are bolstering the demand for gas detectors. Conversely, intense competition and low-profit margins may impede the market growth. Nevertheless, rising investments by companies in smart gas detectors by focusing on the development of innovative wireless technology, such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, Wi-MAX, ZigBee, and rapid integration of big data and artificial intelligence is stoking the demand for gas detection systems. The global gas detectors market was valued at USD 2175.9 million in 2017, and is expected to reach a value of USD 2731.6 million by 2023, at a CAGR of 3.73%, during the forecast period (2018 - 2023). The regions considered in the scope of it include North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa.
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Peppermint Oil

Peppermint oil is derived from extraction of oils from flowers and stem of peppermint herb. The steam distillation process is used for extraction of oil. Peppermint oil is used medicines due to its therapeutic benefits. The healthcare uses of peppermint oil include digestive system simulation and for soothing headaches, muscle pain, cold, sinus etc. They are used extensively in oral care products because of cooling effect and its ability to kill bacteria responsible for bad breath. Peppermint oils are also for flavoring in food and beverage industry. And they are also used as safe natural food additive. Peppermint oil is an aromatherapy ingredient, which helps in stimulation and relaxation of body. It acts as skin toner in cosmetic products. The rise in demand for aromatherapy treatments is expected to drive the growth of global peppermint oil market. The increasing consumer awareness regarding the use of safe natural and organic products is expected to boost the growth of global peppermint oil market. Increasing disposable income and awareness of personal care has resulted in demand for oral care and confectionery products in rural areas, which is a major driver for the growth of global peppermint oil market. The recent outbreak of Zika virus and diseases such as dengue and malaria has increased the demand for natural mosquito repellents and the use of peppermint oil in these repellents is expected to increase the demand. The fragrance ingredients and essential oils market recorded high growth rate, which is expected to increase the demand for peppermint oil.
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Processing of Milk and Milk Products

Processing of Milk and Milk Products. Production of Paneer, Butter and Ghee. Investment Opportunities in Dairy Sector Milk is a valuable nutritious food that has a short shelf-life and requires careful handling. Milk is highly perishable because it is an excellent medium for the growth of microorganisms – particularly bacterial pathogens – that can cause spoilage and diseases in consumers. Milk processing allows the preservation of milk for days, weeks or months and helps to reduce food-borne illness. The usable life of milk can be extended for several days through techniques such as cooling (which is the factor most likely to influence the quality of raw milk) or fermentation. Pasteurization is a heat treatment process that extends the usable life of milk and reduces the numbers of possible pathogenic microorganisms to levels at which they do not represent a significant health hazard. Milk can be processed further to convert it into high-value, concentrated and easily transportable dairy products with long shelf-lives, such as butter, cheese and ghee. The milk processing section in processing plants contains all operations of milk like collecting milk from farmers, storing milk in tanks then separating, pasteurizing and homogenizing for making good quality milk products. The processing market in India is expected to grow at a CAGR of 20.5% over FY 2015 to FY 2020. The milk processing industry has traditionally been integral to India’s rural economy, and there are various factors contributing towards its growth. Recently, a number of established FMCG players ventured into the dairy segments through new product launches. Milk Processing Industry in India 2017, several established milk processing companies are looking to further expand their business and are looking to raise funds through IPOs. This will further aid in the development of the country's milk processing industry. Increasing urbanization in the country is bringing more consumers in touch with various processed milk products. This, along with the rising income of Indians, has ensured that the market continues to experience strong growth. Increasing urbanization, rising incomes, and the proliferation of food and grocery retail outlets across tier 2 and tier 3 cities has led to an increasing accessibility and demand for processed milk products in India. However, the Indian milk processing industry is yet to achieve its full potential due to challenges such as gaps in the supply chain, insufficient cold storage and distribution facilities, and lack of quality feed. Despite the challenges, growth in the Indian milk processing industry looks promising. The industry is seeing a number of established FMCG players foray into the dairy segment with new product launches. India is the largest producer of milk and dairy products in the world. The country has experienced tremendous improvement in per capita availability of milk over the last five years. Organized dairy products market in the country is witnessing growth, on account of rising demand for functional dairy products, due to their low fat and cholesterol content. India is witnessing entry of large number of international players, offering a variety of non-conventional dairy products such as yogurts and probiotic drinks. However, unorganized sector, which comprises small farmers, accounts for a majority share in the country’s dairy products market. Domestic players are also increasing their focus on offering products for health conscious consumers and introducing packaging innovations to strengthen their market position. Ghee, which is widely used in Indian cooking, is the pure butter fat left over after the milk solids and water are removed from butter. It is very fragrant with a rich nutty taste and represents the second largest consumed dairy product in India, after liquid milk. The healthy growth of the market can be attributed to numerous forces. Population growth, rising disposable incomes, easy availability, and growing awareness about the benefits of ghee are some of the factors that are broadening the growth aspects of the market. Ghee is nutritionally rich class of clarified butter used as a cooking medium. It is known for its taste & pure health in the Indian subcontinent. It is commonly used in South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisines, traditional medicines, and religious rituals. It is prepared by gently heating butter, and retaining the clear liquid fat while discarding the solid residue that settled to the bottom. The taste, texture, and color of the ghee depend on the quality of butter, source of milk, and duration of boiling. In Ayurveda, ghee is considered as a vital medicine for healing wounds, improving digestion, reducing free radicals, and boosting immune system. It can be kept at room temperature for several weeks without refrigeration. The consumption of ghee has increased, as it is rich in fat soluble vitamins A, D, & E, helps in building strong bones, improves digestion, and reduces inflammation. The plethora of health benefits and high penetration in the emerging market are the key drivers of the market growth. Further, high disposable income and population boom are expected to present lucrative opportunities to market players. However, overconsumption of ghee could lead to cardiovascular diseases, which in turn is key factor affecting the market growth during the forecast period. Butter is a dairy product made by churning cream or milk. It can be used like a spread and as a regular ingredient in cooking. From a nutritional perspective, butter is a very good source of protein. It contains saturated fat made from the fresh cream and milk. The global butter market is expected to grow at a CAGR of 3.8% during the forecast period, 2018-2023. Butter is one of the vital ingredients of confectionary products. However, with the dropping prices of butter, the competition between substitute products has intensified. The demand for spreadable butter has been growing gradually in developing countries, as it is used in various food products. Paneer contains a host of nutrients like calcium, protein, phosphorus, zinc, vitamin A and vitamin B12. Calcium is one of the nutrients most likely to be lacking in the American diet. To reduce calories, you can grate or sprinkle harder Paneer over your dishes or use small amounts of aromatic and sharp Paneer for their delicious Paneer flavor. The major health benefits of Paneer include relief from hypertension and osteoporosis. It also helps in maintaining bone health, gaining weight and dental care. Paneer is also rich in vitamin-B, which is very good for children, women (particularly when pregnant or lactating) and elderly people, for the formation and strengthening of bones and cartilage. Paneer contains conjugated linoleic acid and sphingo lipids which help prevent cancer. The organised Paneer market, including its variants like processed Paneer, Paneer spreads, mozzarella, flavoured and spiced Paneer is valued at around Rs. 6 bn. The value of processed Paneer market at 55% of the overall market is estimated Rs. 3.5 bn. The next most popular variant is Paneer spread claiming a share of around 30% of the total processed Paneer market. Paneer is becoming a popular item in the menu of all relatively affluent families. The global dairy product market is expected to witness significant growth over the forecast period. Growing world population base, rise in per capita income, and increase in consumer awareness level regarding nutritional values of dairy products and, change in consumer dietary patterns are the key drivers regulating the market growth. In addition, technological advancements and innovations for obtaining more milk from dairy animals are also estimated to boost market growth. Demand for milk and milk products is increasing daily with increase in world population. High-end technology is required to meet these needs by increasing the milk processing capacity and maintaining the quality of the product. The dairy industry is highly localized owing to perishable nature of milk products. Dairy products are exported to the regions where climatic conditions, unmet demand supply ratio, unfavorable government measures and change in exchange rates play a major limiting role. Use of technologically advanced transportation measures for maintaining the efficiency and quality of milk products during long distance export are also anticipated to boost the market growth. The dairy food market in the India has witnessed a growth in recent years on account of rising demand for dairy food products fueled by expansion in milk production. The surge in growth is majorly originated from growth in Ice cream and Milk Powder as a segment of dairy food market. The growth in this segment has been largely led by the domestic factors such as innovative technology and rise in availability of variants. Global demand for milk and dairy products is becoming increasingly insatiable. In recent years, the wedge between demand and supply has continued to grow. Increasing real incomes coupled with rising willingness to spend, changing consumer dietary patterns, increasing consumer awareness regarding the nutritional values of dairy products and waning price responsiveness are the major factors influencing the market growth. Tags Milk Processing, Milk and Milk Products, Milk Processing & Dairy Products, Milk Processing Plant, Production Process of Dairy Products, Liquid Milk Processing Plant, Dairy Industry, Milk Processing PPT, Milk Processing Procedure, How to Start a Milk Processing Plant? Milk Processing Plant Project Report, Milk Processing Plant Pdf, Setting up Mini Milk Processing Plant, Milk Plant Project Report, How to Set up a Milk Processing Plant, How to Start a Dairy Milk Plant. Dairy Products in India, Milk Processing Unit, Small Milk Processing Plant, Milk for Manufacturing Purposes and Its Production and Processing, Paneer Production, Paneer Manufacture, How is Paneer Prepared? Paneer Making Process in Factory, Paneer Manufacturing Business, How to Start Paneer Manufacturing Business? Preparation of Paneer, Manufacture of Paneer, Paneer Manufacturing Project Report, Paneer Production Cost, Small-Scale Paneer Manufacturing Business, Project Profile on Dairy Products, Commercial Paneer Production, Milk Paneer Manufacturing Project Report, Buttermaking Process, How Butter is Made? Butter Manufacture, Butter Production, Butter Production Flow Chart, Butter Manufacturing Process PPT, Butter Manufacturing Process Flow Chart, Butter Production Process Pdf, Butter Processing Plant, Production of Butter and Dairy Based Products, Butter Production Process, Industrial Production of Butter, Production of Butter, Preparation of Ghee, Ghee Production Plant in India, Ghee Manufacturing Unit, Ghee Production Plant, Manufacture of Ghee, Ghee Processing, How to Start a Ghee Manufacturing Unit, Business Opportunity: Ghee Manufacturing, Ghee Manufacturing Process Pdf, Project Report on Ghee Manufacturing Industry, Detailed Project Report on Ghee Manufacturing, Project Report on Butter Manufacturing, Pre-Investment Feasibility Study on Paneer Production, Techno-Economic feasibility study on Butter Manufacturing, Feasibility report on Milk Processing, Free Project Profile on Milk Processing, Project profile on Paneer Production, Startup Project for Ghee Manufacturing, Project report for bank loan, Project report for bank finance, Project report format for bank loan in excel, Excel Format of Project Report and CMA Data, Project Report Bank Loan Excel, Clarified Butter
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Textile Dyeing Auxiliaries

Dyeing auxiliaries are fine chemical products in the textile printing and dyeing industry applications. Dyeing agent is an important type of textile printing and dyeing auxiliaries, generally according to the classification of dyes, to name different types of dyeing agents. Dyeing auxiliaries is mainly included auxiliary for cotton, auxiliaries for polyester, auxiliaries for wool and nylon, auxiliaries for acrylic etc. To be specific, dyeing agents include leveling agent, fixing agent, dispersing agent, fluorescent whitening agent and softener. Textile dyeing auxiliaries are essential to enhance the value-added and upgrading of textiles, they can also make the textile more contemporary, functional, and high-grade. To some extend, dyeing auxiliaries quality affects directly the fabric quality. Dyeing auxiliaries mean a chemical or formulated chemical product which enables a processing operation in preparation, dyeing, printing or finishing to be carried out more effectively, or which is essential if a given effect is to be obtained. Main functions of dyeing auxiliaries to prepare the substrate for coloration, to stabilize the application medium, to increase the fastness properties of dyeing, to modify the substrates etc. In this article I will give a list of dyeing auxiliaries and explain some important auxiliaries function in dyeing. The global textile chemicals market is moderately consolidated. Companies consistently develop new strategies to expand their capacity and product portfolios through joint ventures and research & development. Demand for textile chemicals is primarily related to the production of textiles and apparels. It also related to the demand for textiles and apparels as end products. Textile manufacturers are shifting their manufacturing facilities from developed countries such as the U.S., Japan, and those in Europe to developing economies such as China and those in Southeast Asia. Abundant availability of raw materials and low-cost manpower in Asia Pacific are some of the major factors responsible for the shift in focus toward developing regions. The growth rate of apparel consumption is expected to be higher in an emerging or developing country than that in a developed country due to the increase in disposable income of the people in developing countries. This is anticipated to drive the textile chemicals market in the next few years. The global textile chemicals market can be segmented based on product type and applications. Based on product type, the textile chemicals market can be divided into coating & sizing chemicals, colorants & auxiliaries, finishing agents, surfactants, desizing agents, bleaching agents, bleaching agents, yarn lubricants, and others. The coating & sixing chemicals segment can be further classified into wetting agents, defoamers, and other coating & sizing chemicals. The coating & sizing chemicals segment constituted a dominant share of the textile chemicals market, followed by colorants & auxiliaries segment, in terms of volume and revenue, in 2017. In terms of application, the textile chemicals market can be segmented into home furnishing textiles, technical textiles, apparel, and industrial textiles. Home furnishing textiles can be sub-segmented into carpets & rugs, furniture, and other home furnishing textiles. Technical textiles can be further categorized into agrotech, geotech, meditech, and other technical textiles. Textile chemicals were primarily used for home furnishing in 2017. The trend is anticipated to continue during the forecast period.
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Chromic Acid

The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide. This kind of chromic acid may be used as a cleaning mixture for glass. Chromic acid may also refer to the molecular species, H2CrO4 of which the trioxide is the anhydride. Chromic acid features chromium in an oxidation state of +6 (or VI). It is a strong and corrosive oxidising agent. Chromic acid is a strong acid that can be prepared in a few steps. There are more steps involved in the proper disposal of chromic acid. In this lesson, we will discuss how to prepare a solution of chromic acid, how to safely dispose of it and hazards associated with it. Chromic acid is an intermediate in chromium plating, and is also used in ceramic glazes, and colored glass. Because a solution of chromic acid in sulfuric acid (also known as a sulfochromic mixture or chromosulfuric acid) is a powerful oxidizing agent, it can be used to clean laboratory glassware, particularly of otherwise insoluble organic residues. This application has declined due to environmental concerns. Furthermore, the acid leaves trace amounts of paramagnetic chromic ions — Cr(III) — that can interfere with certain applications, such as NMR spectroscopy. This is especially the case for NMR tubes. The global Chromic Acid market is valued at USD XX million in 2018 and is projected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% during the period 2018 to 2022.
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Screen Printing

Screen printing is a printing technique whereby a mesh is used to transfer ink onto a substrate, except in areas made impermeable to the ink by a blocking stencil. A blade or squeegee is moved across the screen to fill the open mesh apertures with ink, and a reverse stroke then causes the screen to touch the substrate momentarily along a line of contact. This causes the ink to wet the substrate and be pulled out of the mesh apertures as the screen springs back after the blade has passed. Screen printing is also a stencil method of print making in which a design is imposed on a screen of polyester or other fine mesh, with blank areas coated with an impermeable substance. Ink is forced into the mesh openings by the fill blade or squeegee and by wetting the substrate, transferred onto the printing surface during the squeegee stroke. As the screen rebounds away from the substrate the ink remains on the substrate. Screen T-shirt printing machines are being increasingly used to print T-shirts, having same design, in bulk to meet rising demand from large companies, NGOs, and communities etc. in Asia Pacific. As a result, spending on screen T-shirt printing machines is projected to increase by vendors, particularly focusing on providing low-cost customized T-shirts to their customers. The t-shirt printing machines is highly fragmented with large number of local players in each regional market. Some major players in the global custom t-shirt printing market are Brother International Corporation, Seiko Epson Corporation, ColDesi, Inc, Kornit Digital, The M&R Companies, Mimaki Global, Anajet, Konica Minolta, Inc., Mutoh Belgium nv, Mciroscreen Production Pte. Ltd, KP Tech Machine Pvt Ltd and several others.
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Advertisement Agency

An advertising agency, often referred to as a creative agency, is a business dedicated to creating, planning, and handling advertising and sometimes other forms of promotion and marketing for its clients. An advertising agency, often referred to as a creative agency, is a business dedicated to creating, planning, and handling advertising and sometimes other forms of promotion and marketing for its clients. An ad agency is generally independent from the client; it may be an internal department or agency that provides an outside point of view to the effort of selling the client's products or services, or an outside firm. An agency can also handle overall marketing and branding strategies promotions for its clients, which may include sales as well. The Indian advertising industry has evolved from being a small-scaled business to a full-fledged industry. The advertising industry is projected to be the second fastest growing advertising market in Asia after China. India’s digital advertisement market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 33.5 per cent to cross the Rs 25,500 crore (US$ 3.8 billion) mark by 2020.* The Internet's share in total advertising revenue is anticipated to grow twofold from eight per cent in 2013 to 16 per cent in 2018. Online advertising, which was estimated at Rs 2,900 crore (US$ 435 million) in 2013, could jump threefold to Rs 10,000 crore (US$ 1.5 billion) in five years, increasing at a compound annual rate of 28 per cent.
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