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Handbook on Modern Packaging Industries (2nd Revised Edition)

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Handbook on Modern Packaging Industries (2nd Revised Edition)

Author: NIIR Board
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788178330860
Code: NI72
Pages: 848
Price: Rs. 1,675.00   US$ 44.95

Published: 2010
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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Packaging is a means of ensuring the safe delivery of a product to the ultimate consumer in a sound condition at the minimal overall cost. Packaging not only differentiates one brand from another but also, at times, gives a preview of the product being sold. Although it is a subject of recent technological origin, the art of packaging is a sold as the primitative humans. Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use, also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages and can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells. In many countries it is fully integrated into government, business, institutional, industrial, and personal use. The continual technological growth systems have undergone significant changes in recent years. A lot of packaging process has been streamlined to give a more scientific and rational approach. The role of packaging continues from the coordinated system of preparing goods to the end use. It has become a big tool for launching new specific products in different shapes and sizes. The packaging industrial growth has led to greater specialization and sophistication from the point of view of health (in the case of packaged foods and medicines) and environment friendliness of packing material. The demands on the packaging industry are challenging, given the increasing environmental awareness among communities. The packaging industry is growing at the rate of 22 to 25 per cent per annum thus is to play a unique role in preserving the wealth or value created by many industries.

This book describes the techniques and process behind packaging of different specific products which are used in our day to day life. The specific products include cereal, spices, edible oils, drinking water, chocolate and confectionery, fruits and vegetables, marine products and many more. Some of the vital contents of the book are adhesives for packaging industries, factors affecting adhesion, tin plate containers for foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, tin plate usage in packaging, packaging of cereals and cereal products, trends in packaging of spices and spice products, packaging of edible oils, vanaspati and ghee, metal containers for food packaging, packaging aspects of sugar and chocolate confectionery, packaging for irradiated foods, packing of meat & meat products in tin containers etc.
This book is an invaluable resource for all its readers, entrepreneurs, scientists, existing industries, technical institution, etc in the field of packaging.

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1. Adhesives for Packaging Industries
Typical Application in packaging
(a) Loss of water or solvent
(b) Loss of Heat
Theories of adhesion
a. Mechanical Interlocking
b. Electrostatic Interaction
c. Diffusion Theory
d. Absorption Theory
Factors affecting adhesion
Degradation Products of Starch
Comparison between starch and Sodium Silicate
Basic urethane chemistry
Natural Rubber
Polyvinyl Acetate
Polyvinyl Alcohols

2. Tin Plate Containers for Foods, Pharmaceuticals
and Cosmetics
Manufacturing Process
Can Sealants

3. Tinplate Containers
Open Top containers
General Line containers
Manufacturer of Tinplate containers
Manufacture in Press Shop
Component/end manufacture on presses
Ancillary operations
Manufacture of Assembly Lines
End seaming
Ancillary operations (if any)
Flattened Cans
Process Control
Blackplate Containers
Tinplate Closures

4. Metal Container Industry In India
Raw Material
Manufacturing Process

5. Tin Plate Usage In Packaging
Round Ends tinplate Layout Systems And Procedures
Straight and Single
Double Row Staggered
Straight, Single Scrolled
Duble Row Staggered Scrolled
Multiple Row Fully Stagered Plain
Double Row Staggered With Primary (deep)
or Secondary Scroll
Coil Feed : Single Or Multiple Die Set up:

6. Packaging of Cereals and Cereal Products
Spoilage Factors
Whole Grains & Split Pulses
Jute Bags
Advantages of Jute Bags and Jute Fabrics
High mechanical strength
Soft surface with high resistance to friction
Porous structure
Disadvantages of Jute Bags
Mineral oil contamination
Insect breeding
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)/
Propylene (PP) Woven Sacks
Manufacturing Process of HDPE Woven Sacks
Extrusion Of Slit Film
Bale Pressing and Packing
Advantages of HDPE & PP Woven Sacks
Disadvantages of HDPE & PP Woven Sacks
Quality Parameters to be Considered for Woven Sacks
Consumer Packs for Whole Food Grains
Milled Grain Products (Flours)
Bulk Packs
Consumer Packs
High Molecular High Density Polyethylene (HMHDPE)
Co-Extruded Films
Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Film : (BOPP)
Processed Cereal and Pulse Products
Cereal Based Convenience Foods
Weaning Foods

7. Trends in Packaging of Spices and Spice Products
Packaging of Ground Spices
Bulk Packaging and Storage of Whole Spices
Packaging of Oleoresins and Volatile Oils
Insect Infestation and Fumigation
Literature Data on Packaging
Future Trends

8. Packaging of Edible Oils, Vanaspati and Ghee
Spoilage Factors
Distribution Pattern
Packaging Systems/Types of Pack
Package Types
Tinplate Containers
Glass Bottles
Semi-Rigid Containers
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene) Containers
PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) Bottles
PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride) Bottles
Other Semi-rigid Packs
Flexible Pouches
Analysis of Needs and Shifts
Structures and Critical Polymers
Critical Polymers
A Closer Look
Flexibles as Economical Media
Flexibles as Effective Solid Waste Reducing Media
Indian Standard for Packaging of Edible Oils, Vanaspati and Ghee

9. Metal Containers for Food Packaging
Tinplate Containers
Developments in Tinplate Manufacture
Structure of Tincoating
Light tin coated steel (LTS)
Developments in can fabrication
Two Piece Cans
Drawn Thin Redraw (DTR) and precision sidewall thickness
control (PSTC) process
Plain Cans
Acid resistant lacquered cans
Sulphur resistant lacquered cans
High Tin Fillet (HTF) can
Corrosion problem in food cans and its inhibition
Quality control tests
Thickness of tinplate
Grain structure of tincoating
Coating continuity (porosity) test (ISV)
Tin oxide
Chromium in passivation layer
Special property tests
Tin Free Steel Cans
Hinac coat
Stainless weirchrome
Fabrication of TFS cans
Mira seam
Forge welding
Advantages and Disadvantages of Tin Free Steel
Physical characteristics of HI-Top Plate
Corrosion resistance
Lacquering quality
Weldability and solderability
Canning Food Products in Tin-free steel cans
Fish products
Meat products
Fruit and Vegetable products
Aluminium containers
Package forms
Aluminium closures and ends
Conventional closures
Easy open ends are of two types
Packaging of Food Products in Aluminium Cans
Fruit and vegetable products
Lacquered cans
Meat products
Marine products
Milk products
Alcoholic drinks
Corrosion in Aluminium cans
External decoration and Printing
Future Scope
Evaluation of indigenous electrolytic tinplate
Assessment of differential tinplate
Evaluation of indigenous aluminium cans for processed foods

10. Packaging of Drinking Water
Brief History
Main Processing System
Packaging Materials
Bottle Filling113
Bottle Labelling

11. Bottle Labelling
The Product Group
Packaging Materials for Snack Foods
Packaging Systems
Gas flushing
Compensated vacuum

12. Packaging Aspects of Sugar and Chocolate Confectionery
Packaging Requirements
Packaging Requirements
Sugar Confectionery
Packaging Materials and Packages
Packaging Materials

13. Packaging for Biscuits
Protection Presentation, Information and Convenience
The Wrapping Materials
The Packaging Styles

14. Packaging Trends for Cheese and Other Dairy Products
Milk Powder-Bulk
Milk Powder-Retail
Ice Cream
Cheese - Retail

15. Packaging of Milk

16. Packaging of Fish
Important Quality Aspects of Fresh Fish
Packaging Concepts
Vacuum Packaging
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Active Packaging
Packaging Requirements
Final Remarks and Future Developments

17. Packaging for Irradiated Foods
Food Borne Illness is a Global Concern
Commercialization of Food Irradiation Worldwide
Food Irradiation in the U.S.A.
Barriers to Widespread Commercialization of
Food Irradiation in the U.S.A.
The Consumer Acceptance Barrier
The Cost Barrier
The Capacity Barrier
The Regulatory Barrier
Pasteurized Milk Case History
Packaging for Irradiation
Packaging Materials for use during Irradiation of Food
What action should Food Processors Take?

18. Development in Modified Atmosphere Packaging Of Meat, Poultry and Fish
Historical Development
Modified Atmosphere Technology
Equipments and Films For MAP
Patents Available
Effects of Gases on MAP Foods
Effect of MAP on the Quality of Fresh Meats
Effect of Map on Processed Meats
Package Integrity and Quality of MAP Foods
Safety Concerns of MAP Muscle Foods
Cost Benefit Relationship

19. Packing of Meat & Meat Products in Tin Containers
Raw Materials
Cans and Lids
Vinyl Lacquers
Phenolic Lacquers
Internal Corrosion
Filling Operations
Can Seaming
Dehydrated Meat Products

20. Aseptic Packaging
Microbiological Aspects of Aseptic Packaging
Sterilization of the Packaging Material Food Contact Surface
The Tetra Classic Aseptic System (TCA)
The TBA/3-System
The TBA/8 and TBA/9 Systems
The TBA/10-System

21. Aluminium Cans for Heat-Sterilized Food Products
Current Usage
Recent Innovations
Material Recyclability

22. Aluminium Container for Fish Canning
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion

23. Aluminium in Flexible Packaging
Benefits of Aluminium based Packaging Materials
Technical properties of Aluminium Foil
Some Technical Applications of Aluminium Foil
Other way of Classifying Applications
Various Popularly known product groups and structures
Why Aluminium is preferred in Various Applications
Machines and Equipment for the manufacture of
Flexible Packaging Material
Wet Laminating Machine
Dry Laminating Machine
Hot Coating Laminating Machine
Extrusion Laminating Machines
Coating Machine
Printing Machines
Various QC Test Relevant to Applications
Modern Trends in Packaging
X. New Technologies
Solventless Lamination
Advantages of Solventless Lamination
Digital Printing

24. Aluminium Foil in Pharmaceutical
Packaging-Recent Developments
Influential factors on pharmaceutical products
The Alu-Alu blister (Formpack)
Multi Axial Dehnung (Stretching)
Lidding foils
Summary and outlook

25. Aluminium Foil
Stadard Conditions of Bare Aluminium Foil
Standard Finishes of Bare Aluminium Foil

26. Aluminium and Foil Production Methods
How Aluminium is Made
Rolling Aluminium Foil

27. Aluminium In Packaging : Current Scenerio

28. The Process of Producing Collapsible Aluminium Tubes
Producing Tubes of different Diameters and Forms
Chains in Dryers and Ovens
Lubrication of Machines
Technical Developments

29. Aluminium Cans in Packaging
Manufacturing Process
Coating and Decoration
Easy Open Ends
Lacquers and Coating
Testing and Quality Control

30. Aluminium Foils for Composite Containers
Aluminium Foil Membrane on Tin Cans

31. Aluminium Collapsible Tubes

32. Aluminium collapsible tubes their suitability-reliability-availability

33. Pharmaceutical Packaging Collapsible Tubes
Pharmaceutical Containers
Collapsible Tubes
Advantages of collapsible tubes
Pharmaceutical Forms Packed in Collapsible Tubes
Selection in metal collapsible tubes
Testing of collapsible tubes
Eye Ointment tube
Shelf life tests
Filling of collapsible tubes

34. The Birth of an Aluminium Collapsible Tube

35. Embossing Aluminium Foil

36. Wooden Containers
Classification of Timbers
Seasoning of Wood
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Timber
Mechanical Properties
Methods of Preservation of Timber
Form and size of Each Component
Thickness of Components
Size and Spacing of Nails
Number of Planks in a Shook
Type of Joints
Style of Container
Consideration for a Design of the Box
Easy Load
Average Load
Difficult Load
Grouping of Indian Timbers
Plywood Boxes - Battened Construction

37. Tinplate Container for Packaging of Fruit and Vegetable Products
Standards for Metal Containers

38. Tetra Pak Application in Food Packaging

39. Printing on Foil

40. Aerosol
A Pressurised Form of Packaging and Dispensing a product

41. Foil Bag, Pouch and Envelope Production
Envelope making
Pouch making
Folding Carton Production
Foil/Fibre can and Drum Production

42. Packaging of Cashew Kernels in Tin Plate Containers

43. Packaging of Paints in Tin Plate Containers

44. Application to Food Packaging-Form-Fill-Seal Machines

45. Shrink Packaging-Food Products

46. The Aerosol Package-Container Manufacture

47. Sterilization Methods for Packaging Materials used in aseptic systems
Testing Procedures
Requirement of Aseptic Systems

48. Blow Moulded Containers for Food Packaging
Basic Process Concepts
Technology Development for Food Packaging
Aseptic Containers
Barrier Containers
PET Containers
Newer Developments

49. Thermoformed and Blow Moulded Containers for Food Packaging Applications

50. Role of BOPP Films in Food Packaging
Properties of BOPP Films
Role of BOPP Film in Food Packaging
New Developments in BOPP Films

51. Modified Atmosphere Packaging of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
Factor Influencing Shelf-life of Fruits and Vegetables
Respiratory Metabolism
Controlled Atmosphere (CA) Storage Technology
Advantages of MAP Technology
Limitations of MAP Technology
Dynamics of Gaseous Exchange in MAP
MA Package Design
Mathematical Modelling of Gaseous Exchange in MAP
Computer-Aided Design of MAP
Verification of Predicted Values
Tailored Plastics Film-Laminates

52. Plastics
Distinction Between Plastics, Fibres and Elastomers
Techniques of Polymerization
Processing of Plastics
Compression Moulding

53. Plastic Corrugated Board

54. Polyester Film

55. Nylon-6 Film - A Revolution in Packaging

56. Plastic Woven Sacks
Plastic Woven Sack Materials
High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
Polypropylene (PP)
Method of Making Woven Sacks
Flexible Intermediate Bulk Containers (FIBC)
Construction of FIBC
Use of Woven Sacks/FIBC

57. Low Density Polyethylene

58. High Density Polyethylene

59. PVC in Packaging

60. Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene Film

61. Expanded Polyethylene Material

62. Expanded Polystyrene
Properties of EPS

63. Shrink and Stretch Wrapping
Shrink Packaging
Stretch Wrapping
Pilfer- Proof Packs
Pallet Stretch Wrapping

64. New Developments Paper pulp Based Moulded Containers for Fruits and Vegetables
Apple Tray Packaging Concept
Consumer Pack Trays
Tray Hand Wrapping Machine

65. Solid Fibre Board Box as a Transport Pack
B. Combination Board-What is it?
C. Solid fibre board with moisture/water proof inner or outer lining
D. Solid Fibre Board with Hessian Lining

66. "Quality Control-Specifications and Performance Requirements of Fird Boxes"
Quality Control
Quality Control on Cor
Specifications and Performance Requirements of Fibreboard Boxes

67. Folding Board Cartons and Coated Cartons Manufacture
Relevant Properties of Paper/Board for Carton Manufacture
Bursting Strength
Grain Direction
Moisture Content
Manufacturing Process
Computer Controlled Inking

68. Cellulosic Films

69. Multiwall Paper Sacks

70. Speciality Papers for Packaging

71. Flexible Packaging Laminates and Coatings Application
Disaster Relief Packages
Snack Food Packaging
Corn Chips
Cross Laminated Film
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Fresh Red Meat
Cold Seal Adhesives for Flexible Packaging
Hot Melt Adhesives
Metallising Film/Paper

72. Adhesive Tapes

73. G.I. Drums-Oil Drums-Closures
Type of Drums
Standardisation of Metal Container
Selection of Drums
Manufacture of Drums
Reconditioning Industry
Quality Control
Essential Functions of Closures
Recent Development in Drums
Market Analysis
Market Share and Competitors Activities

74. Packaging in Glass Containers

75. Laminated Tubes
Market Trends

76. Converting Materials and Methods
Laminating Materials
Laminating Aluminium Foil
Coating Aluminium Foil

77. Aseptic Packaging Materials and Package Forms

78. Printing Inks for Food Packaging
Printing Processes and Printing Inks
Hue and Strength
Drying Time
Strength (Concentration of Pigment): Reduction Test

79. Closures in Food Packaging
Functions of a closure
Components involved in a good seal
Materials used in the manufacture of closures
Resilient Materials
Facing Materials
Compatibility of closures and migration limits
Factors Effecting A Good Seal
Types of closures
Roll-on-Pilferproof Closures
Screw Caps
Lug Cap
Crown Caps
Plastic Closures

80. Packaging Laws and Regulations
PFA Rules
Other Labelling Rules under PFA
FPO Rules
MFPO Rules
Agmark Rules

Directory Section
Suppliers of Machinery & Plants
Suppliers of Raw Materials

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Sample Chapters

(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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[p]In this world of fast changing life styles, consumers prefer products to be lightweight, shatterproof, cheap, aesthetically appealing, easy to handle, with good protection. The only answer to everything is plastics. Plastics have, in fact, revolutionised the whole world in the past three decades. They have become part and parcel in every walk if life. Flexible packaging materials such as polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polyester films play a major role in almost all the industries-especially food packaging sector-Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) film is one among them.[/p]

[p]BOPP film suitable for food packaging industry is generally a coextruded, heat-sealable film though non-heatsealable films are also used. Coextruded, heat sealable films are used as a single web for packaging of products unlike polyester which cannot be heat sealed on its own and warrants a second web to be laminated.[/p]


[p]BOPP films are generally manufactured by the following processes:[/p]

[li]a) Sequential orientation:[/li]
[li]1. Stenter process[/li]
[li]2. Double bubble process[/li]
[li]b) Simultaneous orientation[/li]

[p]Since sequential orientation by stenter is the most commercially employed process for the manufacture of BOPP films, this will be discussed here.[/p]

[p]Homopolymer polypropylene is dosed with various functional additives such as amides, ethoxylated amines, stearates etc., to reduce the film's coefficient of friction and to increase static charge dissipation rate. It is also mixed with various fillers such as talc, calcium carbonate and pigments like titanium dioxide to provide different shades and colours to the film. Polypropylene with requisite additives, fillers, pigments is melt coextruded as a thick sheet. Through one or more satellite coextruders a random copolymer of polypropylene or other terpolymers is melt coextruded on either one or both surfaces of the homopolymer sheet. The homopolymer core layer, which is generally between 70-90% of total thickness, provides mechanical strength, optical properties, reduction in density (in certain cases) etc. The copolymer skin layers which may contain the above stated functional additives, in addition may also contain anti-blocking additives. These skin layers render the film heatsealable, improve optical properties, etc.[/p]

[p]The sheet, thus extruded, is solidified by passing it over a chill roll kept in a water bath. The cast sheet is then passed over several heated, chrome-plated rolls, which pre-heat it. After achieving sufficient heat, it is passed over two or more pairs of rolls in which one set of rolls rotate at faster speed than its proceeding rolls. Because of the difference in circumferential speed, the film is oriented in longitudinal direction. The orientation is generally to the tune of 4-7 times.[/p]

[p]The mono-oriented film is then clipped by clippers which carry them into a hot air circulated oven. The clippers are placed over a parallel laid chain track. After sufficiently heating transverse direction orientation to the tune of about 7-10 times, the biaxially oriented film is then annealed to retain the oriented stresses, cooled to room temperature, unoriented gripped portions are trimmed, corona treated to enhance surface tension and wound in jumbo rolls (Fig. 1).[/p]


[p]Polypropylene has the lowest density of 0.095 g/cc of all the plastics available so far. In a special grade of pearlised BOPP film, the density is further reduced to 0.700 g/cc apart from providing a pearly aesthetic look, light barrier, etc. Owing to the lowest density of PP, the yield of the film is more than other films and hence economical.[/p]

[p]Biaxial Orientation of Polypropylene enhances various properties over conventional cast or tubular quenched PP films. The mechanical strength, dimensional stability, stiffness, non-tearability, optical properties, barrier properties, etc. are greatly improved owing to biaxial orienting process. Table-1 provides comparative property details of various films.[/p]


[p]The main advantages in using BOPP films are:[/p]

[li]It provides higher surface area per unit weight which makes it cost effective.[/li]
[li]It has very low moisture transmission rate than other packaging films which improves the shelf life and retains crispness of the food products sensitive to moisture.[/li]
[li]It has combination of excellent slip and optical properties. The high gloss and excellent clarity provides good aesthetic appeal whereas controlled slip properties make it suitable to perform well on various FFS, overwrapping and converting machines in order to improves or maintain well on various FFS, overwrapping and converting machines in order to improve or maintain high productivity.[/li]
[li]It's high tensile strength, low elongation and thermal shrinkage makes it suitable for processing on high speed printing, coating/laminating and other converting machines.[/li]
[li]It can be tailor made to suit various customer needs which may be combination of any of optical/surface, optical/barrier and optical/mechanical properties etc.[/li]
[li]It is non-reactive or inert due to olefinic (hydrocarbon) nature which makes it suitable for safe use in food and pharmaceutical industry. It is also suitable for common methods of sterilisation practised presently in the industry.[/li]
[li]The coextruded heat sealable films are preferred because they provide sealability in addition to barrier and better aesthetics without involvement of any additional coating or laminating operation thus making the package cost effective.[/li]
[li]It is recyclable and does not emit hazardous gas while reprocessing.[/li]

[img src=/g/c/ni-72/1.jpg]


[img src=/g/c/ni-72/2.jpg]


[p]The food packaging requirements are very stringent. Biaxially Oriented Polypropylene (BOPP) film has many properties which are suitable and advantageous for packing of food. The basic properties required for packing of foods are given below:[/p]

[li]The package should be able to protect the nutritional properties of the food until final consumption. Therefore, it is desirable that the package should have sufficient barrier to moisture, gas and light.[/li]
[li]The package should be cost effective.[/li]
[li]The package should be able to enhance the product sales appeal on the shelf and also be able to give all the statutory information. Hence, the pack should have good optical properties and printability. BOPP film has excellent clarity, transparency and gloss.[/li]
[li]The pack should be convenient to the consumer for opening, handling and storage. During handling and storage, the pack should be able to protect the food from crushing, breakage etc. It should also be shatterproof.[/li]
[li]The pack should be non-toxic. The contents of the pack should not migrate to the product packed in it and spoil its quality and cause harmful effects.[/li]

[p]BOPP films has following properties which makes it an ideal choice for food packaging[/p]

[li]Good Mechanical properties[/li]
[li]Good thermal properties[/li]
[li]Good Optical properties[/li]
[li]Good surface properties[/li]
[li]Good Electrical properties[/li]
[li]Good yield[/li]
[li]Good barrier properties[/li]

[li]Mechanical Properties: The mechanical properties include tensile strength, elongation, stiffness, tearability, etc. The mechanical properties provide sufficient strength to the film to undergo different converting operations such as printing, coating, lamination and packaging.[/li]
[li]Good Thermal Properties[/li]
[li]Shrinkage: The lower shrinkage value of BOPP film ensures minimal dimensional changes with change in temperature.[/li]
[li]Heat seal properties: The heat sealability of a packaging film is one of the most important properties when considering its use in overwrapping and pouching applications. The integrity of the seal is of prime importance, which depends on[/li]
[li]Pressure of the jaw[/li]
[li]Temperature of the jaw[/li]
[li]Accuracy of the installed temperature controllers[/li]
[li]Dwell time[/li]
For a better machineability of the film on the machine, optimum values are required. A good control on the set of temperature range will help in obtaining a proper seal. Wide variety of BOPP films having sealing temperature as low as 90oC is available. Lower the seal temperature, faster will be packing machine speed.
[li]Good Optical properties: The optical property of BOPP film is as good as polyester film but superior to PVC, Polyethylene film etc. The BOPP film has excellent gloss, transparency and very low haze values making it suitable for print lamination and reverse printing application.[/li]
[li]Good surface properties[/li]
[li]Coefficient of friction: This is a measure of the relative difficulty with which the surface of one material will slide over an adjoining surface of itself or of another material. The static coefficient of friction is related to the force necessary to begin movement of surfaces, while kinetic coefficient of friction refers to the force needed to sustain the movement. Frictional properties of a film are important both during its passage through printing or wrapping machine and after being made up into bag, or over wrap. It is normally preferred to have controlled slip values of the film for better machine ability, because during the passage of the film through packing equipments it is subjected to variety of forces including some of which press the film tightly against flat metal surfaces. If the slip properties are lowered the path of travel of film through equipment can be arrested completely. The consequent strain in the film can lead to elongation and or distortion. Highly slippery film will not run properly on the machine and can lead to empty over wraps. It can also impair optical and printability characteristics of the film. Hence, a controlled slip is always required in the film.[/li][/li]
[li]Treatment level: BOPP film is subjected to corona treatment to form a surface, receptive to inks, lacquers or adhesives. Though the treatment level reduces with the migration of additives to the surface of the film, still the treatment level remains sufficient for printing and lamination. As a thumb rule, if the surface tension of the film is at least 38 dynes/cm, it is considered to be suitable for printing, coating or lamination.[/li][/li]
[li](v) Good Electrical Properties: Static charge: being of polyolefin nature, BOPP film has a tendency to develop static charge which many a times becomes for applications like printing and over wrapping. Films having high static charge create following problems in general.[/li]
[li]Attract dust and thereby affect printability[/li]
[li]Difficulty in separation/release of individual layers of the film[/li]
[li]Jamming of film on machine due to attraction to steel parts and thereby causing scratches to the film.[/li]
Antistatic additives are added during the production of BOPP. Further, better results can be obtained if "Static charge eliminators" are installed at strategic portions on the machines.
[li]Good Yield: BOPP film being the film with lowest density (0.905 g/cc) provides more surface area for the same unit weight. It means that more number of products can be packed or over wrapped with BOPP film than with PET or PVC. Furthermore, a special grade called pearl luster film with still lower density of 0.70 g/cc is also available.[/li]
[li]Good Barrier Properties: Food compounds such as proteins, liquids and certain vitamins can undergo detrimental changes as a result of exposure of light, oxygen and moisture. The factors influencing deteriorative charges in food are given in Table 2.[/li]


[p]In food packaging industry, the types of BOPP films used are:[/p]

[li]Transparent and opaque non-heat sealable[/li]
[li]Transparent heat sealable[/li]
[li]Opaque heat sealable[/li]
[li]Pearlised heat sealable[/li]
[li]Super seal[/li]
[li]Metallized, heat sealable[/li]

[p][b](a)Transparent & Opaque Non-heat Sealable Film:[/b] This grade of film is generally used in conjunction with wax-coated paper for biscuit packing. The low moisture vapour transmission rate (MVTR) of BOPP film renders the biscuit retains its crispness. If a opaque film is used, it further cuts down light penetration and protects the biscuits against U-V radiation, thereby fat and oil in the latter are not oxidised. Wax coated paper helps in sealability, giving printability and body to the pack.[/p]

[p][b](b)Transparent Heat Sealable film:[/b] This grade of film is used in packing all snack foods oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of BOPP film is the choice for packing products such as potato wafers. Its excellent tensile strength, stiffness enables the film to be employed in any kinds of packaging systems whether vertical form-fill-seal (VFFS) or horizontal form-fill-seal (HFFS) or strip packing etc. Its inherent heat sealability is an added advantage. BOPP film's low elongation and good surface tension enable it to be excellently printed. Products generally packed in this film are biscuits, potato wafers (with nitrogen gas flushing), masalas, readymix recipes, cough lozenges etc.[/p]

[p][b](c)Opaque Heat Sealable film:[/b] Generally, opaque films are white pigmented to act as a light barrier. The opacity of the film is 80-90%. A high oil and fat containing product is easily oxidised by U-V light leading to rancidity. Protection against light is also achieved, in addition to all the other properties of BOPP film. Again this is used in packing biscuits, chocolates, biscuit wafers, potato wafers, cough lozenges etc.[/p]

[h3]Table 2. Factors Influencing deteriorative changes in foods[/h3]

[tr][th]Factor[/th][th]Effect on food system[/th][/tr]
[tr][td]Light[/td][td]Oxidation of fats and oils, cholesterol[/td] [/tr]
[tr][td]Destruction of fat-soluble vitamins A and E[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Destruction of riboflavin and other water-soluble vitamins[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Changes in proteins and amino acids. Changes in food pigments[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Temperature[/td][td]Acceleration of chemical reactions [/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Increase in bacterial growth rate[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Increase of gas diffusion[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Oxygen[/td][td]Oxidation of liquid components[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Losses of protein quality[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Changes in food pigments[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Destruction of certain vitamins[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Spoilage due to change in pH[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Increased growth of putrefactive organisms[/td] [/tr]
[tr][td](Infection by mold, fungus, or bacteria)[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Destruction of aroma (organolepitc changes)[/td] [/tr]
[tr][td]Penetration of[/td][td]Oxidation of fats and oils[/td] [/tr]
[tr][td]Moisture[/td][td]Non-enzymatic browing reaction[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Decrease in nutritional quality value in food[/td] [/tr]
[tr][td]Growth of microorganisms such as bacteria, mold and yeast[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Loss of attributes such as crispness[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Caking of loosely packed dehydrated foods.[/td] [/tr]
[tr][td]Loss of moisture[/td][td]Dry up[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Weight loss[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Change in consistency[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Loss of flavour[/td][td]Formation of off-flavour by reaction with components[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]and aroma[/td] [td]Change in flavour components[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Reduction in quantity of falvor components[/td] [/tr]
[tr][td]Contamination by odd smell/odour.[/td][/tr]

[p][b](d)Pearlised Film:[/b] Apart from being opaque, this film provides a shiny, eye-catching, pearly appeal. Further, its lowest density (0.700 g/cc) enables the convertor to pack more products per quantity of film. Coupled with these two unique properties, the pearlised BOPP film is widely used for packing chocolates, biscuits, biscuit wafers, toffees etc.[/p]

[p][b](e)Super Seal:[/b] This is one side heat sealable film with high heat seal strength. The flowability of the heat seal layer and high heat seal strength is useful in packing products like powders where the pouch/pack can carry more load. Generally when powders are packed by vertical form-fill-seal technique, owing to the static charge developed during movement of the film and pouring of powder, certain particles get stuck throughout the area of the pouch. In such cases, those powders may also be present at the seal area. Superseal film can seal through those powders and retain the integrity of seal. Further, since its heat seal strength is sufficiently higher, more volume of product can be packed. This superseal film could be either transparent or opaque or pearlised. Products that can be packed are biscuits, masalas, readymix recipes, skimmed milk powder, etc.[/p]

[p][b](f)Metallized Heat Sealable film:[/b] Metallization is a process of depositing a thin layer of metal over the film under vacuum. The metal generally used is aluminium. Earlier, owing to poor surface tension of BOPP films, a primer coating was essential for free anchorage of metal layer. Now, a special grade of BOPP film is freely available which does not warrant a primer coating and still can be barrier metallized. About 250-1000oA thick deposition of aluminium drastically improves the light, moisture vapour and oxygen barrier of metallized films. Further it eliminates the problems of pinholes, poor flex resistance often encountered in bare aluminium foil. The optical density of about 2.0 is maintained to achieve better barrier properties. This film either alone or as a laminate with other films is popularly used for packing of cream biscuits, stuffed biscuits, pan masala, scented supari, etc.[/p]


[p]Recently, atleast two or more BOPP film grades are developed viz. Metallized BOPP film with matte aluminium foil look, translucent film for reverse printing and lamination, heat sealable synthetic paper etc. With consumers' views and tastes keeping changing, more and more films are expected to be developed. The future may witness, a lot of coated BOPP films freely available.[/p]

[p]Among them could be PVdC coated film, PVOH coated film, acrylic coated film, coated film for high speed overwrap and packaging, etc. The shift will definitely be towards coated BOPP films possessing excellent water, gas and aroma barrier.[/p]


[tr][td]Probable structure PET (RP)[/td][td]Typical Application [/td][/tr]

[tr][td]BOPP (MET)[/td][td]Pan masala and Spices where aroma retention is required[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]LDPE BOPP (RP) BOPP (MET)[/td][td]Potato chips, Biscuits and other oil & fat containing products[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]LDPE BOPP (RP) LDPE/SURLYN[/td][td]Powdery materials, like starch, detergent, noodles, vermicelli etc.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]BOPP (SP/RP)[/td][td]Noodfles, Biscuits, other snack food products.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]BOPP (HST-Plain) BOPP (RP)[/td][td]Snack food products [/td][/tr]
[tr][td]BOPP (MET, HS)RET (RP)[/td][td]Cough, lozenges, candy etc.[/td][/tr]
[tr][td]Pearlised BOPP BOPP Wax Paper[/td][td]Biscuits and other snack food products.[/td][/tr]

[p]PET = Polyethylene terepthalate, RP = Reverse Printing, MET = Metallized, LDPE = Low density Polyethylene[/p]

[p]SP = Surface Printing, HST = Heat Sealable, HS = High Speed, SURLYN = Modified LDPE.[/p]


[p]There are over 40 BOPP Film manufacturers in the world. Estimated global capacity is about 1.7 million tonnes per annum and the consumption is about 1.3 million tonnes. The growth rate of BOPP films worldwide is 810% per annum. This rate of growth is expected to sustain for the next five years as BOPP films are still fast replacing various other films and substrates. With the advent of newer technologies and developments, more grades of BOPP films may be launched which will further boost the consumption of these films in food packaging.[/p]

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