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Production of Gallic Acid from Tannic Acid

Saturday, July 28, 2018

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Production of Gallic Acid from Tannic Acid

Gallic acid is an organic acid found in a variety of foods and herbs that are well known as powerful antioxidants. Foods and herbs such as blueberries, walnuts, apples, flaxseeds, tea leaves, oak bark, watercress, flax seed and tea all contain Gallic acid. Gallic acid is also found in gall nuts, sumac, witch hazel, watercress, oak bark, and a variety of other plants and herbs. Gallic acid is also found as part of tannins, which are astringent, bitter plant polyphenols.

Its supplements are available as capsules, ointments and liquid extracts, and have been used traditionally to treat a variety of ailments. The form and dosage depend on the age of the patient and condition being treated. Gallic acid supplements are generally safe to use, although they may interfere with certain blood pressure medications. It is important to consult a doctor before using them to avoid possible adverse reaction and drug interaction.

Gallic acid can be bought as a supplement as well, specifically as capsules, liquid extracts, and even ointments. The supplement form of Gallic is not known to have any harmful side effects, though they can negatively interact with anti-hypertensive medications when taken in excess.

It is used in the pharmaceutical industry as a standard for determining the phenol content (a large group of several hundred chemical substances) of various analytes by the Folin-Ciocalteau assay.

Gallic acid, a product of tannin degradation, finds application in various fields including biological activities such as antibacterial, antiviral and analgesic. The work was undertaken to produce gallic acid from banana flower stalk and coir pith using fungal system isolated from soil of different places. Optimization of incubaton period for maximum fungal biomass was found to be 6 days and 9 days in banana flower stalk and coir pith amended broth respectively. Five fungal strains were chosen for Gallic acid production and the results reveal that banana flower stalk was found to be the better substrate than coir pith in producing gallic acid and fungal strains C 1 and I2 were found to be better producers than I3, T1 and T3. Therefore it is suggested that agricultural wastes containing tannin could be considered as alternative substrates for Gallic acid production.

Gallic acid has always been a molecule of industrial importance because of its applications in different sectors from healthcare and food to dyes, inks, paints and photography. It was used in preparation of high grade leather tannins, in the manufacture of inks, paints and colour developers and as a photosensitive resin in the semiconductor production. It is also used in testing of free mineral acids, dihydroxy-acetone and alkaloids.

Gallic acid has emerged as a potential drug molecule of therapeutic value as antimicrobial, antioxidant; anticancer, antiviral, antitumor and as a radio protective agent. The major application of Gallic acid was a precursor for synthesis of broad spectrum antibacterial agent, trimethoprim.

Gallic acid is used as a starting material for production of food additives like gallic acid esters and derivatives such as propyl gallate, octyl gallate, lauryl gallate and dodecyl gallate which reduce rancidity and work as preservatives. Propyl gallate, an antioxidant and antimicrobial agent is being used in hair products, adhesives and lubricants.

Gallic acid is obtained by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. When heated above 220°C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol, or 1, 2, 3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3 (OH) 3, which is used in the production of azo dyes and photographic developers and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

The Gallic Acid Market is highly competitive due to the presence of well-established key vendors. The availability RD facilities and investments by the market leaders ensure that product innovation is always given top priority. The vendors compete based on price, quality, branding, and customer service. Since there is little differentiation between the products offered in Gallic Acid Market, vendors are focusing on launching new technologies.


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