Rice Husk, Rice Hull, Rice Husk Ash (Agricultural waste) based Projects

India has a major agribusiness sector which has achieved remarkable successes over the last three and a half decades. Agricultural waste or residue is made up of organic compounds from organic sources such as rice straw, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sugar cane bagasse, coconut shell, and others. Rice husk from paddy (Oryza sativa) is one example of alternative material that has a great potential. Rice husk a major by-product of the rice milling industry, is one of the most commonly available lignocellulosic materials that can be converted to different types of fuels and chemical feedstocks through a variety of thermochemical conversion processes. Rice husk is an agricultural residue abundantly available in rice producing countries.The husk surrounds the paddy grain. During milling of paddy about 78 % of weight is received as rice, broken rice and bran. Rest 22 % of the weight of paddy is received as husk. This husk is used as fuel in the rice mills to generate steam for the parboiling process. This husk contains about 75 % organic volatile matter and the balance 25 % of the weight of this husk is converted into ash during the firing process, is known as rice husk ash.  This RHA in turn contains around 85 % - 90 % amorphous silica.The moisture content ranged from 8·68 to 10·44%, and the bulk density ranged from 86 to 114 kg/ m3.  

Rice husk is unusually high in ash, which is 92 to 95% silica, highly porous and lightweight, with a very high external surface area. Its absorbent and insulating properties are useful to many industrial applications, such as acting as a strengthening agent in building materials. Rice husks are processed into rectangular shaped particle boards.

Construction industry is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Rapid construction activity and growing demand of houses has lead to the short fall of traditional building materials. Bricks, Cement, sand, and wood are now becoming scares materials. Demand of good quality of building materials to replace the traditional materials and the need for cost effective and durable materials for the low cost housing has necessitated the researchers to develop variety of new and innovative building materials. Construction materials of special requirements for the houses in different geographical region to overcome the risk of natural hazard and for protection from sever climatic conditions has also emphasised the need for development of lightweight, insulating, cost effective, durable and environment friendly building materials. Rice hulls can be put to use as building material, fertilizer, insulation material or fuel. Rice hulls uses include aggregates and fillers for concrete and board production, economical substitute for microsilica, absorbents for oils and chemicals, soil ameliorants, as a source of silicon, as insulation powder in steel mills so as to name a few.

India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification. About 20 million tones of RHA are produced annually. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA.

The annual rice husk produce in India amounts is generally approximately 120 million tons. Rice husk is generally not recommended as cattle feed since its cellulose and other sugar contents are low. Furfural and rice bran oil are extracted from rice husk. Industries use rice husk as fuel in boilers and for power generation. Among the different types of biomass used for gasification, rice husk has a high ash content varying from 18 – 20 %. Silica is the major constituent of rice husk ash and the following tables gives typical composition of rice husk and rice husk ash. With such a large ash content and silica content in the ash it becomes economical to extract silica from the ash, which has wide market and also takes care of ash disposal.

A number of rice-producing countries, (e.g. Thailand), are currently conducting research on industrial uses of rice hulls.

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FUEL BRIQUETTES FROM BIOMASS (Bio Coal Briquettes from Agricultural Cellulosic Waste)

Energy is the key factor in economic development of country. As we approach the turn of century our requirements of energy will increase rapidly and vastly. Though there are several alternative conventional as well as non-conventional energy sources have been developed, still world is facing energy crisis day by day and it will rise in the coming future with rapid increase in population as well as industrialization. India is one of the big countries in the world having vast energy resources but these are not properly exploited to achieve maximum benefit and to check energy crisis. At present our country is fulfilling its demand by importing the crude petroleum oil from gulf countries. It has been expected that approximately 450 million tons of coal, 80 million tons of crude oil and 150 million tons of firewood will be required at that time to meet the domestic demand in our country. Among the non-conventional forms of energy, Bio-Energy offers vast potential under Indian conditions, due to the wide spectrum of biomass available in different agro-climatic regions of the country. It is estimated that over 120 million tons of agricultural and forest residues are generated annually. The biomass includes agro-industrial bi-products and animal refuse. These constitute tremendous waste problems in spite of their known high energy potential. Currently both storage and disposal only add to costs and hence affects productivity and profitability. At present most of these are not collected at all, or are burnt to reduce fire hazards or used inefficiently. Handling and transportation of these materials is difficult due to their low bulk densities and irregular sizes. These wastes, after processing can be converted into high density, high value solid fuel briquettes, known as "BIOCOAL" which can be efficiently used to replace coal and fire wood. Briquettes solid fuel known as biocoal can be used by the industrial, commercial and household domestic sectors. It has been found that several alternative energy sources has come up, among them, utilization of agricultural residues, forest residues, municipal garbage into valuable solid fuel is one which is one of the modern and latest concept which has come up to meet the growing demand of fuel. It is a cheaper solid fuel with high calorific and heating value. Its demand will definitely rise with rapid industrialization in the coming future. So a new entrepreneur can well venture into this field by fully assessing the fuel requirement by different small, medium and large-scale industries. The new prospective and decisive entrepreneurs can well venture by installing a unit of biocoal manufacturing to satisfy present and future demand.
Plant capacity: 4800 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 28 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 129 Lakhs
Return: 46.00%Break even: 38.00%
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PRECIPITATED SILICA FROM RICE HUSK ASH

Rice husk is an agricultural residue easily available in rice producing countries. India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion & or by gasification. The rice husk contains about 75% organic volatile matter & the balance 25% of the weight of this husk is converted into ash during the firing process, is known as rice husk ash (RHA). This RHA in tern contains around 85%–92% amorphous silica. About more 20 million tones of RHA are produced annually in India. Generally rice husk is not used as cattle feed since its cellulose & other sugar contents are low. So the RHA produced is a great environment threat causing damage to the land & the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being through off for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. Silica is one of the valuable inorganic chemical compounds. It can exist in gel, crystalline and amorphous forms. It is the most abundant material in the earth’s crust. Silica is the major constituent of rice husk ash. With such a large ash content & silica content in the ash it becomes economical to extract silica from the ash, which has wide market & also takes care of ash disposal. Precipitated Silica (also called particulate silica) is composed of aggregates of ultimate particles of colloidal size that have not become linked in massive gel network during the preparation process. It is an amorphous form of silica; the word amorphous denotes a lack or crystal structure, as defined by x-ray diffraction. Early interest in amorphous silica was purely academic. The ash produced after the husks have been burned is high in silica. RHA can be used in a variety of application like: green concrete, high performance concrete, ceramic glaze, water proofing chemicals, roofing shingles, insulator, specialty paints, flame retardants, carrier for pesticides, insecticides & bio fertilizers etc. Precipitated silica is also used as filler for paper & rubber, as a carrier & diluents for agricultural chemicals, as an anti caking agent, to control viscosity & thickness and as a cleansing agent in toothpastes & in cosmetics. The distinguishing feature of the growth of precipitated silica industry in India is that it has classifiably flourished in the small-scale sector. Readily available new materials low capital investment & high rates of return offer a distinct advantage to the small-scale manufacturers to venture into this field. There is a very good scope in this sector. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Gujrat Multi Gas Base Chemicals Private Limited Gujarat Multi Gas Base Chemicals Private Limited, Mumbai Manswill Chemicals Private Limited Wellink Chemical Industrial Company Limited, Nanping Insilco Limited Famous Minerals and Chemicals Private Limited Gujarat Silicon Pvt. Ltd.
Plant capacity: 600 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 53 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 273 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 47.00%
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PRECIPITATED SILICA FROM RICE HUSK ASH

Rice husk is an agricultural residue easily available in rice producing countries. India is a major rice producing country, and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion & or by gasification. The rice husk contains about 75% organic volatile matter & the balance 25% of the weight of this husk is converted into ash during the firing process, is known as rice husk ash (RHA). This RHA in tern contains around 85% to92% amorphous silica. About more than 20 million tons of RHA are produced annually in India. Generally rice husk is not used as cattle feed since its cellulose & other sugar contents are low. So the RHA produced is a great environment threat causing damage to the land & the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being through off for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. Silica is one of the valuable inorganic chemical compounds. It can exist in gel, crystalline and amorphous forms. It is the most abundant material in the earth’s crust. Silica is the major constituent of rice husk ash. With such a large ash content & silica content in the ash it becomes economical to extract silica from the ash, which has wide market & also takes care of ash disposal. Precipitated Silica (also called particulate silica) is composed of aggregates of ultimate particles of colloidal size that have not become linked in massive gel network during the preparation process. It is an amorphous form of silica; the word amorphous denotes a lack or crystal structure, as defined by x ray diffraction. Early interest in amorphous silica was purely academic. The ash produced after the husks have been burned is high in silica. RHA can be used in a variety of application like: green concrete, high performance concrete, ceramic glaze, water proofing chemicals, roofing shingles, insulator, specialty paints, flame retardants, carrier for pesticides, insecticides & bio fertilizers etc. Precipitated silica is also used as filler for paper & rubber, as a carrier & diluents for agricultural chemicals, as an anti caking agent, to control viscosity & thickness and as a cleansing agent in toothpastes & in cosmetics. The distinguishing feature of the growth of precipitated silica industry in India is that it has classifiably flourished in the small scale sector. Readily available new materials low capital investment & high rates of return offer a distinct advantage to the small scale manufacturers to venture into this field. There is a very good scope in this sector. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Gujrat Multi Gas Base Chemicals Private Limited Gujarat Multi Gas Base Chemicals Private Limited, Mumbai Manswill Chemicals Private Limited Wellink Chemical Industrial Company Limited, Nanping Insilco Limited Famous Minerals and Chemicals Private Limited Gujarat Silicon Pvt. Ltd.
Plant capacity: 4500 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 816 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 1820 Lakhs
Return: 37.00%Break even: 40.00%
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EXTRACTION OF ULTRA PURE SILICON FROM RICE HUSK ASH

Rice milling industry generates a lot of rice husk during milling of paddy which comes from the fields. This rice husk is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing of paddy. Rice husk is also used as a fuel for power generation. This RHA is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. RHA is a carbon neutral green product. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RHA. RHA is a good super-pozzolan. This super-pozzolan can be used in a big way to make special concrete mixes. There is a growing demand for fine amorphous silica in the production of special cement and concrete mixes, high performance concrete, high strength, low permeability concrete, for use in bridges, marine environments, nuclear power plants etc. Silicon is the second most common element in the Earth's crust, comprising 25.7% of the Earth’s crust by weight. It is shiny, dark gray with a tint of blue. Silicon, atomic number of 14, is a semi-metallic or metalloid, because it has several of the metallic characteristics. Silicon is never found in its natural state, but rather in combination with oxygen as a silicate ion (SiO4) in silica-rich rocks such as obsidian, granite, diorite, and sandstone. Feldspar and quartz are the most significant silicate minerals. Silicon alloys with a variety of metals, including iron, aluminium, copper, nickel, manganese and ferrochromium. Used in manufacture of special steels and cast iron, aluminum alloys, glass and refractory materials, ceramics, abrasives, water filtration, component of hydraulic cements, filler in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, paper, insecticides, rubber reinforcing agent - especially for high adhesion to textiles, anti-caking agent in foods, flatting agent in paints, thermal insulator. Silicon is used in the aluminium industry to improve castability and weldability. Silicon has a wide range of applications because of their excellent properties of thermal stability etc. They are widely used as from stabilizers for poly methanes, diffusion, pumps antifoaming agents for liquid, textile finishes. Silicones also find application in manufacturing of weather proofing concretes. There is wide scope and good market potential of products manufactured in this sector.
Plant capacity: 90,000 Kg /Annum Plant & machinery: 285 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 524 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 62.00%
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Rice Bran Oil

PRODUCT PROFILE Rice bran is the most important source of edible oil among the unconventional sources. Rice bran is the brown coating around the white starchy rice kernel, which is obtained by de husking paddy and polishing the rice. Despite the impressive growth of rice bran technology in the country, only a third of the available potential has been exploited. Rice is not only the oldest cultivated crop but also a basic food of more people than any other cereal grain. Rice bran contains 18-20% edible oil 35% sugars, varieties of B vitamins and 0.51% rice wax. Rice Bran Oil is truly The Worlds Healthiest edible oil, containing vitamins, antioxidants, nutrients and trans fat free. It's not just delicate and flavorful, it can help lower cholesterol, fight diseases, enhance the immune system, fight free radicals and more. Rice Bran Oil is extremely light, versatile and delicious. Use it to fry, sauté, in salad dressings, baking, dipping oils and where ever you use cooking oil. CHIEF CONSTITUENTS Oleic acid 40 to 50% Linoleic 29 to 42% Saturated acids 16 to 20% Applications • Bran oil is used in the soap industry and to a limited extent refined to edible oil while the defatted bran meal is employed as an animal feed. • Rice bran wax is an important by product of rice bran oil industry. Rice bran wax can be used in the preparation candles, polishes, cosmetics, emulsifiers, and other industrial preparations. • With the results in a good balance of plasticity, creaminess, and spreading properties, making it is ideal oil for bakery shortenings & Margarine. • The paddy and content of rice bran oil increases due to the action of a lipase present in the bran. Inactivation of lipase would lead to good quality oil. Global demand India produces about 80 million tonnes of paddy annually. This can yield about 5 million tonnes of rice bran and to the extent of 8 lakhs tonnes of rice bran oil. Rice bran oil alone has the potentiality of wiping out a large part of the deficit oil in the country. India is the second largest producer of rice in the world next to China, having potential to produce about 12 lakh tonnes of Rice Bran Oil per annum. Currently the industry is processing about 35 lakh tonnes of Rice Bran Producing about 6.0 lakh tonnes of Refined Rice Bran Oil per annum, out of which 5.5 lakh tonnes is edible grade and the balance 0.5 lakh is of non edible grade. Edible oil is an item of mass consumption and any rise in its price is mass politically sensitive. Since imports of oil seeds is considered to hit the interest of the farmers, the government has to import the finished product of the industry that is edible oil, in order to bridge the gap between demand and supply. It has made a remarkable development and at present 2,50,000 tons or one quarter of the yearly output of rice bran in this country are turned into nearly 50,000 tons of rice bran oil a year by some 70 plants scattered throughout the country. Rice bran oil industry is contributing to economization of foreign exchange amounting to about Rs. 20 million every year. Since the applications and demand of rice bran oil is immense therefore the potential of the product is excellent. It is one of the imperative fields to endeavor.
Plant capacity: 5100 MT/Annum, Refined rice bran oil, 24900MT/Annum, De oiled rice bran oil cake (byproduct)Plant & machinery: 757 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of project: 1243 Lakhs
Return: 45.00%Break even: 50.00%
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Extraction of Ultra Pure Silicon from Rice Husk Ash

Profile Rice husk ash is a unique source of high grade amorphous silica. The silica present in rice husk, being of biogenic origin, is inherently amorphous. Amorphous silica obtained from rice husk is chemically active and hence a very useful product. At higher temperatures, it undergoes a phase change resulting into crystalline forms of silica The silica precipitation technology is a novel method for silica precipitation where the chemicals used are regenerated making it a closed loop operation. Successful studies for extraction of silica on laboratory scale, which meet the industrial requirements, have been carried out. Also studies are being carried out for suitable application of the undigested ash obtained after extraction, in water treatment plants with or without further improving the activated carbon content of the ash. 70% conversion is achieved on ash basis and around 90 to 95% on silica in ash basis. Properties of Silicon Property - Value Crystal structure - Diamond cubic Atomic weight - 28.085 Melting point °C - 1410 Boiling point °C - 2355 Vapour pressure; Pa at 880°C - 1.33 X 10-8 Density gm/cm3 at 25°C - 80 Critical temp °C - 2339 Process of extraction 1. Digestion: This involves the digestion of the rice husk ash with caustic at specific conditions. In this process the silica in the ash is gets extracted with caustic to form sodium solution. After the completion of the digestion the solution is filtered for the residual undigested ash present in the solution. The clear filtrate is taken for precipitation. 2. Precipitation: This step involves precipitation of silica from the sodium silicate solution. Carbon dioxide at a specific flow rate is passed through the silicate solution at design conditions. Continuous stirring is employed during the operation. The precipitated silica is filtered, washed with water to remove the soluble salts and dried. The filtrate containing sodium carbonate is taken for regeneration. 3. Regeneration: Regeneration is the step where calcium compound reacts with the sodium carbonate to form calcium carbonate and sodium hydroxide. The resulting solution is filtered to remove the solid calcium carbonate and aqueous sodium hydroxide is used for digestion again. The calcium carbonate is washed with water and dried. The dried calcium carbonate can be either calcined to get calcium oxide, which is reused, for regeneration or the calcium carbonate is sold and fresh calcium hydroxide is used for regeneration which gives an option of one more value addition. 4. Production of Ultrapure Silicon A chlorine based system is used in the method of transferring silicon from SiO2 to polysilicon. The process is flexible enough to allow the use of chlorine as the halide conversion medium by modifying the process, hydrogen, argon and a silicon chloride containing gas are injected into inductively coupled plasma operating at a temperature of approximately 2500°C. Under these conditions, the silicon chlorides decompose to silicon, chlorine, and possibly hydrogen ions, and the gaseous product flows into a baffled cold trap held at approximately 1500°C. by resistance heating. The Si ions react with electrons from the ionized hydrogen gas to form molten silicon metal condensate that can be vacuum cast into polysilicon ingots. The hot chlorine laden gas is drawn from the cold trap and pushed through a fluidized bed at approximately 1200°C, containing silica (SiO2) particulate. Prior to the injection of the hot chlorine gas, the silica particulate is pre heated in a dryer to approximately 1000°C. A small amount of hydrogen is required in the fluidized bed in order to facilitate the formation of HCl gas and begin the reaction: 4HCl + SiO2 ?2H2 O + SiCl4 Additionally, some SiCl3 H will be formed by the reaction: HCl + SiCl4 ? SiCl3 H + Cl2 Si + HCl ? Applications of Pure Silicon Silicones have a wide range of application because of their excellent properties of thermal stability etc. They find wide application in adhesive, lubricants, protective coatings and mold release agents manufacturing. They are widely used as from stabilizers for poly methanes, diffusion, pumps antifoaming agents for liquid, textile finishes. Silicones also find application in manufacturing of weather proofing concretes. Silicon is used in the aluminium industry to improve castability and weldability, not to add strength as noted in the text. Silicon-aluminium alloys tend to have relatively low strength and ductility, so other metals, especially magnesium and copper, are often added to improve strength. Silicon resins are widely used as coatings, moulding compounds, laminates sealants, room temperature curing cements for electrical insulation, impregnating electric coils, bonding agents and vibrating damping devices. Semiconductor grade silicon is used in the manufacture of silicon chips and solar cells. Fumed silica is used as filler in the cement and refractory materials industries, as well as in heat insulation and filling material for synthetic rubbers, polymers and grouts. Silicon rubbers are versatile materials, which find application in a wide variety of products. It is also used in medical devices used within the body (surgical).
Plant capacity: 300 Kg/dayPlant & machinery: 246 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 557 Lakhs
Return: 39.00%Break even: 46.00%
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RICE BRAN OIL

Profile Rice bran is the main source of rice oil. The majority of available bran continues to be used for animal feeds without being extracted for the oil. Rice oil, also called rice bran oil, has been used extensively in Asian countries. Rice oil is a minor constituent of rough rice when compared with the carbohydrate and protein content. Two major classes of lipids are present: those internal within the endosperm and those associated with the bran. The internal lipids contribute to the nutritional, functional, and sensory qualities of rice. Rice processing produces polished rice or the parboiled variety, in addition to two residues: husks (13%), used as fuel and bran (8%), used as animal feed, a food supplement and for edible oil production. In food industry, Rice is world’s most important food crop and more than half of the people in the world eat rice as the main part of their diet. The word to eat literally meant to eat rice. CHIEF CONSTITUENT Oleic acid 40 to 50%, linoleic 29-42% & saturated acids 16-20% grades. It is available in two grades; crude and edible. Rice bran oil is used in soap making and in animal feeds, hydrogenated oil can be used a shortening. Application Rice bran oil is truly The Worlds Healthiest edible oil, containing vitamins, antioxidants, nutrients and trans fat free. It is not just delicate and flavorful, it can help lower cholesterol, fight diseases, enhance the immune system, fight free radicals and more. Rice bran oil is extremely light, versatile and delicious. Used to fry, sauté, salad dressings, baking, dipping oils and where ever you use cooking oil. It is amazing cooking oil- light, healthy and also best in taste. Rice bran oil is vastly superior to traditional cooking oils and can be considered nutraceutical (food as medicine) oil that is perfect for all your healthy cooking needs. Rice bran oil is quickly becoming a favorite in commercial frying to replace hydrogenated oils that contain trans fat. This is due to rice bran oils health, flavor and performance benefits. Bran oil is used in the soap industry and to a limited extent refined to edible oil while the defatted bran meal is employed as an animal feed. Rice bran wax is an important by-product of rice bran oil industry. Rice bran wax can be used in the preparation of candles, polishes, cosmetics, emulsifiers and other industrial preparations. Market Scenario Indian edible oil industry is composed of some 15,000 oil mills, 600 solvent extraction units, 250 vanaspati units and over 600 refining units. With around 8% of world oilseeds production, over 7% of global protein meal production, around 4% of world oil meal export, total oilseeds production of 23 mn tonne and 5.6 mn tonne of edible oil production, India is the fourth largest edible oil economy in the world valued at USD 16.5 bn (Rs 660 bn). India has a share of nearly 6% of global vegetable oil production, nearly 11% of global vegetable oil imports and 9% of global edible oil consumption. And yet over 40% of the edible oil availability in the market is sourced from imports.
Plant capacity: 5100 MT/AnnumPlant & machinery: 280 Lakh
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 582 Lakh
Return: 45.00%Break even: 58.00%
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SILICON FROM RICE HUSK

Rice husk is a byproduct of agriculture a by product while is almost treated like waste and not serously bothered about. Consider, India's case every year about 60 million tonnes of paddy grown in the country produces upto 12 million tonnes of rice husk in over 900,000 rice mills spread around the country. Though, most of it is used as either a heating medium or as an animal feed . The strange fact is that 12 million tonnes of rice husk can have a heat value equivalent to around 20 million barrels of oil. The silica from rice husk must compete with other cheap sources such as sand, bentonite and diatomaceous earth; however it frequently offers advantages because of minimal amounts of unwanted elements other than silica. USES OF SILICON Various uses and applications of Silicones are given as below: 1. As an alloying agent for steels aluminium, bronze, copper and iron. 2. Used in the production of hologenated silanes, 3. As an organosilicon compounds (silicone resins) 4. Silicon carbide. 5. Spring steels. 6. As a dioxidizer in steel manufacture 7. As a semiconductor in integrated circuits rectifiers transistors, diodes and other elctronic divices. 8. Cermets and other special refractories. The major recent development in the silicon industry is the tripling of demand for solar grade polysilicon, with the expectation that the quantity used in solar photovoltaic (PV) modules will start to rival that in the high volume silicon markets within a few years. Furthermore, high value solar grade silicon allows much higher profit margins than the bulk markets. In 2012, the global consumption of silicon metal amounted to 2,020,000 tons, wherein Europe took the lead, accounting for 27% of the world’s total, China came as the second, taking up 24%.
Plant capacity: 300 Kg/day Plant & machinery: 229 Lakh
Working capital: -T.C.I: 749 lakh
Return: 38.00%Break even: 47.00%
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ACTIVATED CARBON FROM SAW DUST & COCONUT SHELL

Activated Carbon is a unique material because of the way it is filled with holes (voids, spaces, sites, pores,) whatever the size of molecules. It is that, although they are spaces of zero electron density, these pores possess intense vander wall forces (from the near proximity of carbon atoms). Activated carbon is a non graphitic form of carbon, which could be produced by activation of any carbonaceous material such as coconut shells, bamboo, wood chips, sawdust, coal, lignite, paddy husk etc. The process of activation is carried out in two stages. The raw material is first carbonized and then activated either by chemicals or by steam to derive the highly porous structure. Shell based activated carbon is extensively used in the process of refining and bleaching of vegetable oils and chemical solutions, water purification, recovery of solvents, recovery of gold, in gas masks for protection against toxic gases, in filters for providing adequate protection against war gases/nuclear fall outs, etc. Uses and Application A wide variety of activated carbon products are available exhibiting markedly different characteristics depending upon the raw material and activation of technique used in their production. In selecting the activated carbon it is important to have a clear understanding of both the adsorptive and physical characteristics of the material in order to optimize the performance capabilities. Activated Carbon of three grades namely powder, granular and pelletlized finds hundreds of different applications. By chemical activation, predominantly powder activated carbons are made and these qualities are mostly used for wastewater treatment. Granular products and pellets used for gas purification are predominantly made by gas steam activation. To cite some examples from the numerous applications: decolorization of sugar and sweeteners, drinking water treatment, gold recovery, production of pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals, catalytic process, off gas treatment of waste incinerators, automotive vapor filters, color/odor correction in wines and fruit juices. Market Survey The global activated carbon market was worth $1.8 billion in 2011 and is estimated to reach $3 billion by 2016, growing at a CAGR of 11.1% from 2011 to 2016. The powdered and granular activated carbon segments are the key revenue generators for the activated carbon market. The demand for activated carbon (AC) is expected to grow due to the new demand in mercury control technology for industrial air purification applications.
Plant capacity: 6000 MT/ Annum Plant & machinery: 181 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: 1070 Lakhs
Return: 43.00%Break even: 37.00%
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RICE BRAN OIL (SOLVENT EXTRACTION)

Rice is an important food crop. It is consumed by more than half of the world’s population living in the developing countries. The demand of rice is increasing every day with the rise in population. It is therefore imperative to have continuous and concerted efforts to increase rice production to keep pace with the demand. Among the several approaches, varietal improvement through development of varieties with inherent high yielding potential, resistance to major biotic and abiotic stresses and adaptable to various rice growing environment is of paramount importance. Rice bran is a by- product resulting from the processing of rice. Even though the process, which consists in removing certain outer layers of the caryopsis, is basically the same in all cases, it can be carried out in a number of ways, some of which have a vital bearing on the characteristics of the end product. The bran thus produced may have quite different properties; therefore their particular identity should be differentiated and maintained. Rice bran is the main source of rice oil. The majority of available bran continues to be used for animal feeds without being extracted for the oil. Rice oil, also called rice bran oil, has been used extensively in Asian countries. Rice oil is a minor constituent of rough rice when compared with the carbohydrate and protein content. Two major classes of lipids are present: those internal within the endosperm and those associated with the bran. The internal lipids contribute to the nutritional, functional, and sensory qualities of rice. Rice bran oil is truly “The World’s Healthiest” edible oil, containing vitamins, antioxidants, nutrients and Trans fat free. It is not just delicate and flavorful; it can help lower cholesterol, fight diseases, enhance the immune system, and fight free radicals and more. Rice bran oil is extremely light, versatile and delicious. Used to fry, sauté, salad dressings, baking, dipping oils and where ever you use cooking oil. It is amazing cooking oil- light, healthy and also best in taste. Rice bran oil is vastly superior to traditional cooking oils and can be considered nutraceutical (food as medicine) oil that is perfect for all your healthy cooking needs. Rice bran oil is quickly becoming a favorite in commercial frying to replace hydrogenated oils that contain trans fat. This is due to rice bran oils health, flavor and performance benefits. Rice bran is a by-product of the rice milling process. Rice bran is the most important source of edible oil among the unconventional sources. Rice bran is the brown coating around the white starchy rice kernel, which is obtained by de-husking paddy and polishing the rice. While white rice holds little nutritional value, the bran that is removed contains 65 percent of the rice kernel’s nutrients and boasts a bounty of healthful benefits. The thin brown layer that is milled off in the processing of white rice, rice bran is just as effective as the other bran in fighting high cholesterol and providing high-grade fiber. USES & APPLICATION The crude bran oil thus obtained can be used for manufacture of soap, emulsifiers, fatty acid, plasticisers, cosmetics and tocoferol (vitamin E) etc. Crude rice bran oil is an edible grade vegetable oil intended for additional processing before human consumption. Crude rice bran oil is also source of high value added by-products. Thus, if the by-products are derived from the crude rice bran oil and the resultant oil is used as a feedstock for biodiesel, the resulting biodiesel could be quite economical and affordable. Crude rice bran oil is a rich source of high value-added byproduct. Therefore, use of rice bran oil as raw material for the production of biodiesel not only makes the process economical but also generates value added bio-active compounds. Crude rice bran oil helps reduce dust in feed, making it more palatable to animals. Moreover it acts as a lubricant in animal feed pelletization stage. Crude Rice bran oil is used as a raw material in manufacturing refined Rice bran oil. Rice bran with low levels of available carbohydrate (25 per cent) and high level of fat (20 per cent) can be considered as a good source of energy when used as a supplementary food for diabetics. Rice bran with 15 to 20 per cent oil can serve as a good source of energy and Essential Fatty Acids (EFA). It is also a commercial source of edible oil. Rice bran wax can be used in the preparation of candles, polishes, cosmetics, emulsifiers and other industrial preparations. It is the cuticle existing between the rice and the husk of the paddy, which comprises the germ the perricorp, and aleuronic layer. The bran is obtained as a by-product in rice milling during polishing of rice obtained after dehusking of paddy etc. MARKET SURVEY India produces about 80 million tonnes of paddy annually. This can yield about 5 million tonnes of rice bran and to the extent of 8 lakhs tonnes of rice bran oil. During 1983 - 84, the country processed only 13 lakhs tonnes of rice bran, though the installed processing capacity is around 32 lakhs tonnes. Production of rice bran oil is currently estimated at about 2 lakhs tonnes and hardly 10-15 per cent of it is of edible grade, although the potential availability is reckoned at about 8 lakhs tonnes. The wide gap between the actual production and the potential availability of rice bran oil is primarily due to the fact that at present around 70 per cent of the paddy produced in the country is processed through huller mills while only 30 percent is processed by modern Sheller mills. It has been estimated that huller mills number about 80,000 while there are only 28,000 modern Sheller mills. PRESENT MANUFACTURERS A G Fats Ltd. Agrawal Oil Extractions Ltd. Agro Tech India Ltd. Balaji Agro Oils Ltd. Bharani Oils Ltd. Boppana Oils Ltd. Cethar Foodoil Ltd. Chaitanya Oils Ltd. Globus Industries & Services Ltd. Goa Agro Oil Ltd. Godavari Edible Bran Oil Ltd. J R Foods Ltd. J S P Oils & Fats Ltd. K G N Agro Internationals Ltd. Kanakadurga Agro Oil Products Ltd. Kedia Overseas Ltd. Lakshmi Energy & Foods Ltd. Malwala Oils Ltd. Midland Industries Ltd. Modi Naturals Ltd. Morinda Overseas Inds. Ltd. Neha Oils Ltd. Patliputra Industries Ltd. Prakash Solvent Extractions Ltd. Raghunath Cotton & Oil Products Ltd. Ravindra Solvent Oils Ltd. Rice Oil & Foods Ltd. S K M Animal Feeds & Foods (India) Ltd. Sambandam Solvent Extraction Ltd. Satyakala Agro Oil Products Ltd. Sethia Oil Inds. Ltd. Sethia Oils Ltd. Shanti Kunj Solvent Ltd. Shree Madhav Edible Products Ltd. Shree Shakthi Agro Oils Ltd. Siddaganga Oil Extractions Pvt. Ltd. Siris Agro Ltd. Sona Oil & Chemical Inds. Ltd. Sonitpur Solvex Ltd. Sree Tulasi Solvent Extractions Ltd. Sri Murugarajendra Oil Industry Ltd. Srihitha Refineries Ltd. Sudha Agro Oil & Chemical Inds. Ltd. Tara Health Foods Ltd. Thapar Agro Mills Ltd. Unique Organics Ltd. Vegepro Foods & Feeds Ltd. Vijay Agro Products Pvt. Ltd.
Plant capacity: 388 MT/DayPlant & machinery: Rs. 615 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project: Rs. 1760 Lakhs
Return: 30.02%Break even: 47.16%
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