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DIPHENYL OXIDE

PRODUCT PROFILE Diphenyl oxide is the parent molecule of brominated diphenyl ether flame retardants. It is used as a high boiling solvent to purify pharmaceuticals. It is used as a starting material for the preparation of heat transfer fluid, specialty surfactant, and blowing agents. Diphenyl oxide is not readily biodegradable. There is no evidence that harmful products are formed as a result of biodegradation. Diphenyl oxide is moderately toxic to fish and other aquatic organisms. It is irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin. Several polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are useful flame retardants. It is synthesized by a modification of the Williamson ether synthesis, here the reaction of phenol and bromobenzene in the presence of base and a catalytic amount of copper. Involving similar reactions, diphenyl ether is a significant side product in the high-pressure hydrolysis of chlorobenzene in the production of phenol. Product characteristics • Chemical Name : Diphenyl Oxide; 1,1'-Oxybisbenzene; Phenyl ether; . Phenyl Ether; Oxyde de biphenyle, Diphenyl Ether. • CAS Number : 101-84-8 • Molecular Weight : 170.21090000 • Formula : C12 H10 O or C6H5OC6H5 • Melting Point : 28oC • Flash point : 115 °C (388.15 K) • Freezing point : 26. 5°C The process of preparing diphenyl oxide from chlorobenzene: The process of preparing diphenyl oxide from caustically hydrolyzing chlorobenzene wherein phenol is a by product, is improved by recycling the phenol. The improvement not only maximizes the yield of diphenyl oxide while minimizing the yield of phenol, but it also increases the yield of desirable by products, such as phenylphenols and biphenylylphenyl ethers. APPLICATIONS OF Diphenyl oxide: • Diphenyl oxide can be used into preparation of perfumery compounding, Soaps, Detergents, and Agarbatthi. • Diphenyl oxide can be used as a high boiling reaction solvent in the manufacture of drugs like Chloroquine Phosphate (anti malarial drug), Norfloxacin, Pefloxacin, Ciprofloxacin (broad spectrum antibiotics) etc. • Diphenyl oxide on bromination gives Deca Bromo Diphenyl oxide which is widely used in the plastics industry as a fire retardant. • Diphenyl oxide along with Diphenyl forms a heat transfer fluid, which is used at temperatures as high as 400 °C. • Diphenyl oxide is used in the manufacture of alkylated Diphenyl oxide Di Sulphonate, a speciality surfactant which finds application in textiles, mining, petroleum, agriculture etc. • The main application of diphenyl oxide is as a eutectic mixture with biphenyl, used as a heat transfer medium. Such a mixture is well-suited for heat transfer applications because of the relatively large temperature range of its liquid state. • Diphenyl ether is also used as a processing aid in the production of polyesters. GLOBAL SCENARIO: Present global production level of diphenyl ether is around 65000 tonnes per annum. Diphenyl oxide, or DPO, is a key raw material in the production of a variety of industrial products such as surfactants, flame retardants, fragrances, chemical intermediates and heat transfer fluids. DPO is an essential ingredient used to manufacture Therminol VP-1 heat transfer fluid, the heat transfer fluid of choice for the solar industry. Global demand of diphenyl oxide is increasing and hence its production is likely to increase in next few years.
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METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE (MIBK)

PRODUCT PROFILE Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) is a colorless liquid with an odor similar to mothballs. MIBK is also known as 4 methyl 2 pentanone, hexone and isopropylacetone. While it is usually in liquid form, MIBK can change into a gas. MIBK will dissolve in water, alcohols, benzenes and ethers. Methyl isobutyl ketone is very flammable with a high vapor pressure; use only with good ventilation and avoid all ignition sources. MIBK exposure is possible in both industrial and consumer applications. Occupational exposure limits have been established to control the allowable amount of exposure in workplace settings. Consumer exposure, generally infrequent and short in duration, is also highly dependent upon the conditions under which MIBK is used. Product characteristics • Molecular Weight :100.2 g/mol • Empirical Formula :C6H12O • Appearance : Colorless Liquid • Freezing Point : -84.7°C (-120°F) • Refractive Index @ 20°C :1.396 • Density @ 20°C :0.802 g/cm3 • Flash Point: 14°C : (57.2°F) • Solubility @ 20°C(in Water) : 2.0% m/m • (Water in) : 2.4% m/m • Boiling Point @ 760mm Hg :115°C (239°F) APPLICATIONS : • MIBK is used primarily in solvent applications (mainly for surface coatings). • It is also used for rubber antiozonants and acetylenic surfactants. • MIBK major application is in the manufacture of lube oil additives, followed by its use as the principal flotation frother in treating copper and other ores. • Surface coatings make up a minor portion of MIBC consumption. World MIBC statistics are difficult to estimate, but overall, • MIBC will experience positive growth in lube oil applications and as a flotation frother (especially in actively mined regions). • Used in inks, paints, lacquers and other types of surface coatings • MIBK is used as a chemical intermediate, a solvent for manufacturing paints, rubbers, pharmaceuticals, other chemicals, and industrial cleaners. It is used in the semiconductor industry. • MIBK is very efficient at dissolving resins used in paints, inks, lacquers, and other types of surface coatings. • MIBK is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indirect food additive for adhesives, paper and paperboard, and polymers. MIBK occurs naturally in oranges, grapes and vinegar. MIBK is used as a solvent in factories that produce paints, rubber products, chemicals and machinery. As a solvent, it is used in pesticide application. Pharmaceutical companies that produce prescription drugs also use MIBK. MIBK strengthens and preserves flavors and fragrances. Consumer products containing MIBK include aerosol paints, coatings used in construction, and automobile and machinery paints and primers. GLOBAL SCENARIO: Considering the steady growth in demand and the applications in thrust areas of growth, strong case exists for capacity creation for MIBK. Surface coating market and rubber (tyre) market would drive the demand for MIBK. Growth rate of USA and Western Europe is estimated to be 1% and that of Asia Pacific is estimated to be 5% through 2014. Global consumption (period 2009) was 402,200 metric tons. Some applications (especially antiozonants) are moving to Asia, particularly China. MIBK consumption for antiozonants is forecast to grow at an average annual rate of 4 to 5% in Asia and 0 to 1% in the United States and Western Europe. World MIBK consumption will grow slowly from 2007 to 2012.
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METHYLAMINES

PRODUCT PROFILE Methylamines are produced by reacting ammonia with methanol at an elevated temperature and pressure in the presence of a catalyst. Methylamine is the organic compound with a formula of CH3NH2. This colourless gas is a derivative of ammonia, but with one H atom replaced by a methyl group. It is the simplest primary amine. It is sold as a solution in methanol, ethanol, THF, and water, or as theanhydrous gas in pressurized metal containers. Industrially methylamine is sold in its anhydrous form in pressurized railcars and tank trailers. It has a strong odor similar to fish. Methylamine is used as a building block for the synthesis of many other commercially available compounds. Over 1 million tonnes are produced annually. All the three amines namely monomethylamine, dimethylamine and trimethylamine strongly resemble ammonia in most of their physical properties. They are gas under ambient conditions and they liquefy under pressure giving rise to colourless liquid. Product characteristics: Appearance : Clear, colourless liquid with strong ammonical . . odour Chemical formula : CH5N CAS NO. : 74-89-5 Product availability : Available as anhydrous (liquefied gas under . pressure) 40 % solution, 45 % solution. Methylamines should be stored in a cool, dry, well ventilated area It should be kept away from flammable area, oxidizing materials and acids. Applications of Methylamine: Methylamines are a versatile group of molecules, the continuous process results in the simultaneous production of mono methylamines, di methylamines and tri methylamines (MMA, DMA and TMA). They are sold as anhydrous, liquefied compressed gases and as aqueous solutions available in a variety of packaging including rail trucks and ISO tanks. The range of possible applications for methylamines is vast, due to their high reactivity. Applications include pharmaceuticals, crop protection, ion-exchange resins, animal feed, explosives, building blocks for the paper industry, water treatment and surfactants, and many more. Some important area of the application of methylamine are: • Agrochemicals and intermediates (Dimethoate, MMAA etc) • Dyestuff • Derivatives (NMP, N methyl diethanolamine, methyl morpholin etc.) • Pharmaceuticals (Bulk drugs and API) • Ephedrine HCl • Explosives GLOBAL SCENARIO: Considering the diversified application sector of methylamines which are highly relevant to the Indian industrial and economic growth pattern, demand for methylamines is likely to go up steadily in India in the coming years. The overall outlook for methylamines is promising. This calls for additional capacity creation. Indian demand for methylamines is estimated to be 50,000 tonnes per annum. Global installed capacity of methylamines is estimated around 1.1 million tonnes per annum.
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SODIUM TRI POLY PHOSPHATE

PRODUCT PROFILE: Sodium triphosphate (STP) is an inorganic compound with formula Na5P3O10. It is the sodiumsalt of the polyphosphate penta anion, which is the conjugate base of triphosphoric acid. It is produced on a large scale as a component of many domestic and industrial products, especially detergents. Environmental problems associated with eutrophication are attributed to its widespread use. Product characteristics • CAS No : 7758-29-4 • Molecular formula : Na5P3O10 • Appearance : White free flowing slightly hygroscopic granule or powder. • Form :Hydrated form and anhydrous form • Solubility in Water : 20% at 25 deg C • pH(1% solution) : 9.2-10.2 • Moisture (at 110 °C) : 0.50% • Water insolubles : 0.07% • Purity :94.0% • PH Value : 9.5-10.0 • Whiteness : 85% min. It has got salient chelating capacity to ions of Ca and Mg etc. and can soften hard water to make suspension solution become into clear solution; It has got weak alkalinity but no corrosiveness. It is a surfactant, and has got outstanding emulsification to lubricants and fat. This product has two crystalline forms, namely Type I (high temperature type) and Type II (low temperature type). The chemical properties of the two types are the same, and the difference between them lies in the thermo stability, hygroscopicity, solubility and hydration heat when dissolving. Applications of Sodium triphosphate (STP): Some of the applications of STPP are: • Used as one of the main auxiliaries for synthetic detergent, synergist for soap • water softener, tanning agent for leather making, auxiliary for dyeing • As an effective dispersion agent for suspension solutions of coatings, kaolin, magnesium oxide, calcium carbonate and drilling mud etc. • As an oil contamination resistance agent in paper production. • In foodstuff industry it is used as quality improver in the process of canned food, fruit juice drinks, foodstuffs from milk or soybeans. • It may tender the meat in canned ham and soften the skin of horse bean in canned horse bean. • It may also serves as a softener or densifier in foodstuff industry. • Improves the water holding capacity of meat and seafood products • Prevents denaturation of proteins • Stabilizes the colour of the products • Improves the texture of meat and seafood products Food grade STPP is used as quality improver in the process of canned food, fruit juice beverages, foodstuffs from milk or soyabean and is also used as softener or densifier in food stuff industry. GLOBAL SCENARIO: Sodium Tripolyphosphate (STPP) is an inorganic sodium salt, which is used as a vital auxiliary in synthetic detergents sector. For several years, sodium tripolyphosphate has been used as a major ingredient in detergents, and played a vital role in enhancing the performance of detergents. The market for STPP is expected to benefit from the fact that phosphorus-free assistants are not a complete substitute for phosphorus-based assistants. In India, STPP predominantly finds application in the production of detergents. The other important areas of applications include ceramics and food industries. The application areas are highly relevant to the industrial and economic growth pattern. Therefore, the demand for STPP would go up in tune with the overall industrial and economic growth pattern. The global Sodium Tripolyphosphate market is projected to reach 3.4 million metric tons by the year 2015. Growth in the market is driven by the sustained demand from detergents market.
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SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMERS

PRODUCT PROFILE Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) (also called slush powder) are polymers that can absorb and retain extremely large amounts of a liquid relative to their own mass. Water absorbing polymers, which are classified as Hydrogels when cross-linked, absorb aqueous solutions through hydrogen bonding with water molecules. A SAP's ability to absorb water is a factor of the ionic concentration of the aqueous solution. In deionized and distilled water, a SAP may absorb 500 times its weight (from 30-60 times its own volume), but when put into a 0.9% saline solution, the absorbency drops to maybe 50 times its weight. The presence of valence cations in the solution will impede the polymers ability to bond with the water molecule. Super absorbent polymers (SAPs) are compounds that absorb water and swell into many times their original size and weight. They are lightly cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymer chains. The network can swell in water and hold a large amount of water while maintaining the physical dimension structure. Process for SAP: The processing of Super absorbent polymers is done by neutralization in which super absorbent polymer is lightly cross linked with Polyacrylic acid. There are two main raw materials for manufacturing of SAP, viz. acrylic acid and cross linkers like glycerine or other polyhydric alcohols. To obtain good quality of SAP, high purity of acrylic acid is desired. Acrylic SAP manufacturing is usually a four, and in some cases, a three step process. The polymer is made by aqueous solution polymerization of glacial acrylic acid with cross linking monomer and an initiator. Acrylamide is used as well as co monomer for some industrial applications. Neutralization is carried out pre or post polymerisation depending on the type of reactor and reaction conditions. The polymer is a soft, rubbery gel that is colourless and clear. The soft gel intermediate is placed on a belt and run through a long tunnel that blows hot air for drying. A drum dryer is also used to a lesser extent. The dried hard cake is ground to granular amorphous powder. Finally, the tiny particles undergo further cross linking mostly at the surface to reduce extractable polymers and residual monomer. Another round of heating causes a reaction that yields the final cross linked product. Almost 92.3% of world capacity is based on aqueous solution polymerization. About 7% of capacity is based on inverse suspension polymerization that results in micro beads. APPLICATIONS • Superabsorbent polymers can be blended with polymer adhesives and coated on non woven fabrics to make waterproof belts. • It can also be processed into coatings with butyl rubber and solvents and then coated on polyester belts. • SAPs are widely used in personal hygiene products. Recent research is focused in other application areas of SAPs, viz., bio sensing, soft actuators/valves, catalysis, concentration of viruses, vitamin, bovine serum albumin and controlled drug delivery. • SAP features moisture absorption, has no toxicity and no corrosion and can therefore be used in the storage and packaging of foods, fruits and vegetables. • SAP can be blended with polymer adhesives and coated on non woven fabrics to make waterproof belts. • It can also be processed into coatings with butyl rubber and solvents and then coated on polyester belts. Global Scenario Demand for SAP has been rising steadily during the last few decades. Global demand growth is forecast at 6% per annum through 2016. This is a result of rising demand for disposable diapers, primarily in countries with rising disposable incomes and low current penetration rate of SAP. Although smaller market in comparison to diapers, strong growth is forecast to continue in feminine hygiene products and in incontinence products in developed regions, as a result of efforts to produce slimmer, more efficient products. The application of SAP, in optical cables in particular, is expanding and the market prospect is excellent
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VITAMIN C

PRODUCT PROFILE Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress. It is also a cofactor in at least eight enzymatic reactions including several collagen synthesis reactions that, when dysfunctional, cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy. In animals these reactions are especially important in wound-healing and in preventing bleeding from capillaries. Vitamin C is a water soluble vitamin, meaning that your body does not store it. We have to get what we need from food, including citrus fruits, broccoli, and tomatoes. Low levels of vitamin C have been associated with a number of conditions, including high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, stroke, some cancers, and atherosclerosis, the buildup plaque in blood vessels that can lead to heart attack and stroke. Getting enough vitamin C from your diet by eating lots of fruit and vegetables may help reduce the risk of developing some of these conditions. Product characteristics • Alternate name - L-Ascorbic acid, L-3-Ketothreohexuronic acid lactone • Chemical formula - C6H8O6 • Molecular mass - 176 amu • Appearance - White mono clinic, crystalline solid • Odour - Odourless Source of Vitamin C: Most animals manufacture their own vitamin C. Primates, such as humans, gorillas, and monkeys, have somehow lost this ability, which is why we need to get our vitamin C from our diets. It is well known that citrus fruits, such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, tangerines, limes, mandarins and others contain vitamin C. Other good sources are tomatoes, strawberries, raspberries, peppers, broccoli, asparagus, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, peas, rutabagas, cantaloupe, kiwi, papayas, potatoes, paprika and watermelon. Many other fruits and vegetables contain small amounts of vitamin C, too. APPLICATIONS OF Vitamin C: • Vitamin C is used as an anti scorbutic and is used in the prevention and treatment of scurvy. • It is used in the treatment of hay fever, for relief of heat cramps and in the treatment of idiopathic methemoglobinemia. • Vitamin C is used in the manufacture of various anti tussive syrups such as neogadine exlixir, sanvitone, autrin etc. • It is a co enzyme in the synthesis of phenyl alanine and tyrosine in the human body. • Because vitamin C is a biological reducing agent, it is also linked to prevention of degenerative diseases such as cataracts, certain cancers and cardiovascular diseases. • Vitamin C plays a significant role in metabolic synthesis cortical hormones. • Vitamin C is needed for healthy gums, to help protect against infection, and assisting with clearing up infections and is thought to enhance the immune system and help reduce cholesterol levels, high blood pressure and preventing arteriosclerosis. • In food industry, vitamin C has a dual role: it acts as a nutrient as well as a food anti oxidant and product improver. • It protects and strengthens skin tissues and cells against external attacking factors such as oxidation damage resulting from attack of free radical and oxygen-derived, ultra violet radiation, pollutants etc. GLOBAL SCENARIO: The demand for Vitamin C is likely to go up steadily in the coming years, in view of the expected growth of the healthcare facilities in India. World production of synthesized vitamin C is currently estimated at approximately 110,000 tonnes annually. Global demand for vitamin C for the period of 2010 is around 120,000 tonnes, global sales of Vitamin C is over US$1020 million and growth rate in demand for Vitamin C is 3% per annum. Vitamin C represents more than 50% of the total production and sales of vitamins in the global market. China holds around 80% of world production of vitamin C. China plays a monopoly in the production of Vitamin C
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AMMONIUM CHLORIDE

Product Profile Ammonium chloride, an inorganic compound with the formula NH4Cl, is a white crystalline salt, highly soluble in water. Solutions of ammonium chloride are mildly acidic. Sal ammoniac is a name of the natural, mineralogical form of ammonium chloride. The mineral is especially common on burning coal dumps (formed by condensation of coal-derived gases), but also on some volcanoes and liquorice. It is the product from the reaction of hydrochloric acid and ammonia. Product characteristics Chemical Formula : NH4Cl Appearance : White, granular powder Density : 1.520 Solubility : Soluble in water, Soluble in methanol, ethanol Almost insoluble in acetone, ether, ethyl acetate Applications The main application of ammonium chloride is as a nitrogen source in fertilizers, e.g. chloroammonium phosphate. Ammonium chloride is used as a systemic acidifying agent in treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis. Ammonium chloride is used as a flux in preparing metals to be tin coated, galvanized or soldered. Ammonium chloride is used in a ~5% aqueous solution to work on oil wells with clay swelling problems. It is also used as electrolyte in zinc–carbon batteries. Ammonium chloride is used in the textile and leather industry in dyeing, tanning, textile printing and to luster cotton. Ammonium chloride is used in the textile and leather industry in dyeing, tanning, textile printing and to luster cotton. ? Market scenario Ammonium chloride is produced by the companies in multi product facility where other products are also made. Indian production of ammonium chloride is 7600 metric tonnes per annum. The demand for ammonium chloride would be largely driven by the performance and growth of industries such as dry cell battery as well as that of steel galvanizing/ zinc refining. Overall AAGR in demand for ammonium chloride through 2017 is estimated to be 6% per annum. Indian demand for ammonium chloride for above sectors is around 30000 tonnes per annum. Demand for ammonium chloride take place in the following sectors: dry cell batteries, refining of zinc, galvanized steel, pharmaceuticals, miscellaneous including laboratory reagent, fluorescent pigments etc. In industrial application sector demand Ammonium chloride is growing rapidly.
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ANILINE

Product Profile Aniline is an organic base used to make dyes, drugs, explosives, plastics, and photographic and rubber chemicals. Aniline is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Being a precursor to many industrial chemicals, its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane. Like most volatile amines, it possesses the somewhat unpleasant odour of rotten fish. Aniline is colorless, but it slowly oxidizes and resinifies in air, giving a red-brown tint to aged samples. Product characteristics Aniline when freshly prepared is a colourless oily liquid (b.p. 184°C). It has a characteristic unpleasant odour and is not poisonous in nature. It is soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene. Its colour changes to dark brown on standing. ? Appearance : Colourless to pale yellow liquid Molecular Weight : 93.12 Boiling Point : 184 - 186 oC Melting Point : -6.3 oC (solidifies) Applications The downstream products of aniline are largely used in the pharmaceutical, dyestuff and rubber sectors. Aniline is of importance in the dye industry, being used as the starting substance in the manufacture of many dyes and as an intermediate in the manufacture of many other dyes. Aniline is used predominantely in the production of sulpha drugs. Sulfonation of aniline yields sulfanilic acid which is the parent compound of the sulpha drugs. In the polymer industry, aniline is primarily used for the manufacture of isocyanates to make polyurethanes. Optical whitener can be used in cotton (including hosiery) viscose rayon, linen, detergent, and paper to obtain excellent whitening and brightening effect at low cost. Aniline is used in the manufacture of antioxidants, anti degradants and vulcanization accelerators Market scenario Indian demand is estimated to be 65000 metric tons per annum. The steady increase in demand for aniline in the country calls for capacity creation from time to time in tune with the expanding demand for the product in the country. Global aniline consumption is expected to reach 6.2 million tons by 2015, according to a report by Global Industry Analysts (GIA). Growth will be driven by the increasing demand in methylene diphenyl diisocyanate. Estimated growth rate in demand through 2015 will be 4% per annum. The demand for aniline for the production of various downstream products would continue to grow.
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GLYCIDYL METHACRYLATE (GMA)

Product Profile: Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) is an ester of methacrylic acid and a common monomer used in the creation of epoxy resins. While typical home epoxies contain diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), glycidyl methacrylate is instead used to provide epoxy functionalization to polyolefins and other acrylate resins. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) monomer has dual functionality, containing both methacrylic and epoxy groups. The dual functionality of GMA also brings together the desirable properties of both methacrylics and epoxies. Product characteristics Appearance : Clear Colourless liquid Density : 1.068g/l ( at 25 deg.C) Flash point : 85 deg.C Solubility : Partly soluble in water Applications Glycidyl methacrylate monomers are used for developing cross-linkable pressure sensitive adhesives. Glycidyl methacrylate is a high purity dual functionality monomer ideally suited for coating and resin applications. It is also used for the production of epoxy functional methacrylic resins with predetermined glass transition temperatures, grafting to functionalize olefin copolymers and production of multifunctional (meth) acrylates. Glycidyl methacrylate is used to manufacture: • High performance automotive coatings for automotive applications • Coatings • Industrial and protective coatings • Appliance and hardware finishes • Adhesives • Electrical laminates • Multifunctional acrylates • Hydrogenated Liquid Epoxy Resin (LER) substitutes • Plastic modifiers (PVC, PET, engineering thermoplastics, rubber) Manufacturing Process: Glycidyl methacrylate is produced by the reaction of an alkali metal salt of methacrylic acid with epichlorohydrin in the presence of a quaternary ammonium salt and a polymerization inhibitor in a reaction system where the water content is adjusted to 500 to 2000 ppm. Glycidyl methacrylate is purified by the method of the present invention, wherein the reaction mixture obtained by the above method is washed with a dilute aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and heated under a reduced pressure to remove unchanged epichlorohydrin by distillation, after which steam is blown into the reaction system under the conditions of reduced pressure and heating to distill away the remaining epichlorohydrin together with glycidyl methacrylate as the first distillate fraction, followed by ceasing the steam blow and carrying out distillation under the conditions of reduced pressure and heating to obtain glycidyl methacrylate as the main distillate fraction.
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HYDROQUINONE

Product Profile Hydroquinone, also benzene-1,4-diol or quinol, is an aromatic organic compound that is a type of phenol, having the chemical formula C6H4(OH)2. There are a variety of other uses associated with its reducing power. As a polymerization inhibitor, hydroquinone prevents polymerization of acrylic acid, methyl methacrylate, cyanoacrylate, and other monomers that are susceptible to radical-initiated polymerization. This application exploits the antioxidant properties of hydroquinone Applications Hydroquinone has a variety of uses principally associated with its action as a reducing agent which is soluble in water. • It is a major component in most photographic developers for film and paper where, with the compound Metol, it reduces silver halides to elemental silver. • Hydroquinone, is used mainly as a polymerization inhibitor, as an antioxidant ingredient for rubbers, and as a pigment. • Hydroquinone is used as a developing agent in black and white photography, lithography, and x-ray films. • About 0.05% of the hydroquinone manufactured is used in skin lightening creams. • Hydroquinone is also used as a coupler in oxidative hair dyes Production Process Hydroquinone is produced industrially by three routes, two of which are dominant. Similar to the cumene process in reaction mechanism, the most widely used route involves the dialkylation of benzene with propene to give 1,4-diisopropylbenzene. This compound reacts with air to afford the bis(hydroperoxide), which is structurally similar to cumene hydroperoxide and rearranges to give acetone and hydroquininone in acid. A second route involves hydroxylation of phenol. The conversion uses hydrogen peroxide and affords a mixture of hydroquinone and catechol: C6H5OH + H2O2 ? C6H4(OH)2 + H2O The third method, practiced only in China, is the oxidation of aniline by manganese dioxide followed by reduction of the resulting 1,4-benzoquinone. The process is conducted batchwise and generates a substantial waste stream. Market scenario The global demand for hydroquinone is driven by high, sustained growth of certain markets such as superabsorbent polymers, paint, construction, automotive or electronics. The market was extremely tight during 2010–2011; additional capacity scheduled for commissioning in 2012 will alleviate the market tightness temporarily during 2012–2014. However, the hydroquinone market is expected to become tight again in 2014–2016, unless new capacity would be announced Hydroquinone is sold by manufacturers as a dry, crystalline solid packaged in plastic film lined sacks or drums.
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  • One Lac / Lakh / Lakhs is equivalent to one hundred thousand (100,000)
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