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SET TOP BOX

The digital television is considered to be the future of modern television and for that reason there are laws coming in near future that require all the TV stations to switch from analog broadcast to digital. TV viewing is undergoing a change in India with the implementation of Conditional Access System (CAS) and availability of Direct to Home (DTH) services. Digital transmission is superior because it converts images and sounds into digital computer data and transmits them. Once the digital data is received by the receiver attached to your television, it is then quickly reassembled into the original picture and sound and viewed by the viewer. Though this may seem like a longer procedure of transmitting television data, it actually is more advantageous than the older analog method as it provides you with a better picture and sound quality. The picture is not grainy or disturbed and the transmission is very clear. This is because the digital tuner attached to the receiver removes any interface from the signals before converting them back to the original images and sounds. This ability to clean the interface from the signals results in superior quality of picture and sound which ultimately results into superior quality viewing. To add to the quality, the digital television has another advantage of having a user friendly interface where the user can view the listings well in advance rather than having to flip through random channels to find out whats on and whats not. One of the other benefits of digital TV is that the transmission can be compressed in order to take up less bandwidth. This implies that more number of channels can be transmitted over the same cable or over the air frequency. This is beneficial for the cable operators who wish to increase the number of channels, as they can now do so without having to replace any cable. HDTV has a bandwidth hogging nature, and hence digital TV transmission is a better way of transmitting HDTV regardless of the medium of transmission used. India is a dynamic study in itself. The Indian scenario is potentially exciting with a series of decisions taken by the Government to regulate the Indian DTH scene. But the initial excitement in Nov. 2000 has largely been transformed by a realistic look at the guidelines for DTH service in India. The Set Top Box (STB) market growth in India can also be attributed to the growing implementation of CAS (conditional access system), DTH (direct to home) services. The DTH subscriber base has grown to 23.77 million viewers by the end of June quarter from 21.3 million users in the previous quarter, sectoral regulator the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai) said. According to Trai, six DTH licensees (excluding DD Direct) reported subscriber base of 23.77 million (for the quarter ended June 2010) as against 21.3 million at the end of March 2010, indicating an increasing penetration of the service. The DTH subscriber base stood at 15.17 million in the quarter ended June 2009. Apart from the free DTH service of Doordarshan, there are six private DTH licensees Dish TV, Tata Sky, Sun Direct, Airtel Digital TV, Reliance BIG TV and Videocon d2h. On installation of set top boxes in Conditional Access System (CAS) notified areas in the four metros, Trai said 7,70,519 boxes had been installed till June 30 this year. The STB industry is expected to grow at a rate of approximately 30% over the next few years since CAS is now mandatory and will be implemented in all four metros. Along with this other big players are also ready to enter in to the DTH services market. This will create stiff competition within the market which in turn will create and match huge demand of set top boxes in India. There is a very good scope and market potential for Set Top Box and new entrepreneurs should venture into this field.
Plant capacity: 180000 Nos./AnnumPlant & machinery: 66 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 257 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 64.00%
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SET TOP BOX

The digital television is considered to be the future of modern television and for that reason there are laws coming in near future that require all the TV stations to switch from analog broadcast to digital. TV viewing is undergoing a change in India with the implementation of Conditional Access System (CAS) and availability of Direct to Home (DTH) services. Digital transmission is superior because it converts images and sounds into digital computer data and transmits them. Once the digital data is received by the receiver attached to your television, it is then quickly reassembled into the original picture and sound and viewed by the viewer. Though this may seem like a longer procedure of transmitting television data, it actually is more advantageous than the older analog method as it provides you with a better picture and sound quality. The picture is not grainy or disturbed and the transmission is very clear. This is because the digital tuner attached to the receiver removes any interface from the signals before converting them back to the original images and sounds. This ability to clean the interface from the signals results in superior quality of picture and sound which ultimately results into superior quality viewing. To add to the quality, the digital television has another advantage of having a user friendly interface where the user can view the listings well in advance rather than having to flip through random channels to find out whats on and whats not. One of the other benefits of digital TV is that the transmission can be compressed in order to take up less bandwidth. This implies that more number of channels can be transmitted over the same cable or over the air frequency. This is beneficial for the cable operators who wish to increase the number of channels, as they can now do so without having to replace any cable. HDTV has a bandwidth hogging nature, and hence digital TV transmission is a better way of transmitting HDTV regardless of the medium of transmission used. India is a dynamic study in itself. The Indian scenario is potentially exciting with a series of decisions taken by the Government to regulate the Indian DTH scene. But the initial excitement in Nov. 2000 has largely been transformed by a realistic look at the guidelines for DTH service in India. The Set Top Box (STB) market growth in India can also be attributed to the growing implementation of CAS (conditional access system), DTH (direct to home) services. The DTH subscriber base has grown to 23.77 million viewers by the end of June quarter from 21.3 million users in the previous quarter, sectoral regulator the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (Trai) said. According to Trai, six DTH licensees (excluding DD Direct) reported subscriber base of 23.77 million (for the quarter ended June 2010) as against 21.3 million at the end of March 2010, indicating an increasing penetration of the service. The DTH subscriber base stood at 15.17 million in the quarter ended June 2009. Apart from the free DTH service of Doordarshan, there are six private DTH licensees Dish TV, Tata Sky, Sun Direct, Airtel Digital TV, Reliance BIG TV and Videocon d2h. On installation of set top boxes in Conditional Access System (CAS) notified areas in the four metros, Trai said 7,70,519 boxes had been installed till June 30 this year. The STB industry is expected to grow at a rate of approximately 30% over the next few years since CAS is now mandatory and will be implemented in all four metros. Along with this other big players are also ready to enter in to the DTH services market. This will create stiff competition within the market which in turn will create and match huge demand of set top boxes in India. There is a very good scope and market potential for Set Top Box and new entrepreneurs should venture into this field.
Plant capacity: 180000 Nos./AnnumPlant & machinery: 66 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 257 Lakhs
Return: 44.00%Break even: 64.00%
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STARCH AND ALLIED PRODUCTS FROM MAIZE (Starch, Liquid Glucose, Dextrose Monohydrate, Dextrose Anyhdrous, Sorbitol and Vitamin – C)

Starch is a group of polysaccharides, composed of glucopyranose units joined together by glucosidric linkages. It conforms to the molecular formula, (C6 H10O5)n, where n varies from a few hundred to over one million. Starch is found as the reserve carbohydrate in various parts of plants and is enzymatically broken down to glucose to other carbohydrates according to the metabolic needs of the plants. Industrially, starch is broadly divided into two types viz., natural and modified. Natural starches also designated as unmodified starches or simply starches are obtained from grains such as sorghum, from roots like potato, tapioca and arrowroot, and from the pith of the stems of certain palms such as sago. They are further classified into cereal starches and root starches. The characteristics of the natural starches are changed by chemical or enzymatic action and the products of these reactions are termed modified starches. This group includes dextrins, acid-modified starches, oxidized starches, starch esters, starch ethers, dialdehyde starches, and cationic starches. The cereal starches, such as maize, wheat, rice and sorghum, are recovered by several processes, of which the wet milling is by far the most important. Other starches include that of potato & tapioca plant. Physical and chemical properties of starch vary according to the raw material from which it is derived. Starch has many industrial applications in industries like textile, food, paper, pharmaceutical, in the manufacture of glucose and dextrose by hydrolysis, manufacture of modified starches, etc. There are many units as at present in the country producing starch from Maize and three units producing starch from Tapioca in the organized sector. The capacity for starch from Maize accounts for more than 80 per cent of the installed capacity in the organized sector. As against the organized sector, there are a number of units in the small and cottage sector producing starch mainly from tapioca. As regards glucose it is produced in solid as well as liquid form. The production of glucose is not possible in the small sector and therefore its production is not as widely spread as that of starch. Eight units manufacturing starch in the organized sector also produce liquid glucose simultaneously. There are many units as at present in the country producing starch from Maize and three units producing starch from Tapioca in the organized sector. The capacity for starch from Maize accounts for more than 80 per cent of the installed capacity in the organized sector. As against the organized sector, there are a number of units in the small and cottage sector producing starch mainly from tapioca. As regards glucose it is produced in solid as well as liquid form. The production of glucose is not possible in the small sector and therefore its production is not as widely spread as that of starch. Eight units manufacturing starch in the organized sector also produce liquid glucose simultaneously. There is an ample space for new entrepreneurs to venture into this field. Few Indian Major Players are as under: Anil Products Ltd. Anil Starch Products Ltd. Bharat Starch Inds. Ltd. English Indian Clays Ltd. Gayatri Bioorganics Ltd. Gujarat Ambuja Exports Ltd. Gujarat Ambuja Proteins Ltd. Gulshan Polyols Ltd. Indian Maize & Chemicals Ltd. International Bestfoods Ltd. K G Gluco Biols Ltd. Kamala Sugar Mills Ltd. Karnataka State Agro Corn Products Ltd. Laxmi Starch Ltd. Origin Agrostar Ltd. Pondicherry Agro Service & Inds. Corpn. Ltd. Rai Agro Inds. Ltd. Riddhi Siddhi Gluco Biols Ltd. Santosh Starch Ltd. Santosh Starch Products Ltd. Sayaji Industries Ltd. Sukhjit Starch & Chemicals Ltd. Tirupati Starch & Chemicals Ltd. Unique Sugars Ltd. Universal Starch Chem Allied Ltd. Wockhardt Health Care Ltd. Cost Estimation: Capacity : 30000MT Maize Starch 600 MT Liquid Glucose 3900 MT Dextrose Monohydrate 300 MT Dextrose Anhydrous 17100 MT Sorbitol 150000 Kg/Annum Vitamin C
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: 780 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 2590 Lakhs
Return: 42.00%Break even: 56.00%
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BIO PLASTIC PRODUCTS

Plastics have become an important part of modern life and are used in different sectors of applications like packaging, building materials, consumer products and much more. Plastic packaging is proving to be a major environmental problem. Most of today's plastics and synthetic polymers are produced from petrochemicals. As conventional plastics are persistent in the environment, improperly disposed plastic materials are a significant source of environmental pollution, potentially harming life. The plastic sheets or bags do not allow water and air to go into earth which causes reduction in fertility status of soil, preventing degradation of other normal substances, depletion of underground water source and danger to animal life. In the seas too, plastic rubbish from ropes and nets to the plastic bands from beer packs choke and entangle the marine mammals. In an effort to overcome these shortcomings, biochemical researchers and engineers have long been seeking to develop biodegradable plastics that are made from renewable resources, such as plants. The biodegradable polymers could be an alternative to the conventional plastic materials. The term biodegradable means that a substance is able to be broken down into simpler substances by the activities of living organisms, and therefore is unlikely to persist in the environment. There are many different standards used to measure biodegradability, with each country having its own. The requirements range from 90 per cent to 60 per cent decomposition of the product within 60 to 180 days of being placed in a standard composting environment. Biodegradable plastics or bioplastics are mainly derived from corn, wheat and potato starch. Biodegradable plastics products are thermoplastic materials which are processed with the same machines traditionally used to process conventional plastics. Biodegradable plastic products physical and chemical properties are similar to those of traditional plastics, but it is completely biodegradable in different environments, just like pure cellulose. The demand for bioplastics makes it one of the fastest growing thermoplastic product types globally. Global demand is expected to reach over one billion pounds by 2012. Currently, the biodegradable segment of bioplastics is the largest segment of the bioplastics category, but it is projected to be displaced by the non biodegradable bioplastics group of products, which may or may not be 100% derived from biomass. Packaging, disposable food service and fiber applications are major use areas. Polylactic acid polymer (PLA) demand is growing rapidly in both packaging and fiber applications. Demand for starch based polymers, in a modified form or blended with another polymer such as PLA for biodegradability or with a polyolefin such as polypropylene, will continue to grow. Disposable cutlery and containers are products that are a part of our day to day life. Disposable items like bags, cups, plates, saucers, glasses are being increasingly used. Biodegradable bags are becoming more and more commonly used, because they are better for the environment and most people are concerned about being more green. Though the demand for biodegradable plastics is increasing, acceptance of biodegradable polymers is likely to depend on factors like: Customer response to costs; Possible legislation by governments; and The achievement of total biodegradability Substantial technological progress has been made in bio based plastics in the past five years. Innovations in material and product development, environmental benefits as well as the gradual depletion of crude oil increasingly call for polymers made from renewable raw materials. Bioplastics will raise more than fourfold to 900,000 metric tons in 2013, valued at US$2.6 bln, according to a report by The Freedonia Group. The growth will be fueled by a number of factors, including consumer demand for more environmentally sustainable products, the development of bio based feedstocks for commodity plastic resins and increasing restrictions on the use of non-degradable plastic products, particularly plastic bags. Most important, however, will be the expected continuation of high crude oil and natural gas prices, which will allow bioplastics to become more cost-competitive with petroleum based resins. Non-biodegradable plant based plastics will be the primary driver of bioplastics demand. Biodegradable plastics, such as starch-based resins, polylactic acid (PLA) and degradable polyesters, accounted for the vast majority (nearly 90%) of bioplastics demand in 2008. Double-digit gains are expected to continue going forward, fueled in part by the emergence on the commercial market of polyhydroxy-alkanoates (PHAs). PLA will also see strong advances in demand as new production capacity comes online. Western Europe was the largest regional market for bioplastics in 2008, accounting for about 40% of world demand. Bioplastics sales in the region benefit from strong consumer demand for biodegradable and plant based products, a regulatory environment that favors bioplastics over petroleum resins, and an extensive infrastructure for composting. Demand will grow more rapidly in the Asia/Pacific region, which will surpass the West European market by 2013. Gains will be stimulated by strong demand in Japan, which has focused intently on the replacement of petroleum-based plastics. Europe is leading the way for induction of bioplastics in day to day use. Companies such as Novamont SpA, NatureWorks LLC, and Metabolix, Inc. are entering the market with new bio-based products. Demand for bioplastics is accelerating as more supply of all bioplastic types come into production. Though this product is now at a nascent stage in India but in the long run this product has a very promising future. New entrepreneurs should venture into this field. Cost Estimation: Capacity : 15000000Nos. (Bio Plastic Glasses) 1000000 Nos. (Bio Plastic Plates) 75000 Nos. (Bio Plastic Plastics)
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: 166 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 298 Lakhs
Return: 47.00%Break even: 51.00%
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GOOD PROSPECTS IN WASTE TYRE PYROLYSIS

With the phenomenal increase in number of automobiles in India during recent years the demand of tyres as original equipment and as replacement has also increased. As every new tyre produced is destined to go to waste stream for disposal or recycling or reclamation, despite its passage through retreading process, the number of used tyres being discarded is going to increase significantly. However, as the waste tire can be comprehensive utilization, most of them are become the industry waste. This phenomena is not only a kind of wasting massive available resources, but also caused the black pollution. Therefore, it influenced our life quality seriously, and became a big problem on the environmental protection. The developed countries take the waste tire regeneration seriously and all passed the Legislation and established corresponding organization to give fiscal subsidy or provide the tax-free preferential benefit, and so on in order to give fully support to the regeneration of the waste tire. Nowadays, with highly development of the rubber industry and automobile industry in our country, the enormous waste tire, scraped rubber production and its waste corner material increased rapidly. Since the rubber is not easy to purify, also with the increase of the waste rubber production, it has been the big barrier for the environment protection and intensified year by year. At present, the discarded tires, waste rubber are rich in resources all over the country. The world generates about 1.5 billion waste tyres annually, 40 percent of them in emerging markets such as China, India, South America, Southeast Asia, South Africa and Eastern Europe. In India, all new vehicles have radial tyres, so now there are piles of radial tyres here. Analysis indicates that 0.6 Million Tons of tyres scrap is generated in the country annually. It is commonly accepted in the tyre industry that about one tyre per person per year is discarded. Since there is no industry group or governmental agency that monitors tyre disposal in the country, the best estimates that can be made are based on tyre production. So supply situation of scrap tyres is only going to improve in years to come as a result of growing vehicle population in India. Mandatory scrapping of all ELV (End of Life Vehicles), in metros by 2010 to 11 and across India by 2012-13 is also likely to ensure large scale availability of scrap tyres at select locations there by encouraging organized players. The management of scrap tyres has become a growing problem in recent years. Scrap tyres represent one of several special wastes that are difficult for municipalities to handle. Whole tyres are difficult to landfill because they tend to float to the surface. These stockpiles are also direct loss of energy and resources in addition to fire & health hazard and other environmental issues. The main constituent of a tyre is rubber and the largest single application of rubber is vehicle tyres. Also the requirement of tyre is directly related to growth of automobile. The production of automobiles is forecast to continue to rise and is indicative of buoyant economic conditions for tyre industry, but at the same time guarantee and annual discarded scrap tyre volume growing at the same rate as new tyre manufacture. Waste represents a threat to the environment and human health if not handled or disposed of properly. According to this hierarchy, the priority of any country should be to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and prevent and minimize the waste that is generated. Thus, strategies for waste disposal should focus on waste prevention and minimization through the 3 Rs Reduce, Reuse and Recycle. Gasification/Pyrolysis is two related forms of thermal treatment where Waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. Waste Tyre Pyrolysis: Waste tyre pyrolysis renewable technology has set new standard in renewable energy that includes using of waste tyres as a raw material and producing green fuel oil, carbon black, steel and gas. With global warming and utilization of rubber, it has now become necessary to recycle the waste and convert it in fuel oil in such a way that it is environment friendly. This is an unique technology which can change the energy market scenario in a big way. The history of tyre pyrolysis projects to date indicates that the problems blocking them have been technical and economic. These include the problems of upgrading the carbon black by product while keeping down the operating cost of the process and the capital cost of the plant. Recently, there has been a technical advance in char upgrading which have helped tyre pyrolysis economically feasible. Pyrolysis is the decomposition of organic compounds under oxygen free (anaerobic) atmosphere that produces gas, oil, carbon black and steel. Efficient industrial Pyrolysis is a process to treat the rubber and industrial plastic wastage as well. As a result of pyrolysis of wastage tyres one obtains, fuel oil (40% to 45%), carbon black (30% to 35%), steel wires (10% to 15%), and gas (10% to 12%). The main oil product produced is wide used for industrial and commercial purposes. The oil has 40% to 45% of the amount of recycled scrap tyres, which will be carried with licensed tanker trucks. Carbon black produced by Pyrolysis process (CBp) is more economical compared to carbon black produced primarily from petroleum and is more price efficient to be used as an ingredient in the industries. Tyres should be utilized to minimize environmental impact and maximize conservation of natural resources. A small unit for tyre pyrolysis can cost from Rs 4 Crores to Rs 5.0 Crores depending on the capacity of the unit. This capital cost of investment will increase as the capacity of the unit increases. The management of scrap tyres has become a growing problem in recent years. But the pyrolysis technology has a great potential for using a major portion of scrap tyres generated each year, and actually reducing the tyre stockpiles that is in other words to convert waste stream of tyres into marketable products. Waste tyre pyrolysis has indeed identified existing and potential source reduction and utilization methods which will be effective in solving the tyre problem in the coming years.
Plant capacity: 3000 MT Waste Tyre/AnnumPlant & machinery: 266 Lakhs
Working capital: -T.C.I: Cost of Project : 374 Lakhs
Return: 41.00%Break even: 46.00%
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WASTE TYRE (TIRE) UTILIZATION

PRODUCT PROFILE Waste tyre (tire) accumulations have become an increasingly important problem in recent years . Waste trye has been classified or defined as tyres (tire) that are bald and worn down to the tread belt or have bulges or side wall damage and are not suitable to re treaded as a result of long use. Waste tyres (tire) are bulky and difficult to dispose. With the tyre (tire) manufacturing industry expanding which is driven by the auto market boom, plenty of scrap tyres (tire) are being generated. Since the price of natural rubber remains high, taking full advantage of waste rubber resources would be of great significance and provide excellent investment opportunities. Pyrolysis: Process flow for recycling tyre (tire)s Pyrolysis has the potential of transforming used tyre (tire) into useful recyclable products. Pyrolytic carbon black is one of the most important products of tyre (tire) pyrolysis. For pyrolysis about 10 g of waste tyre (tire) rubber particles were put into a batch reactor of glass tube. The reactor was heated from room temperature to a final temperature of 280, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500oC for 2 h. The initial gas atmosphere in the reactor consisted of air. Upon heating, however, decomposition of the tyre (tire) sample started. The gases released by these reactions gradually replaced the air in the reactor. The gaseous products passed through a trap, where the liquid hydrocarbon was collected. Liquid and solid (carbon black) pyrolysis yields were determined in each experiment by weighing the amount of each obtained and calculating the corresponding percentage. The gas yields were determined by difference. Output products derived from scrap tyre (tire) Pyrolysis may be an environmentally friendly process to transform used tyre (tire) into useful products. This process transforms used tyre (tire) into gas, oil and pyrolytic carbon black. The derived oils may be used directly as fuel or added to petroleum refinery feedstock. • They may also be an important source of refined chemicals. • The gaseous products are also useful as fuel, and the carbon black may be used as reinforcing filler in rubber, especially in tyre (tire), or as activated carbon because of its high carbon content. • Activated carbon is widely used for water purification, air purification and also in batteries and fuel cells. The main purpose of the present work was to prepare activated carbon from waste tyre (tire), which are suitable for adsorbing relatively large molecules. The adsorption characteristics of the obtained carbon were investigated after acid treatment and activation for organic molecules like methylene blue. • Tyre (tire) contain steel wires and the amount ranges from 10% to 15% of the total tyre (tire) weight. All of the steel present in the tyre (tire) can be detached after the pyrolysis recycling process is completed. Valuable steel wires are pressed and sold to steel and scrap dealers. • Waste rubber are used in designing the surface of floor to creates ground surface that tough, weather resistance, water and heat proof. Rubber flooring is suitable for indoors and outdoors facilities such as halls floor and playground surfaces material and sports track. • Most of the recycled tyres (tire) are used as material, i.e. they are crushed and granulated for earth construction purposes. Waste tyres (tire) are used in various other applications such as floor carpet, sport field tracks, rubber turf, mats, drainage systems, shoe sole making, wheel burrow wheels, knee caps of mines, reclaimed rubber to replace virgin rubber in new tyre (tire) making, buffer rubber to retreat tyres (tire). GLOBAL SCENARIO: The market for waste tires has grown in the past decade, and it is growing. The tires motorists drive on today can be shredded and used as fuel, burned to make fuel oil or pulverized into bits for fill in a football field or a playground.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: 0.10%Break even: N/A
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WASTE TYRE (TIRE) UTILIZATION

PRODUCT PROFILE Waste tyre (tire) accumulations have become an increasingly important problem in recent years . Waste tyre has been classified or defined as tyres (tire) that are bald and worn down to the tread belt or have bulges or side wall damage and are not suitable to re treaded as a result of long use. Waste tyres (tire) are bulky and difficult to dispose. With the tyre (tire) manufacturing industry expanding which is driven by the auto market boom, plenty of scrap tyres (tire) are being generated. Since the price of natural rubber remains high, taking full advantage of waste rubber resources would be of great significance and provide excellent investment opportunities. Pyrolysis: Process flow for recycling tyre (tire)s Pyrolysis has the potential of transforming used tyre (tire) into useful recyclable products. Pyrolytic carbon black is one of the most important products of tyre (tire) pyrolysis. For pyrolysis about 10 g of waste tyre (tire) rubber particles were put into a batch reactor of glass tube. The reactor was heated from room temperature to a final temperature of 280, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500oC for 2 h. The initial gas atmosphere in the reactor consisted of air. Upon heating, however, decomposition of the tyre (tire) sample started. The gases released by these reactions gradually replaced the air in the reactor. The gaseous products passed through a trap, where the liquid hydrocarbon was collected. Liquid and solid (carbon black) pyrolysis yields were determined in each experiment by weighing the amount of each obtained and calculating the corresponding percentage. The gas yields were determined by difference. Output products derived from scrap tyre (tire) Pyrolysis may be an environmentally friendly process to transform used tyre (tire) into useful products. This process transforms used tyre (tire) into gas, oil and pyrolytic carbon black. The derived oils may be used directly as fuel or added to petroleum refinery feedstock. • They may also be an important source of refined chemicals. • The gaseous products are also useful as fuel, and the carbon black may be used as reinforcing filler in rubber, especially in tyre (tire), or as activated carbon because of its high carbon content. • Activated carbon is widely used for water purification, air purification and also in batteries and fuel cells. The main purpose of the present work was to prepare activated carbon from waste tyre (tire), which are suitable for adsorbing relatively large molecules. The adsorption characteristics of the obtained carbon were investigated after acid treatment and activation for organic molecules like methylene blue. • Tyre (tire) contain steel wires and the amount ranges from 10% to 15% of the total tyre (tire) weight. All of the steel present in the tyre (tire) can be detached after the pyrolysis recycling process is completed. Valuable steel wires are pressed and sold to steel and scrap dealers. • Waste rubber are used in designing the surface of floor to creates ground surface that tough, weather resistance, water and heat proof. Rubber flooring is suitable for indoors and outdoors facilities such as halls floor and playground surfaces material and sports track. • Most of the recycled tyres (tire) are used as material, i.e. they are crushed and granulated for earth construction purposes. Waste tyres (tire) are used in various other applications such as floor carpet, sport field tracks, rubber turf, mats, drainage systems, shoe sole making, wheel burrow wheels, knee caps of mines, reclaimed rubber to replace virgin rubber in new tyre (tire) making, buffer rubber to retreat tyres (tire). GLOBAL SCENARIO: The market for waste tires has grown in the past decade, and it is growing. The tires motorists drive on today can be shredded and used as fuel, burned to make fuel oil or pulverized into bits for fill in a football field or a playground.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: 0.10%Break even: N/A
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2-ETHYL HEXANOL (OCTANOL)

PRODUCT PROFILE: 2 Ethylhexanol (2 EH) is an organic compound. It is a branched, eight-carbon alcohol. Usually the most part becomes 2-Ethylhexanol chemical appropriates reprocessed. It is a colorless liquid that is nearly insoluble in water but soluble in most organic solvents. It is produced on a massive scale as a precursor to plasticizers, some of which are controversial as potential endocrine disruptors. Almost all 2 ethylhexanol is converted into the diesters bis(2 ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer. Because it is a fatty alcohol, its esters tend to have emollient properties. For example, the sunscreen octocrylene contains a 2 ethylhexyl ester for this purpose. It is also commonly used as a low volatility solvent. It is miscible with most organic solvents but has very limited miscibility with water. Product characteristics: • Appearance - Transparent liquid • Chemical formula - C8H18O • Molecular weight - 130.2 • Vapor Pressure at 20°C, mmH - 0.06 • Density at 20°C lb/gal - 6.94 • Boiling Point, °C at 760mm Hg - 184.6 • Specific Gravity - 1.173(+/-) 0.002 • Closed Cup Flash Point °F - 16 Features: • Readily forms esters with various acids • Very limited miscibility with water • Low volatility solvent • Enhances flow and gloss in baking finishes • Non-HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutant) Solvent Applications of 2-ethyl hexanol (octanol): • Manufacture of low volatility esters (for example, dioctylphthalate) • Low volatility solvent (for resins, animal fats, waxes, vegetable oils and petroleum derivatives) • Used as Ethoxylates • Used as Herbicides • Extractant production (heavy metals) • 2-Ethylhexanol is used in the production of plasticisers, acrylates. • It is also used as a solvent in the paint and varnishes industries • Wetting agent in textile industry. 2-Ethyl Hexyl Acrylate produces soft and tacky film with excellent low temperature flexibilities. It is used as a co-monomer with vinyl acrylates and other acrylates, to manufacture water based resins for paints, textiles and paper coatings, leather finishing resins and pressure sensitive adhesives. It is also used as a co-monomer in solvent polymers for industrial metal finishing. The other minor uses of octanol are in pesticides, surface active in the manufacture of octanoic acid, which is used, in the form of its metal salts, in the manufacture of odourless paint driers. GLOBAL SCENARIO: 2 Ethylhexanol is produced industrially by the aldol condensation of n butyraldehyde, followed by hydrogenation of the resulting hydroxyaldehyde. About 2,500,000 tons are prepared in this way annually. The n butyraldehyde is made by hydroformylation of propylene, either in a self contained plant or as the first step in a fully integrated facility. Most facilities make n butanol and isobutanol in addition to 2 ethylhexanol.The demand for oxo alcohols would go up steadily in India in the coming years. Considering the growth in demand for oxo alcohols, strong case exists for capacity creation. Firm supply source for propylene for the project is important. PVC is the important user industry for phthalate plasticizers. The demand for phthalate plasticizers would largely move in tune with the performance and growth of the PVC industry. Indian demand for octanol is estimated around 60,000 tonnes per annum and estimated growth ratio of octanol is 7%.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: N/ABreak even: N/A
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BLEACHING POWDER

PRODUCT PROFILE Bleaching powder also known as chlorinated lime is a yellowish-white powder easily soluble in water. The chlorine content of bleaching powder varies from 35 - 40%. If temperature of lime kept between 30oC to 40oC bleaching powder with available chlorine up to 40% is obtained. It is not hygroscopic, if kept under 40oC.It is mainly used as a bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. The major use of bleaching powder is in paper industry, textile industry and oil industry. It is also used in all chemical industry where bleaching is required. Stable Bleaching Powder (Calcium Hypochlorite) is a widely used chemical. It decomposes on contact with water, releasing chlorine at the point of application. This makes it a strong oxidizing, bleaching and disinfecting agent. Product characteristics Appearance : White or off - white powder Odour : Pungent Solubility in water : Partially soluble Hygroscopicity : Highly hygroscopic Reactivity : Decomposes by reaction with water and acids to liberate chlorine Flammability : Non flammable Applications of Bleaching powder: Bleaching powder is used as a cleaning agent there are several ways of utilizing this chemical compound in our house hold. It is used for bleaching cotton, wood pulp etc., as a disinfectant, as a germicide for sterilization of drinking water, in the manufacture of chloroform and for making wood unshrinkable. Bleaching powder is commonly used as a disinfectant. The chlorine present in the bleaching powder gets reduced with time. Here are some wonderful uses of bleaching powder: • Bleaching Powder used as a bathroom cleaner • Bleaching Powder to clean old and second hand items • Bleaching powder adds glow to glass dish ware • Bleaching powder as a household disinfectant spray • Bleaching powder to remove moss and algae • Bleaching powder to sanitize garden tools • Bleaching powder to kill weeds in walkways • Bleaching powder to preserve cut flowers fresh • Bleaching powder for plastic furniture • Bleaching powder disinfect garbage pel cans • Sewage effluent treatment • Used in effluent control in wastes containing cyanides. • Epidemic control during public gatherings for mosquito control • As disinfectant in sericulture GLOBAL SCENARIO: The benefit of bleaching powder is that it is a solid which makes it easier to apply as a disinfectant, whereas other bleaching agents such as chlorine and sodium hypochlorite are gaseous and liquid respectively. The demand for bleaching powder is likely to increase in tune with the Indian economic and industrial growth pattern. Considering the case exists create capacity for bleaching power/calcium hypochlorite depending upon the regional demand supply scenario. Firm tie up arrangement for the supply of chlorine on long term basis is necessary. Capacity of bleaching powder concentrate (available chlorine more than 70%) in the world is 270000 tonnes per annum. Capacity of bleaching powder concentrate in China is 60000 tonnes per annum. The main ingredient in bleaching powder concentrate is calcium hypochlorite. Based on different production processes, bleaching powder concentrate also contains calcium chloride or sodium chloride and calcium hydroxide. The effective chlorine content is more than 60%. By contrast, the effective chlorine content in conventional bleaching powder is around 30%.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: N/ABreak even: N/A
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CARBON FIBRE

PRODUCT PROFILE Carbon fiber is the common name used to refer to plastic reinforced by a graphite textile. Less frequently, the term is used to describe the textile itself, but it is pretty much useless unless embedded in plastic. Carbon fiber is known alternatively as carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber composite. Carbon fibers are a new breed of high strength materials. Carbon fiber has been described as a fiber containing at least 90% carbon obtained by the controlled pyrolysis of appropriate fibers. Carbon fiber composites are ideally suited to applications where strength, stiffness, lower weight, and outstanding fatigue characteristics are critical requirements. They also can be used in the occasion where high temperature, chemical inertness and high damping are important. The carbon fibre composites are formed combining carbon fibres with a resin matrix (examples include epoxy. polyester, themoplastic, vinyl ester, phenolic types etc). The carbon fibre is the primary load carrier and the resin matrix supports the fibres and transfers the load between fibres. PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBERS: • High flexibility, • High tensile strength, • Low weight, high resistance, • High temperature tolerance and • Low thermal expansion, These properties make them very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. CARBON FIBRES ARE CLASSIFIED ON THE BASIS OF: • Carbon fiber properties • Precursor fiber materials • Final heat treatment temperature APPLICATIONS OF CARBON FIBERS:- Global demand for high strength, light weight and durable fiber is growing; typical applications in: • Portable power • Rechargeable batteries and fuel cell electrodes • Fiber reinforced plastics, FRP • Energy production; windmill blades • Building and construction materials: concrete and asphalt reinforcements, soil erosion barriers • Electronics, composite materials for automotives & general transportation, • Specialty and niche markets. Carbon fiber is most notably used to reinforce composite materials, particularly the class of materials known as carbon fiber or graphite reinforced polymers. The fiber also finds use in filtration of high temperature gases, as an electrode with high surface area and impeccable corrosion resistance, and as an anti-static component. Molding a thin layer of carbon fibers significantly improves fire resistance of polymers or thermoset composites because a dense, compact layer of carbon fibers efficiently reflects heat. The two main applications of carbon fibers are in specialized technology, which includes aerospace and nuclear engineering, and in general engineering and transportation, which includes engineering components such as bearings, gears, cams, fan blades and automobile bodies. GLOBAL SCENARIO: The global demand on carbon fiber composites was valued at roughly US$10.8 billion in 2009, which declined 8 to 10% from the previous year. It is expected to reach US$13.2 billion by 2012 and to increase to US$18.6 billion by 2015 with an annual growth rate of 7% or more. Strongest demands come from aircraft & aerospace, wind energy as well as automotive industry. Around90 percent of all commercial carbon fibers are produced by the thermal conversion of PAN precursor fibers. Commercially available PAN fibers are used as precursors to produce carbon fibers in large tow counts, having up to 24k filaments. Indian Import is around 3 metric tons. Consumption by other manufacturing industries is growing even faster, by about 15% per year.
Plant capacity: -Plant & machinery: -
Working capital: -T.C.I: -
Return: N/ABreak even: N/A
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Information
  • One Lac / Lakh / Lakhs is equivalent to one hundred thousand (100,000)
  • One Crore is equivalent to ten million (10,000,000)
  • T.C.I is Total Capital Investment
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  • Caution: The project's cost, capacity and return are subject to change without any notice. Future projects may have different values of project cost, capacity or return.

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NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. Its various services are: Pre-feasibility study, New Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Preparation of Project Profiles and Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Studies, Market Surveys and Studies, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Reports, Identification and Selection of Plant and Machinery, Manufacturing Process and or Equipment required, General Guidance, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial projects and industry.

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