Livestock farming is raising animals for food or to sell and is very well planned. Livestock animals play an important role in rural economic development. Some of these animals include cattle or dairy cows, chickens, goats, pigs, sheep, etc. India is the second largest market worldwide and aquaculture contributes 1.5 per cent to the gross domestic product (GDP), Livestock gives us meat, eggs and milk apart from using the skins and hair of some animals for blankets, clothing, and brushes. Manure from these animals will be used to make plants grow better. Poultry farming is raising chickens for meat or eggs and India is the fourth largest market worldwide in poultry. Dairy farms are farms where cows are raised to make milk and milk products like cheese, ice cream, butter and whipping cream. Today, poultry raising and dairy farming are big business. India has a high potential in the sheep industry and also a very diverse genetic resources through which, if scientifically bred the production in sheep industry can be enhanced. India is endowed with livestock resources of vast genetic diversity and accounts for about 11 percent of the world livestock population. The country boasts of 55 per cent of the world buffalo population, 20 per cent of the goat population and 16 per cent of the cattle population in the world. India has the second rank with respect to goat and sheep world population. Indian exports of live animals like sheep and goat over the years continued to dominate with a registered growth of 9.98 per cent over the last three years. The government is making concerted efforts to tap the vast export potential of the country huge livestock population.
The content of the book includes information about farming. The major contents of this book are project profiles of projects like Livestock Farming, Angora Rabbit Farming, Rabbit Feed, Yarn from Wool, Manufacturing of Shawls, Sweaters, Caps, Mufflers with Dyeing & Bleaching, Beekeeping, Honey Processing and Packaging, Dairy Farming and Milk Products, Egg Powder, EMU Birds, Gelatin from Bones, Integrated Sericulture, Milk Processing Plant, Pig Farming, Piggery/Meat/Chicken Processing, Poultry Farming, Goat and Sheep Farming, Shrimp Farming.
Project profile contains information like introduction, properties, uses and applications, method, process flow diagram, process, plant economics, land and building, plant and machinery, fixed capital, working capital requirement/month, total working capital/month, cost of project, total capital investment, turn over/annum, rate of return, breakeven point (B.E.P).
This book is very useful for new entrepreneurs, technical institutions, existing units and technocrats.
(FARMING, BREEDING & MEAT
EMU (Dromaius novaehollandiae)
ostrich (Struthio camelus) birds belong to ratite group have high
value for their meat, eggs, oil, skin and feathers. These birds are
to varied climatic conditions. Although emu and ostrich were introduced
farming has gained much importance. Emu and ostrich features,
these birds during chick, growing, fattening, breeding and non-breeding
were covered. Care and hatching of eggs, nutrient requirements,
products of emu and ostrich were also covered. Economics of emu rearing
reference to the cost of maintaining breeders cost of production of
chick are covered.
Ratite birds have poorly
wings and include emu, ostrich, rhea, cassowary and kiwi. Emu (Dromaius
novaehollandiae) and ostrich (Struthio camelus) are reared commercially
parts of the world for their meat, oil, skin and feathers, which are of
economic value. The anatomical and physiological features of these
to be suitable for temperate and tropical climatic conditions. These
be well maintained on extensive (ranches) and semi intensive rearing
with reasonably high fibrous diets. United State,
are leading in emu and of America
farming. Emu and ostrich were introduced recently into India.
to ostrich, emu rearing is picking up. At present there are more than
emus and only small numbers of ostrich are available in India.
80% are in Andhra Pradesh. Emu birds are well adapted to Indian
Emu has long neck, relatively
small naked head, three
toes and body covered with feathers. Birds initially have longitudinal
on body (0-3 month’s age) then gradually turn to brown by 4-12 months
Mature birds have bare blue neck and mottled body feathers. Adult bird
is about 6 feet with a weight of 45-60 kg. There are no definite emu
are captive bred. Legs are long covered with scaly skin adoptable to
dry soil. Birds sit on their haunch and also walk frequently along the
Natural food of emu is on insects, tender leaves of plant and forages
different grasses, eats different kinds of vegetables and fruits like
cucumber, papaya etc. Air sac hangs down loosely in females and is
during breeding season gives booming sound where as males do grunting
Often sex of the bird can be identified by these sounds during breeding
Female is the larger of the two especially during breeding season when
may fast. The female is the dominant member of the pair. The male emu
the nest. Emus live for about 30 years may produce eggs for more than
Birds can be maintained as flock or pair. The birds require fencing
link chain of 2 x 4 inches with a height of 6 feet for adults. Sexes
identified by tattooing on the skin of shank or by placing microchip
Adult ostrich is of 2.4-2.8
height, fleshy thighs, rounded body; long legs with 2 toes weigh about
70-160kg. Thighs and legs are bare, uncovered by feathers. Males have
feathers with white rim on tail and wings. Females are brown or gray.
Commercial varieties are blue neck (largest ostrich), hybrid blue
layer) and red neck (smaller ostrich). Ostrich has long large intestine
long colon and developed caecum for digesting crude fiber. It has no
bladder. Ostrich is reared for meat purpose. Rearing ostrich requires
facilities, greens or quality hay for better economic returns.
Emu chicks weigh about 370 to 450
(about 67% of egg weight) depending on the size of egg. First 48-72
chicks are restricted to incubator for quick absorption of the yolk and
drying. Like chicken Emu needs brooding during their early life. Clean
disinfect brooding shed thoroughly well in advance of receiving chicks,
litter (paddy husk) cover new gunny bags or burlap over the litter.
set of brooder for about 25-40 chicks giving 4 sq. ft. per chick for
weeks. Provide brooding temperature of 90°F at first 10 days and 85°F
weeks. Proper temperature makes the brood successful. Provide
mugs of a liter capacity and equal number of feeder troughs under the
A chick guard must be 2.5 feet height to avoid jumping and straying of
Provide 24 hours of one foot candle light i.e. 40 watt bulb for every
area. Offer small pieces of carrot to the emu chicks since the birds
catch and also are attracted. After 3 weeks of age, slowly extend the
area by widening the chick guard circle and later remove it by the time
attain 6 weeks. Feed starter mash for the first 14 weeks or till
standard body weight of 10 kg. Ensure proper floor space for the birds
as these birds require run space for their healthy life. 30 ft run
required; hence floor space of 40ft x 30ft is required for about 40
outdoor space is provided. Floor must be easily drained and free from
Periodical body weights on 10% of birds will give a scope for
EMU facilities differ from emu in
the chicks can be exposed to ranging outside during day time as early
weeks age to adapt to fiber digestion. At 4 months of age chicks are
hardy can be ranged outside with less danger of intestinal obstruction
Up to 3 months age bird require floor space about 0.3-1.5 and 5-10
meters as shelter and run.
Never make over crowd in the pen,
few days provide sanitized water and anti-stress agents
the waters daily, otherwise automatic waters are preferable
the birds daily for their comfort, feed intake, water
intake, litter condition etc for making immediate corrections if any.
proper mineral and vitamins in the feed for healthy growth
of chicks and to avoid leg deformities.
condition of legs that are seen commonly can be managed
by holding the legs together during the first 72 hours of chicks. This
done particularly in the incubator
all- in -all -out rearing to maintain better biosecurity
Not to be
handle the birds during hot hours. Birds easily excite,
hence calm and quite environment in the pen is required
easily grab any item, so avoid certain objects like nails,
pebbles etc in the vicinity of birds
unauthorized persons, material into the farm. Proper biosecurity must
keep the birds on smooth and paddy husk spread surface as
the young chicks easily excite, run and break their legs due to
As Emu chicks grow, they require
bigger size of waters and feeders and increased floor space. Identify
rear them separately. If necessary, place sufficient paddy husk in the
manage the litter in good and dry condition. Feed the birds on grower
birds attain 34 weeks age or 25 kg body weight. Greens about 10% of
particularly different kinds of leaf meals for making the birds eat
fibrous diets. Provide clean water all the time and offer feed as much
want. Ensure dry litter condition throughout the grower stage. Add
quantity of paddy husk to the pen. Provide 40ft x 100 ft space for 40
outdoor space is considered. Floor must be easily drained and avoid
Restrain the younger birds by securing the body by side ways and hold
the body firmly.
Sub adults and adults can be secured by holding the wing by side way
the bird by grabbing both the wings and place by dragging closely to a
legs. Never allow bird to kick. Bird can kick sideways and front ways.
better securing and firm holding is necessary to avoid harming the bird
flock at least once daily for alertness of birds, feeding
and watering troughs.
leg deformities, droppings. Identify and isolate ailing birds
all- in –all- out system. Never keep in the vicinity of
the adult birds.
Not to be
keep the sharp objects, pebbles in the vicinity of the
birds. Birds are mischievous and grab anything that comes in their
handle or disturb the birds for restraining or vaccination
during the hot weather conditions.
cool and clean water throughout the day.
Growing emu need to be fattened
improve body weight (40kg) and FCR (5:1) at the time of marketing for
purpose. Offer finisher ration from 35 weeks age to slaughter or up to
months age. Bird yield 53% dressed meat and 3-4 liters of fat.
vegetable fat at 3-5% in Emu diet will fetch better FCR and net returns
the birds at this age utilizes fat in an efficient way compared to the
of young age of less than 15 weeks. The sub-adults kept for breeding
need to be fed on maintenance feed specifically made for this purpose
from 35th week
age to sexual maturity by 18-24 months.
Offer fresh required feed balance
respect of all the dietary nutrients for Emu birds.
Ensure proper floor space 100
per bird in terms of shelter and run.
Fencing must be at a height of 6
made of link mesh 2 x 4 inches to avoid jumping out of the pen
House separately male and female
to avoid fighting
Not to be
not store feed for more than a month. Such feed is vulnerable
to damage the nutrients. Further avoid toxins in feed.
not mix the fresh bird stock with the existing one
change feed abruptly
Emu birds attain sexual maturity
by 18-24 months age.
Choose flock or pen mating. Keep sex ratio of male to female 1:1. In
pen mating pairing should be done based on the compatibility. During
offer floor space about 2500 sq.ft. (100x25) per pair. Trees and shrubs
provided for privacy and to induce mating. Offer breeder diet well in
i.e. 3- 4 weeks prior to breeding programme, and fortify with minerals
vitamins to ensure better fertility and hatchability in birds. Semen
and artificial insemination was successful in emu so that the cost of
maintenance could be minimized. Its implementation needs skill. Soon
season, separate the sexes and house them in flock and feed on
ration. Normally adult bird consumes 1 kg feed/day but during breeding
feed intake will be drastically reduced hence intake of nutrients must
First egg is laid around two and
half year age. Eggs
will be laid during October to February particularly cooler days of the
The time of egg laying is around 5.30 PM to 7.00 PM. Eggs can be
twice daily to avoid damage in the pen. Normally a hen lays about 15
during first year cycle in subsequent years the egg production
it can reach about 30-40 eggs. On an average a hen lays 25 eggs per
weighs about 475-650 g with an average egg weight of 560 g in a year.
appears greenish look like tough marble. The intensity of colour varies
light, medium to dark green. The surface varies from rough to smooth.
of eggs (42%) are medium green with rough surface.
Feed the breeder ration with
sufficient calcium (2.7%)
for ensuring proper calcification of egg with strength. Feeding excess
to the breeding bird before laying will upset the egg production and
impairs the male fertility. Provide extra calcium in the form of grit
calcite powder by placing in a separate trough.
Collect eggs frequently from the
pen. If eggs are
soiled, clean with sand paper and mop up with cotton. Store the eggs in
cooler room providing 60°F. Never store eggs for more than 10 days to
better hatchability. Eggs stored at room temperature can be set every 3
days for good hatchability.
There are few reports available
on incubation and
hatching of emu and ostrich eggs. Set the fertile eggs after adjusting
temperature and place in a horizontal or in slant arranged row-wise in
Keep ready egg incubator by cleaning and disinfecting thoroughly well
advance and switch on the machine for setting the correct incubating
temperature i.e dry bulb temperature about 96-97°F and wet bulb
78-80°F (about 30-40% RH). Place carefully the egg tray in a setter
incubator is ready with set temperature and relative humidity and place
identification slip for date of set and pedigree are required. Fumigate
incubator with 20g potassium permanganate + 40 ml formaline for every
of incubator space. Turn the eggs every one hour till the 48 th day of
incubation. From 49th day
stop turning the eggs and watch for pipping. By 52 nd day the
ends. The chicks need drying. Hold the chicks for at least 24 to 72
the hatcher compartment for reducing the down and to become healthy
Normally hatchability will be 70% or more. There are many reasons for
hatchability. Proper breeder nutrition ensures the healthy chicks.
Ostrich eggs are to be set broad
end up. Incubation
period is 39-44 days average 42 days. Incubation temperature is
bulb) with relative humidity of 20-30% (67-73°F wet bulb) and increase
relative humidity to 30-40% after the hatch for better drying.
Emu need balanced diet for their
proper growth and
reproduction. So far the nutrient requirements of these birds were not
out. Feed can be prepared by using common poultry feed ingredients.
accounts for 60-70% of the production cost, hence least cost rations
improve the margin of returns over feeding. In commercial farms, feed
per emu breeding pair per annum varied from 394-632 kg with a mean of
Cost of feed is Rs.6.50 and 7.50 during non-breeding and breeding
Ratite birds are generally sturdy
and live long (80%
livability). Mortality and health problems in emu and ostrich are
chicks and juveniles. These include starvation, malnutrition,
obstruction, leg abnormalities, coli infections and clostridial
main causes were improper brooding or nutrition, stress, improper
genetic disorders. Other diseases reported were rhinitis, candidiasis,
aspergillosis, coccidiosis, lice and ascarid infestations. Ivermectin
given to prevent external and internal worms at 1 month interval
beginning at 1
so far few outbreaks of Ranikhet disease were recorded based on gross
but were not confirmed. However, the birds vaccinated for R.D at the
age of 1
(lasota), 4 (lasota booster) weeks; 8, 15 and 40 weeks by Mukteswar
Meat from emu and ostrich are of
high quality in terms
of low fat, low cholesterol, gamey flavour. Valued cuts are from thigh
larger muscle of drum or lower leg. Emu skin is fine and strong. Leg
skin is of
distinctive pattern hence highly valued. Emu fat is rendered to produce
which has dietary, therapeutic (anti inflammatory) and cosmetic value.
10-14 week age or up to 10 kg
body weight, 215-34 wk
age or10-25 kg body weight, 335 wk age to slaughter or 25 to 40 kg body
44-5 wk before breeding, 5 non-breeding.
Emu can be successfully raised in
small pens or large
pastures – or a combination of the two. Most emu ranches are between 5
Breeder Pens - 30’x100’ is adequate.
The pens can be laid out
in rows or wagon wheel shaped; it’s a matter of
on the part of the farmer. Having breeder pens is necessary. For
with genetics, fertility rates or selling live stock. This size pen is
enough to run either a pair or a trio.
Colony pens - stocked with between
5 to 10 pairs of emu per
acre. No way to keep up with genetics, laying or fertility records.
is a more natural environment for the birds and some farmers run colony
during the summer, moving the breeders back into smaller pens when
Grow out pens - chicks 2 or 3 months
and up of a similar size
are kept anywhere from 20 to 50 birds per acre until they are ready to
transport to a processing facility.
Chick runs - chicks from the
brooder to 2 or 3 months of
age are usually kept in smaller pens with shelter. Keep in
pens during the coldest of winters. The outside runs are 80’ long.
Site selection: Good drainage is essential for
control of bacteria and
Sloping land is not a problem for
Leave as much natural vegetation
possible for shade.
Fencing can be chain link, hog
2-inch by 4-inch non-climb wire, game fencing or even cattle panels
on the outside. Many EMU ranchers use 5’, & prefer a 6’ fence.
chest high on a 6’ fence. Healthy EMUs can and will get out of a 4’
Do not use barbed wire fence,
few strands to “finish off” the height! EMU tend to rub against the
this will tear up their hides, hurt them and decrease the value of the
in slaughter birds.
The fence should not have any
where the bird could stick its head or foot through to get caught.
be fenced in using chicken wire.
There are many options for you to
consider when choosing shelter for your birds. Chicks under 3 months of
more protection from the elements than older birds. Given the choice,
they hit the 3-month mark, most emus
would prefer to sleep outside under a tree, next to a hay bale or along
fence than “inside” even a 2-sided structure unless the weather is very
Use pole barns and put out straw
in the winter for wind blocks. In the spring these are used as mulch.
bales are used in the grow-out pens as wind blocks. Some use plastic
“huts”/igloo type shelters, lean-tos, pole barns, or tunnel type
Chicks under 3 months need more
during winter months. We use a chick barn with 5’x10’ pens leading out
runs. During the day, if the weather is not too cold, the chicks have
the outside, close them up inside at night. Do not put more than 10
chicks in a
pen. People have learned the hard way that if we do, one dies. They
together under the heat lamps and one will inevitably smother.
100 % Emu Oil
Emu oil is 100% pure and refined in
a edible oil
refinery, carrying the AEA Fully Refined Emu
Oil meeting or exceeding International trade rules for fully refined
Ultra Emu Oil
has been proven to increase the anti-inflammatory activity by
Emu oil processed through a patent
pending process which
removes anti-inflammatory inhibitors has shown to reduce swelling more
effectively than unprocessed emu oil. This finding has moved Ultra Emu Oil into
a new category for
cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications.
It is hypoallergenic, non pore
contains anti-inflammatory properties to reduce inflammation and
joints; pain of minor cuts, bites and scratches; a natural moisturizer
skin, and is able to penetrate several layers of the skin, thus
overall health of your pet. Emu
oil contains several essential fatty acids including Omega 3 and Omega
essential fatty acids are vital to a healthy diet. Most pet food on the
today has filler products that do not contain these essential fatty
if anything they can produce skin allergies.
The Purple Rub, a FDA approved
formulation, for the use on arthritis, sore joints and muscles.
Purple Rub is an amazing new pain
relief cream excellent for sore muscles, achy joints, sprains and
day-to-day discomforts from sports, chores and all activities. Purple
an enjoyable cooling sensation when applied to the skin with a
scent of menthol.
Purple Rub contains no chemical
It is an all-natural formulation that also contains no polymers that
the skin’s pores. The fact that Purple Rub contains 30% emu oil
gives it a high transdermal efficiency factor for
carrying active ingredients deep into the third layer of the derma.
Rub’s ability to travel deep into the skin provides you with maximum
benefits and relief from aches and pains.
Because Purple Rub is an
product it has no adverse side effects and does not cause the skin
associated with other rubs due to their chemical ingredients, polymers
thickeners. Most topical creams available today do contain chemical
block your pores inhibiting the active ingredients from performing at
efficiency, thus decreasing healing activity. Many topical pain relief
today contain Glucosamine and Chondroitin. Although these ingredients
excellent for joint and connective tissue health when taken orally, due
their large molecular structure they cannot be absorbed through the
become useless in topical applications. Glucosamine, Chondroitin and
most beneficial to the body when taken orally rather than applied to
Products to correct skin
redness AR Crème is made with all natural ingredients and considered an
the Counter” product for treating ACNE by the FDA.
AR Crème will clear your skin and
keep it clear of new acne blemishes with daily maintenance. You need
small amount to do the job. Some people will need to use the cream only
week to maintain their skin after the first week of treatment. The
vary from one skin type to another. We have found that some people
clearing in about a week, others may take longer.
Another interesting fact about AR
is how it is made. Unlike commercial skin preparations AR Crème is made
in very small batches. The scientists who formulated this product
for us hold several patents on skin care formulas that are used
Active Ingredient: 9% Sulfur-
Acne Medication due
to FDA regulations for OTC products, the above inactive ingredients are
in alphabetical order, not by volume priority.
Essential Fatty Acids for optimum
health. Has shown in research to lower cholesterol in lab tests.
This all-natural dietary
an excellent source of Omega 3 and Omega 6 essential fatty acids that
required for maintaining optimum health. The body requires these two
fats, but has difficulty acquiring necessary levels through normal
Scientific studies have shown that saturated fat tends to increase
levels in most people. Essential fatty acids can help balance excess
of these saturated fats.. Emu-Gel Caps, taken daily as a dietary
can provide you with these essential fatty acids.
Whole eggs that have been
cleaned and sanitized. Perfect for craft ideas or display definitely
Engraved Emu Egg Art
The Engraved Emu Eggs,
Filigree Stype Emu
Egg nitelights, Decorated Emu Eggs
- excellent gifts for those who appreciate fine gifts. The work is done
high speed engraver, thus each egg done, while it may be of the same
will be different to each buyer. Prices are a guide as most of these
and are shown only to represent the amount of time in preparation of
and the time and talent of the engraving.
USDA inspected emu meat
that is a great tasting, low fat, low cholesterol
red meat similar in taste to beef. A few slices in the skillet, flipped
grill, or served with cheese and crackers on a party tray, these summer
sausages are great - no fat added. Excellent for snacks, campouts,
Facial care products to
protect the face. There is nothing on the market today that can rival
unique, all-natural moisturizer. With just one jar of this indulgent
formulation you will notice an amazing contrast in your skin‘s tone and
texture. Super-Rich Moisturizer will not clog your pores, it stimulates
cell growth, exfoliates dead cells, and protects against free radicals.
fusion of perfectly balanced herbal extracts, plant oils, natural
and an emu oil
base allows for
the rejuvenation of damaged skin. When Super-Rich Moisturizer was used
daily volunteers described their skin as “smoothed out”, “more
“awake”, and “younger looking”. It‘s never too soon or too late to
battle against aging and wrinkles.
Emu meat is pulpy and has 98 % fatty
acid with low
cholesterol. It contain creating & phosphocreatin and useful
for eating. Emu meat
is dark red in colors and has
5.5 pH values. The taste of Emu
is delicious as its thigh muscles is an excellent alternative of beef
tastes texture. Emu
meat has high
protein content & less calories & sodium. It contains
more vitamin C as
compare to other meat but it has 4 times less calories as compare to
fat beef accepts most seasoning meat respond well to sweet marinades
honey, soya sauce, ginger, lemon juice & garlic.
Following are the constituents of
We are engaged in offering soft
beautiful doubled quelled Emu
that find application in fashion, art & craft industries. These
are largely used for making pads, dusters, masks and car cleaning
Moreover, these are also used for designing dresses, hats, and
Feathers is exclusively used for making variety of
decorative items like
hats, dresses, car cleaning brush and household decorative items. Near
400 gm to 600 gm feathers can be procured from an Emu bird.
These soft and beautiful double quelled feathers
are widely preferred in fashion, art & craft industries.
Products with emu oil for your
thus controlling dry flaky skin conditions. A special cleansing formula
containing emu oil that softens adds body and will leave your hair
Gentle cleansing action and pleasing aroma apply to wet hair and
Skin Care Products moisturizes
and softens the skin,
lightly scented and deep penetrating for dry and chapped skin. Great
working hands. A small amount covers a large area. Does not wear right
wash right out. Made with deep-penetrating pure all natural emu oil,
naturally moisturizes and softens the skin.. Has a pleasing light scent.
Rated Plant capacity
No. of working days
No. of shifts
3 per day
DAY IN YEAR
& MEAT PRODUCTION
& BUILDING Cost
3. Meat Processing
4. Oil Processing
6. Other Misc.
Equipment like fencing, etc.
& Sanitation Materials
Material 500 ml pp barrel
gum, tape & consumables
TOTAL WORKING CAPITAL/MONTH
COST OF PROJECT
TOTAL CAPITAL INVESTMENT
WORKING CAPITAL FOR 3 MONTHS
Rs. 670 Lakh
EVEN POINT (B.E.P)