Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products


Preservation of Meat and Poultry Products

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 817833030X
Code: NI158
Pages: 544
Price: Rs. 1,100.00   US$ 125.00

Published: 2005
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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Food preservation is a method of maintaining foods at a desired level of properties or nature for their maximum benefits. Preservation usually involves preventing the growth of bacteria, yeasts, fungi, and other micro-organisms (although some methods work by introducing bacteria, or fungi to the food), as well as retarding the oxidation of fats which cause rancidity. There are various methods of preservation chilling, freezing, curing, smoking, dehydration, canning, radiation preservation etc. Chilling is most widely used method for preservation for short term storage of meat because chilling or refrigeration slows down the microbial growth and enzymatic as well as chemical reactions. Freezing is the method of choice for the long term preservation of meat. It has advantage of retaining most of the nutritive value of meat during storage. Meat smoking was known to man as an aid in preservation for a long time. Smoke contains a large number of wood degradation products such as aldehydes, ketones, organic acids, and phenols etc. which exert bacteriostatic affect besides imparting characteristic smoky flavour. Canning is a process of preservation achieved by thermal sterilization of product held in hermetically sealed containers. Canning preserves the sensory attributes such as appearance, flavour and texture of the meat products to a large extent. Freeze drying of meat is a satisfactory process of dehydration preservation due to better reconstitution properties, nutritive quality and acceptability. It involves the removal of water from the frozen state to vapour state by keeping it under vacuum and giving a low heat treatment. Maintaining or creating nutritional value, texture and flavour is an important aspect of food preservation, although, historically, some methods drastically altered the character of the food being preserved. Meat and poultry products are chilled immediately after slaughter to acceptable internal temperatures which insure the prompt removal of the animal heat and preserve the wholesomeness of the products. As such, due to the recent up gradation of preservation techniques, the preservation industry is also growing almost at the same rate as the food industry which is about 10 to 12% per year.
Some of the major aspects of the book are principles of various preservation techniques, standards and quality control measures for meat, meat food products order, eating quality and sensory evaluation of meat, preservation of poultry meat, utilisation of poultry industry by products, mixed poultry by products meal, structure, composition and nutritive value of eggs, luncheon meats, meat loaves, and meat spreads, barbecue style pork loaf using non fat dry milk, canned corned beef products, salisbury steak with textured vegetable protein, general instruction to be observed for processing canned items under sterm or under the combination of stream and water pressure, spaghetti and meat balls in tomato sauce with cheese, etc.
Different preservation techniques are being developed to satisfy current demands of economic preservation and consumer satisfaction in nutritional and sensory aspects, convenience, absence of preservatives, low demand of energy and environmental safety. The present book contains various processes of meat and poultry preservation. All the entrepreneurs, technocrats, persons evolved in meat and poultry processing will be benefited from this book.

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1. Principles of Various Preservation Techniques
Chilling/Refrigeration
Freezing
Curing
Sodium nitrates and nitrite
Smoking
Thermal Processing
Canning
Dehydration
Irradiation
2. Standards and Quality Control Measures for Meat
and Meat Products
Total Viable Counts
Coliforms
Enterococci
Other Indicators
Standards in Meat Industry
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) System
ISO 9000 Standards
3. Meat Food Products Order (MFPO)
Powers of MFPO Officers
Categories
Schedules
4. Eating Quality and Sensory Evaluation of Meat
Food Products
Flavour
Texture and Tenderness
Appearance and Colour
Juiciness
Sensory Evaluation
Specialised Panel
Consumer Panel
5. Preservation of Poultry Meat
Chilling
Freezing
Curing
Smoking
Dehydration
Canning
Radiation Preservation
6. Utilisation of Poultry Industry By products
Feathers
Blood
Offal
Mixed Poultry By products Meal
Hatchery Waste
Poultry Manure
7. Structure, Composition and Nutritive Value of Eggs
Structure
Chemical Composition
Nutritive Value
8. Microbial Spoilage of Eggs
Penetration of Microorganisms through the Egg Shell and Shell Membranes
Colonisation of Microorganisms on the Shell Membrane
Overpowering the Antibacterial Factors Present in the Albumen
9. Preservation and Maintenance of Eggs
Egg Cleaning
Oil Treatment
Cold Storage
Thermostabilisation
Immersion in Liquids
10. Luncheon Meats, Meat Loaves, and Meat Spreads
New FDA Ban on Premixed Commercial Seasoning Containing Sodium Nitrite
General Instruction for Processing Canned Items Under Steam or Under the Combination of Steam and Water Pressure
Exceptions to the Above Rules
Canned Luncheon Meats
Finest Quality Spiced Pork Luncheon Meat
Commercial Quality Spiced Pork Luncheon Meat in 3 and 6 LB Cans
Chopped Ham in 12 OZ Oblong Cans
Finest Quality Pork or Pork Beef Luncheon Meat
Procedure for All Pork Product
Grinding Chopping Method No. 2
Procedure for Pork Beef Product
Spiced Beef Luncheon Meat Oblong Cans
(Commercially in 12 OZ Sterile)
New England Pressed Ham in 3 or 6 LB Oblong Cans
(Perishable)
New England Pressed Ham using Nonfat Dry Milk
Commercial Grade Minced Ham in 3 or 6 LB Oblong Cans (Perishable)
Minced Ham using Nonfat Dry Milk
Cured Beef Tongues in Glass Jars
Preparation of Beef Tongues
Cure
Cook
Skin and Trim
Fill Jars
Pickled Pig s Feet or Pork Hocks in Vineger
Filling
Meat Loaves
Use of Gelatin and Nonfat Dry Milk in Meat Loaves
Pickle and Pimiento Loaf
Plackle and Pimiento Loaf Using Nonfat Dry Milk
Baked Veal Loaf
Veal, Pork, and Liver Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Canned Veal Loaf in 12 OZ Oblong Cans (Commercially Sterile)
Pack and Process
Luxury Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Utility Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Meat and Cheese Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Macaroni, Meat, and Cheese Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Baked Pepper Loaf
Baked Dutch Loaf
Dutch Loaf Using Nonfat Dry Milk
Liver Loaf (Perishable)
Preparation of Product
Packing and Processing
Liver Loaf
Liver Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Coating for Meat Loaves
Deluxe Liver Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Headcheese (Brawn)
Head Cheese using Nonfat Dry Milk
Headcheese Spices
Souse or Aspic Loaf
How to Prepare Gelatin
Stuffing
Headcheese (Brawn) in 12 OZ Cans (Commercially Sterile)
Imitation Chicken Loaf in 12 Oz, or 3 Or 6 LB Oblong Cans
Chilling 12 Oz Cans
Chilling 3 and 6 Lb Cans
Imitation Chicken Loaf in Hoy Molds or 4 * 4 * 24 Inch Oblong Molds
Imitation Chicken in Aspic in 3 or 6 LB Oblong Cans
Jellied Imitation Chicken Loaf
Roast Beef Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Jellied Roast Beef Loaf
Jellied Corned Beef Loaf
To Cook and Cure the Beef
Corned Beef Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Jellied Barbecued Beef Loaf
Barbecue Style Pork Loaf using Nonfat Dry Milk
Canned Spreads
Selection and Curing of Hams
Cook Hams
Grind and Mix
Reheat and Fill Cans
Deviled Ham Spread (Commercial Grade)
Preparation of Meat
Grind and Mix
Reheat and Fill Cans
Ham and Tongue Spread
Cure and Cook Tongues
Grind and Chop
Reheat and Fill Cans
Canned Potted Meat (Buffet Spread)
Prepare Meats and By products
Grind and Chop
Reheat and Fill Cans
Canned Liver Spread
Prepare Meat and By products
Grind and Chop
Reheat and Fill Cans
Canned Mock Chicken Spread
Prepare Meat and By products
Grind and Chop
Reheat and Fill Cans
Mettwurst Sausage Spread
Procedure
Fast Curing Method
Teewurst Sausage Spread
Teewurst Sausage Spread (Fast Method)
Canned Corned Beef Products
Canned Corned Beef
Canned Corned Beef Hash
Corned Beef Hash using Braised Meat
Corned Beef Hash using South American Canned Corned Beef
Deviled Corned Beef (Hot Pack)
Creamed Corned Beef (Hot Pack)
11. Meat Dishes, Meat Loaves, and Meat Patties using Plant Protein Extenders
Advantages of Plant Proteins as Extenders in Meat Products
Using Textured Vegetable Protein with Ground Meats
Advantages
Meat Dishes
Salisbur Steak with Textured Vegetable Protein
Salisbury Steak Prepared with Peanut Grits Texturized Protein
Salisbury Steak with Textured Vegetable Protein
Swedish Meat Balls with Textured Vegetable Protein
Ground Beef and Spaghetti with Textured Soy Protein
Italian Style Meat Sauce with Textured Vegetable Protein
Sauce Formulation
Spaghetti with Meat Sauce with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Balls with Textured Vegetable Protein
Italian Style Meat Balls with Textured Vegetable Protein
Barbecued Beef with Spun Textured Vegetable Protein or Textured Soy Protein
Pizza with Textured Vegetable Protein
Chili with Textured vegetable Protein
Chili with Beans Extended with Textured Vegetable Protein
Chili Con Carne with Beans and Textured Soy Protein or Spun Textured Vegetable Protein
Chili Con Carne with Textured Vegetable Protein
Chili without Beans with Textured Vegetable Protein
Sauce Formulation
Sloppy Joe with Textured Vegetable Protein
Canned Sloppy Joe (Barbecue Sauce with Beef) with Hydrolyzed Plant Protein
Sloppy Joe with Textured Vegetable Protein
Sauce Formulation
Sloppy Joe with Textured Vegetable Protein
Not So Sloppy Joe with Textured Vegetable Protein
Sloppy Joe Extended with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Loaves
Meat Loaf or Meat Loaf Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Loaf Prepared with Peanut Grits Texturized Protein
Emulsion Type Meat Loaf with Soy Protein Concentrate
Pickle Pimiento Loaf with Textured Soy Protein
Spiced Luncheon Loaf with Protein Concentrate
Sausage Flavored Pork Loaf Prepared with Peanut Grits Texturized Protein
Meat Loaf with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Loaf with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Loaf with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Loaf with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Loaf with Textured Soy Protein or Spun Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Patties
Beef Patties with Spun Textured Vegetable Protein or Textured Soy Protein
Beef Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
Breakfast Patties with Textured vegetable protein
Beef Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
Frozen Beef Patty Grill with Textured Vegetable Protein
Beef Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
Economy High Fat Beef Patties with Peanut Grits Texturized Protein
Hamburgers Extended with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
Beef Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
Meat Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
12. Miscellaneous Canned Meat Products
General Instruction to be Observed for Processing Canned Items under Sterm or under the Combination of Stream and Water Pressure
General Instructions
Retort Procedure During Cooking and Chilling Operations
Brown Gravy (Retort Type)
Suggested Uses
Brown Gravy with Sliced Beef (Semicold Pack)
Prepare Beef Slices
Prepare Gravy
Bee and Gravy (Cold Pack) (70% Beef, 30% Gravy)
Beef and Gravy (Cold Pack)
Sliced Beef in Gravy (for 100 Gallon Batch)
Swiss Steak in Gravy
Prepare Meat
Prepare Gravy
Fill and Close
Beef Stew Canned with Precooked Gravy or Cold Gravy
Precooked Gravv Procedure
Cold Gravy Procedure
Suggested Process for Either Type of Gravy
Beef Stew with Dehydrated Potatoes
Southern Style Brunswick Stew (Hot Pack)
Suggested Process
Beef Stroganoff (Hotpack)
Prepare Meat
Prepare Gravy
Pack
Georgia Hash (Hot Pack)
Georgia Hash (Cold Pack)
Process
Hungarian Style Beef and Vegetable Dinner (Cold Pack)
For Park and Vegetable Dinner
Hungarian Style Goulash (Hot Pack)
Prepare Meat
Prepare Gravy
Fill and Close
Hungarian Beef Goulash (Cold Pack)
Pork and Rice Creole Dinner
Lima Beans with Ham (Hot Pack)
Prepare Hams
Prepare Lima Beans
Make Gravy
Fill and Close
Creamed Chipped Beef
Creamed Chipped Beef (Hot Pack)
Stuffed Green Peppers in Tomato Sauce
Prepare Filling
Prepare Sauce
Assemble, Fill Cans, and Close
Chop Suey with Vegetable and Beef or Pork
Smoked Ham with Raisin Sauce
Canned Ham Saled Spread
To Prepare Meat
To Prepare Dressing
Combine, Fill, and Process
Meat Balls in Tomato Sauce (Institutional Pack in no. 10 Tins)
Prepare Meat Balls
Prepare Sauce
Fill, Close, and Process
Chill
Meat Balls in Brown Gravy (Institutional Pack in no. 10 Tins)
Prepare Meat Balls
Prepare Gravy
Fill, Close, Process, and Chill
Meat Balls in Spaghetti Sauce
Prepare Meat Balls
Prepare Sauce
Fill Cans and Process
Spaghetti and Meat Balls in Tomato Sauce with Cheese
Prepare Meat Balls
Prepare Sauce
Prepare Spaghetti
Assemble and Pack
Spaghetti Meat Sauce (Hot Pack)
Cocktail Meat Balls (Dry Pack)
Prepare Mixture
Fry or Broil
Drain, Pack, and Fill
Chill
Beef and Macaroni in Cheese Sauce (Hot Pack)
Prepare Meat
Prepare Cheese Sauce
Prepare Macaroni
Pack
Beef and Noodle Dinner
Prepare Meat
Prepare Egg Noodles
Prepare Gravy
Pack
Pork and Beans in Tomato Sauce (Hot Pack)
Prepare Pork and Beans
Prepare Sauce
Fill Cans
Ranch Style Beans with Meat Balls
Prepare Beans
Prepare Meat Balls
Prepare Sauce
Pack and Process
Chili with Beans with Textured Soy Flour
Chili Con Carne with or without Beans
Plain Chili Con Carne (Hot Pack)
Chili Con Carne with Beans (Hot Pack)
Chili Con Carne with Beans (Cold Pack)
Chili Mak (Cold Pack)
Hot Dog Chili Sauce with Meat (Hot Pack)
Pizza Filler with Beef (Hot Pack)
Sloppy Joe with Textured Soy Flour
Sloppy Joe (Cold Pack)
Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)
Cook Meat
Make Sauce
Fill
Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Semicold Pack)
Sliced Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)
Prepare Meat
Prepare Sauce
Fill Cans
Sliced Pork in Barbecue Sauce
To Prepare Meat
To Prepare Sauce
To Process
Barbecued Beef in Sauce (Hot Pack)
Barbecue the Beef
Prepare Sauce
Fill Cans and Close
Barbecue Party Dip
Corn Meal Mush with Bacon
Philadelphia Scrapple
Mince Meat Pie Filling
Fill and Process
Rum Flavoring for Mince Meat
Brandy Flavoring for Mince Meat
English Style Pork Kidneys in Lemon Sauce
Canned Rabbit Meat
To Can the Meal
To Can Pieces
Canned Frog Legs
Canned Ham and Eggs
Canned Brains with Gravy
Canned Beef Tripe
Selection of Tripe
Treatment Prior to Canning
Fill Cans
13. Frozen Meat, Meat Dishes, Sauces and Gravies
How Multiplate Freezers Operate
How Precooked Steams are Freeze Dried
Steaks, Stews, Pot Pies, and Miscellaneous Meats
Frozen Swiss Steak
Frozen American Pot Roast
Frozen Sliced Beef in Brown Gravy
Prepare Beef
Prepare Gravy
Package and Freeze
Frozen Chip Steak
Frozen Breaded Veal Cutlets
Frozen Beef Pot Pies
Frozen Beef Pot Pies
Prepare the Gravy
Cook the Beef
Usual Commercial Procedure in Makeup
Frozen Beef Stew
Prepare Beef and Vegetables
Defrost Peas
Prepare Gravy
Package and Freeze
Frozen Beef Stew
Frozen Vegetable and Beef Stew
For Strained Vegetables with Beef
For Chopped Vegetables with Beef
Frozen Lamb Stew
Frozen Barbecued Ribs
Prepare Sauce
Barbecue Ribs
Frozen Sliced Beef in Barbecue Sauce
Prepare Meat
Prepare Sauce
Package
Frozen Creamed Chipped Beef
Frozen Smoked Sausages with Beans in Tomato Sauce
Prepare Sausages
Prepare Sausages
Prepare Sauce
Package and Freeze
Freezing Rabbit Meat
Freezing Frog Legs
Loves Fabricated Steaks, Patties, Meat Balls
Frozen all Purpose Meat Loaf
Procedure
Ham Loaf
Hot Pork Loaf
Liver Loaf
Frozen Salisbury Steak (Best Quality)
Frozen Salisbury Steak (Commercial Grade)
Frozen Comminuted Pepper   Steaks
Frozen Comminuted Mushroom Steaks
Frozen Comminuted Onion Steaks
Frozen Cheeseburgers
Frozen Roast Beef Hash Patties
Package and Freeze
Frozen Corned Beef Hash Patties
Frozen Veal Patties
Frozen Ham Patties
Frozen Breaded Ham Sticks
Frozen Breaded Mock Chicken Legs
Frozen Italian Spaghetti and Meat Balls with Soy Protein Concentrate
Prepare Meat Balls
Prepare Spaghetti and Sauce
Package for Freezing
Frozen Cocktail Meat Balls
Frozen all Purpose Meat Balls
To Serve
Barbecued Meat Balls
Prepare Meat Balls
Prepare Barbecue Sauce
Swedish Meat Balls in Whiote Sauce with Soy Protein Concentrate
Prepare Meal Balls
Prepare Sauce
Combine Meat Balls and Sauce
Swedish Meat Balls
Prepare Meat Balls
Prepare Gravy and Bake
Sauces and Gravies
Frozen Spaghetti Meat Sauce
Prepare Meat
Prepare Sauce
Package and Freeze
Frozen Sloppy Joe
Frozen all Purpose Brown Gravy
Frozen Natural Pan Gravy Extender
Frozen Gravy Concentrate
To Use Product
Beef Gravy for Frozen Meat Pies
Sauce for Frozen Creamed Chipped Beef
American Style Foreign Dishes
Frozen Concentrated Brick Chili Con Carne
To Use Product
Frozen Concentrated Brick Chili Con Carne with Beans
Beef Enchiladas with Soy Protein Concentrate
Prepare Sauce
Prepare Enchiladas and Filling
Package and Freeze
Lasagna with Soy Protein Concentrate
Frozen Beef Stroganoff
Frozen Beef Stroganoff
Frozen Hungarian Beef Gulyas
Frozen Hungarian Style Goulash
Beef Stroganoff (Formula No. 1) with Soy Protein Concentrate
Beef Stroganoff (Formula No. 2) with Minced Soy Protein Concentrate
Cabbage Rolls with Soy Protein Concentrate
Frozen Sauerbraten
Frozen Steak and Kidney Pie
Frozen Kidney Stew
American Style Oriental Dishes
Frozen Vegetable Chop Suey or Chow mein Base
Frozen Beef or Pork Chop Suey
Prepare Meat and Vegetables
Prepare Sauce
Package and Freeze
Frozen Egg Rolls
Frozen Sweet and Sour Pork
Chinese Sweet and Sour Pork with Soy Protein Concentrate
Frozen Sweet and Sour Spareribs
Cook Spareribs
Prepare Sauce
Combine, Package, Freeze
Japanese Sukiyaki with Textured Soy Protien Concentrate
14. Soups, Gravies, and Sauces (Including Mixes)
Making Stocks, Extract, and Mixes
Beef Soup Stock
Beef Stock with Vegetables Added
Chicken Soup Stock
Beef Extract
Manufacture of Dry Soups and Gravy Mixes
General Tips
Small Scale Production
Large Scale Production
Soups
Canned Beef Consomme
Fill
Canned Jellied Beef Consomme
Spanish Bean Soup (Single Strength)
Frozen Gazpacho
Canned Chicken Broth
Chicken Flavored Soup with Textured Vegetable Protein
Canned Chicken Gumbo Soup
Condensed Beef Bouillon or Broth
Condensed Beef Bouillon or Broth with Rice
Canned Condensed Chicken Broth
Canned Condensed Chicken and Noodle Soup
Canned Condensed Chicken Broth with Rice
Condensed Beef and Noodle Soup
Prepare Beef and Noodles
Prepare Base
Fill
Canned Condensed Beef Soup with Vegetables and Barley
Prepare Base
Prepare Vegetables and Meat
Fill
Condensed Cream of Chicken Soup
Canned Condensed Cream of Chicken Soup
Canned Condensed Chicken Vegetable Soup
Prepare Meat and Vegetables
Prepare Soup
Fill
Condensed Old Fashioned Vegetable Soup
Prepare Vegetable Macaroni Mixture
Prepare Soup Base
Fill
Canned Condensed Pea Soup
Canned Condensed Lentil Soup
Canned Condensed Cream of Celery Soup
Canned Condensed Cream of Asparagus Soup
Canned Condensed Cream of Spinach Soup
Canned Condensed Onion Soup
Canned Condensed Mulligatawny Soup
Canned Condensed Oxtail Soup
Canned Condensed Mock Turtle Soup
Green Turtle Soup
Snapping Turtle Soup
Beef Flavour Soup and Gravy Base Mix
Beef Type Broth Mix (Low Sodium)
Beef Broth Base Mix (Paste from)
Recommended Use
Beef Soup Mix
To Reconstitute
Jellied Beef Consomme Base Mix
Beef Noodle Soup Base Mix
Beef Noodle Soup Mix
Chicken Type Broth Mix (Low Sodium)
Clear Chicken Soup Base Mix
Recommended Use
Jellied Chicken Soup Base Mix
Recommended Use
Soup Dehydrated, Chicken (Type II with Noodles)
Chicken Noodle Soup Mix
To Rehydrate
Cream of Chicken Soup Base Mix
Cream of Chicken Soup Mix
To Rehydrate
Chicken Noodle Soup Mix (Dry Style)
To Rehydrate
Chicken Noodle Soup Mix (Paste Style)
To Rehydrate
Chicken Flavored Soup Base Mix
Cream of Mushroom Soup Mix
Instant Onion Soup Mix
Oxtail Soup Mix
To Reconstitute
Mulligatawny Soup Mix
To Reconstitute
Mock Turtle Soup Mix
To Reconstitute
Beet Soup Mix (Borscht)
Recommended Use
Gravy for Frozen Pot Pies
Chicken Pies
For Turkey Pies
For Tuna Pies
Frozen Extender for Roast Chicken or Turkey Gravy
Frozen Giblet Gravy
Prepare Giblets
Prepare Gravy
To Use
Dry Mix Soup and Gravy Base Beef
Au Jus Gravy Mix
Gravy Mix for Keep Pot Roast
Brown Gravy Mix
Brown Gravy Mix (Dry)
Chicken Gravy Mix (Dry)
Chicken Flavored Gravy Mix (Cook up Type)
Chicken Flavored Gravy Mix
Turkey Flavored Instant Gravy Mix
Mushroom Gravy Mix
Ham Style Gravy Mix
Sauces
Bordelaise Sauce for Freezing
Bottled Meat Sauce
Frozen Sauce a La Barbara with Ham Like Textured Vegetable Protein Dice
Marinara Sauce Base Mix
Barbecur Sauce
Barbecue Sauce Mix
Barbecue Sauce Mix
Oil Spice for Barbecue Sauce
Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Hot Pack)
Cook Meat
Make Sauce
Fill
Ground Beef in Barbecue Sauce (Semicold Pack)
Barbecue Sauce Prepared with Peanut Flour
Barbecue Sauce
Processing Pointers
Canned Sweet Barbecue Sauce (Can be Used with Relish and/or Chutney)
Canned Barbecue Sauce
15. Poultry Products
Freezing Whole, Parts, Rolls, and Meat of Poultry
Freezing Roasting Chickens and Turkeys
Chickens
Turkeys
Freezing Poultry Rolls (Raw, Cooked, Cured and Smoked)
Raw Poultry Rolls
Cooked Poultry Rolls
Cured, Smoked Poultry Rolls
Freezing Cut up Poultry
Frozen Deboned Chicken Meat
Freeze Drying Chicken
Freezing Stuffed Turkeys
Boning Whole Turkeys
Freezing Whole Boned Turkey Rolls
Turkey Fillets
How to Utilize Poultry Skin and Meat Bits in Pot Pies
Freezing Cornish Game Hens
Freezing Ducks
Freezing Geese
Canned Chicken Products
Canned Whole Chicken
Ingredients for Plain Broth
Ingredients for Broth with Gelatin Added
Fill Cans
Chill
Canned Chicken or Turkey Meat
Canned Chicken Fricasse
Prepare Chicken
Prepare Gravy
Fill Cans and Close
Canned Chicken Stew
Prepare Vegetables
Prepare 90 Gal. of Gravy
Fill and Close Cans
Canned Chicken and Dumplings
Prepare Chicken
Prepare Dumplings
Prepare Gravy
Canned Turkey and Dumplings
Canned Ham and Dumplings
Canned Chicken and Noodle Dinner
Canned Chicken Noodle Dinner
Canned Chicken, Mushrooms and Noodles
Canned Chicken, Mushroom and Macaroni
Canned Giblet and Noodle Dinner
Prepare Giblets
Prepare Noodles
Prepare Stock
Fill Jars and Close
Canned Chicken a La King (Finest Quality)
Prepare a la King Ingredients
Prepare Sauce
Assemble Ingredients and Pack
Variations
Canned Chicken a La King (Good Quality)
Prepare a la King Ingredients
Prepare Sauce
Assemble Ingredients and Pack
Canned Chicken Chow Mein
Prepare Chicken Dice

Prepare Vegetables
Prepare Sauce
Fill into Cans
Canned Curried Chicken
Prepare Chicken Meat
Prepare Gravy
Canned Chicken in Barbecue Sauce
Canned Hungrian Style Chicken Paprika
Prepare Chicken
Prepare Gravy
Fill and Close Cans
Canned Chicken Liver Pate
Canned Potted Chicken (Sandwich Spread)
Uses for Broth
Canned Savory Chicken or Turkey Spread
Canned Giblet Spred
Frozen Chicken Products
Frozen Baked Dressing
Frozen Giblet Dressing
Frozen Chicken Pot Pie Filing
To Use Frozen Product
Frozen Chicken or Turkey Pot Pies
Frozen Chicken or Turkey Croouettes
Frozen Chicken or Turkey Patties
Frozen Breaded Chicken Sticks
Prepare Chicken Sticks
For Batter Coating
For Breading
Package Freeze
Frozen Chicken a La King
Prepare Sauce
Frozen Chicken a La King
Frozen Creamed Chicken Patty Filling
Frozen Chicken in Port Wine
Frozen Chicken Curry
Frozen Chicken Tahiti
Frozen Chicken Paprika
Frozen Chicken Cacciarore
Frozen Cornish Game Hen with Peaches
Frozen French Fried Chicken
Boil in Bag Frozen Smoked Chicken in Barbecue Sauce
Prepare Chicken and Smoke
Prepare Sauce
Pack and Freeze
Bag in Box Frozen Smoked Chicken in Barbecue Sauce
Prepare Chicken and Smoke
Prepare Sauce
Package and Freeze
Frozen Chicken burgers
Frozen Turkey Burgers
Frozen Chicken Giblet Con Carne with Beans
Prepare Meats
Prepare Beans
Assemble Ingredients
Turkey Products
Frozen Turkey Rolls (Emulsion Type)
Procedure for Making Rolls
Canned Turkey Noodle Dinner in Jars
Canned Turkey a La King
Prepare a la King Ingredients
Prepare Sauce
Label Requirement
Frozen Comminuted Turkey Steaks
Smoked Turkey
Turkey Loaf
Turkey Loaf
Turkey Loaf in Chubs
Turkey Loaves in 6 Lb Oblong Cans
Stuffing, Cooking, Chilling for Oblong Cans
Turkey Patties with Textured Vegetable Protein
Frozen Turkey Sticks
Stuffing, Cooking, Preparing Sticks
Turkey Liverwurst (Pate) in Chubs
Turkey Spread in Chubs
Turkey Bologna
Canned Turkey Chili Con Carne
Canned Turkey Chili Con Carne with Beand
Miscellaneous Poultry Products
Cooked Boneless Poultry Rolls and Roasts
Breaded Poultry Patties with 15% Meat Replacement
Chicken Loaf with Textured Vegetable Protein
Jellied Chicken Loaf
Chicken Sandwich Spread
Chicken Flavored Sandwich Spread with Textured Vegetable Protein Dice
Chicken Salad with Textured Vegetable Protein
Chicken Pie with Textured Vegetable Protein
A La King using Textured Vegetable Protein Dice with Chicken Like Flavour
Chicken a La King with Textured Soy Protein Chiplets
Chicken Liver Path in Ghubs
Base Mix for Chicken Croquettes
Dry Mix Chicken Stew with Vegetables
Chicken Chop Suey with Textured Soy Protein
Chow Mein with Chicken Flavored Textured Vegetable Protein Dice
Smoked Chicken
Poultry Sausage
Chicken Frankfurters

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Sample Chapters


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Preservation and Maintenance of Eggs

A freshly laid egg can be assumed to have a highest quality. Since egg is full of essential nutrients, deteriorative changes soon start taking place which may pose a danger to the excellent sensory attributes of this nourishing and satisfying food item. Cleanliness and soundness of shell is the first step to assure the quality of egg to the consumers. The shell quality deficiencies mostly relate to the production practices adopted at the farm. Proper handling of eggs can delay the decline in the quality. Following precautions should be taken during handling of eggs:

  1. Eggs should be collected 3 to 4 times per day. This will result in less dirty eggs and fewer breakages.
  2. After collection, eggs should be shifted to holding room maintained at a temperature of about 15°C and 70 to 80% RH atleast for 12 hours.
  3. Eggs should be properly packed in filler flats with broad end up. Bulk packing should be done in fibre board cartons.
  4. Eggs should be rapidly moved through the marketing channel so as to reduce the period between production and consumption.

All preservation methods for shell eggs have been designed to retard one or more of the following physico-chemical alterations which lower the quality of egg as it ages:

  1. As the surface of egg dries, the keratin cuticle shrinks and size of shell pores increases rendering it easier for gases and micro-organisms to pass in and out of the shell.
  2. As the warm egg cools down, the egg contents also contract, resulting in the formation of air cell.
  3. The breakdown of carbonic acid causing loss of carbon dioxide from the albumen is rapid during the first few hours after an egg is laid. The alkaline pH acts on the mucin fibres to disturb the thick gel of albumen making it thin or watery.
  4. As the egg ages, water migrates from the albumen to the yolk which may overstretch, weaken or even rupture the vitelline membrane.

Following preservation methods are employed to maintain the quality of shell eggs:

EGG CLEANING

Earlier, it was a general practice to dry-clean dirty egg shells by abrasive mounting on a mechanical wheel. This practice has now become obsolete because it weakens the shell. These days washing in warm water containing a detergent sanitizer is an effective way of cleaning the eggs with dirty shells. A temperature difference of 10-15°C between eggs and wash water is ideal, otherwise there may be problem of crack shells. Besides, eggs should not be immersed in warm water for more than 3-4 minutes. After washing, the eggs should be dried promptly. Wash water should be changed after washing every five to six baskets of eggs. It should be emphasised that only dirty eggs are subjected to washing. It not only reduces the microbial load on the egg shell surface but also improves the appearance and consumer appeal.

OIL TREATMENT

Oil coating spray of eggs has become very popular for short term storage of this commodity. Coating oil forms a thin film on the surface of the shell sealing the pores. It should be done as early as possible, preferably within first few hours after laying of eggs because loss of CO2 is more during this period and evaporation of moisture is also more during the first few days. Egg coating oil should be colourless, odourless and conform to food grade. Coating is done by dipping the eggs in the groundnut oil whereas for oil spray, the eggs are arranged in the filler flats with their broad end up. If the eggs need washing, oil coating should be done after washing. It is important to drain out excess oil before packaging. The temperature of oil should be in range of 15 to 30°C for ideal results. Oil treatment safeguards the quality of albumen for atleast 7 days because it effectively seals the shell pores.

COLD STORAGE

This method of preservation is suitable for long term storage of clean eggs in the main laying season and abundant availability. The temperature of cold store is maintained at 0°C (32°F) and relative humidity between 80 to 85 per cent. An anteroom with intermediate temperature is generally provided to check condensation of water vapour on the eggs during removal. Use of new egg packing trays are advised for cold storage. Like all other animal products, eggs also pick up strong odour, so the same cold store cannot be used for storing onion, garlic or any other commodity with strong odour. The quality of shell eggs can be maintained for about 6 months in a cold storage. Oil coating of eggs prior to cold storage can further enhance their keeping quality. Such eggs could keep well at 14oC and 90% RH for a period ot 8 months.

THERMO-STABILISATION

This preservation method involves stabilisation of albumen quality by holding the eggs in an oil bath maintained at 55°C for 15 minutes or 58oC for 10 minutes. This process brings about coagulation of thin albumen just below the shell membranes, thereby blocking the passage of air and moisture. In addition, oil coating of shell pores also takes place. Thus keeping quality of eggs is maintained for sometimes and thinning of egg white is retarded. Alternatively, eggs are immersed in hot water at 71°C for 2 to 3 seconds. In this flash heat treatment, bacteria present on the surface of the shell are destroyed and a thin film of albumen just below the shell membrane is coagulated sealing the egg shell from inside.

IMMERSION IN LIQUIDS

Under rural conditions, lime-water or water-glass immersion are most useful. In lime-water treatment, a litre of boiling water is added to 1 kg of quick lime and allowed to cool. Now 5 litres of water and 250 g of table salt are added to it. The solution is strained through a fine cloth when the mixture settles down. Eggs are dipped in the clear fluid overnight and then dried at room temperature. In this process, an additional thin film of calcium carbonate is deposited on the egg shell and seals the pores. Such eggs can be stored for a month at ambient temperature. In water-glass treatment, one part of sodium silicate is mixed in 10 parts of water and eggs are dipped overnight. In this process, a thin precipitate of silica is deposited on the egg shell and partially seals the pores.

It is clear from the above discussion that eggs should be collected frequently, held initially at low temperature and then a suitable preservation method be employed to maintain its keeping quality for anticipated consumer acceptance.


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