Manufacture of Value Added Products from Rice Husk (Hull) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA)


Manufacture of Value Added Products from Rice Husk (Hull) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA)

Author: NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9789381039809
Code: NI304
Pages: 208
Price: Rs. 1,295.00   US$ 125.00

Published: 2016
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Manufacture of Value Added Products from Rice Husk (Hull) and Rice Husk Ash (RHA)
(Precipitated Silica, Activated Carbon, Cement, Electricity, Ethanol, Hardboard, Oxalic Acid, Paper, Particle Board, Rice Husk Briquettes, Rice Husk Pellet, Silicon, Sodium Silicate Projects)

Rice husk is the outermost layer of protection encasing a rice grain. Rice husk was largely considered a waste product that was often burned or dumped on landfills. Many ways are being thought for disposal of rice husk and only a small quantity of rice husk is used in agricultural field as a fertilizer, or as bedding and for stabilisation of soils. Therefore, the use of rice husk as rice husk ash is one of the most viable solution. The husk can be used for poultry farming, composting or burning. In the case of burning, it has been used as biomass to power reactors to generate thermal or electrical energy. India is a major rice producing country and the husk generated during milling is mostly used as a fuel in the boilers for processing paddy, producing energy through direct combustion and / or by gasification.

The rice husk ash causes more environmental pollution and its disposal becomes a problem, hence requires attention regarding its disposal and its reuse. The ash is mainly composed of carbon and silica due to which it is used to manufacture different value added products. This book provides thorough information to utilize RHA with process pathway for economically valuable products.

This handbook explains manufacturing process with flow diagrams of various value added products from rice husk & rice husk ash, photographs of plant & machinery with supplier’s contact details and sample plant layout & process flow sheets. The major contents of the book are rice husk, rice husk ash RHA), precipitated silica from rice husk ash, activated carbon from rice husk, cement from rice husk ash, electricity from rice husk, ethanol from rice husk, hardboard from rice husk, oxalic acid from rice husk, paper from rice husk, particle board from rice husk, rice husk briquettes, rice husk pellet, silicon from rice husk, sodium silicate from rice husk, packaging.

This book will be a mile stone for the entrepreneurs, existing units, professionals, libraries and others interested in recovery of value added products from rice husk (rice hull) & rice husk ash to explore an economic way for recycle and reuse of agricultural waste.

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1. Rice Husk (Hull)                                            

      Composition of Rice Husk

      Properties of Rice Hull

      Use & Applications of Rice Husk

      (a) As an Industrial Fuel

      (b) Preparation of Activated Carbon

      (c) Rice Husk as a Fertilizer and Substrate

      (d) As Pet Food Fiber

      (e) Substrate for Silica and Silicon Compound

      (f) Used for Making Bricks

      (g) Rice Husk as Fireworks

      (h) Used as Pillow Stuffing

      (i) Other Uses

      Rice Husk as an Adsorbent for Heavy Metals

2.   Rice Husk Ash (RHA)                                    

      Physical Properties of Rice Husk Ash

      Chemical Composition of Rice Husk Ash


      Use of RHA in Several Industrial Applications

      1. As a Replacement to Silica Fume

      2. As an Admixture in Low Cost Concrete Block Manufacturing

      3. As a Tundish Powder in Steel Casting Industries

      4. Manufacturing Refractory Bricks

      5. Control of Insect Pests in Stored Food Stuffs

      6. In the Vulcanizing Rubber

      7. In the Water Purification

      8. As a Flue Gas Desulphurization Absorbent

3.   Precipitated Silica from Rice Husk Ash                

      Typical Properties

      Physico - Chemical Characteristics of Precipitated Silica

      1. pH Value

      2. Drying Loss

      3. Ignition Loss

      4. DBP Absorption

      5. SiO2 Content

      6. SIEVE Residue

      7. Tamped Density

      Uses & Applications

      Rubber Grade Precipitated Silica

      Non Rubber Grade Precipitated Silica

      Manufacturing Process




      Process Flow Diagram

4.   Activated Carbon from Rice Husk                      

      Forms of Activated Carbon

      Physical Characteristics

      Uses and Applications of Activated Carbon

      Manufacturing Process

5.   Cement from Rice Husk Ash                            

      Varieties of Cement

      Uses of Cement

      Manufacturing Process

      1. Manufacture of Lime



      2. Manufacture of Burnt Rice Husk

      3. Mixing & Grinding

      4. Packing & Forwarding

6.   Electricity from Rice Husk                              

      Procedure of Electricity Generation from Rice Husk

      Downdraft Gasification

      Purification Unit

      Turbine and Generation Unit

  7.   Ethanol from Rice Husk                                

      Ethanol is Used

      Chemical Properties of Ethanol

      Grades of Ethanol

      Denatured Alcohol

      Absolute Alcohol

      Rectified Spirits

      Manufacturing Process

      Cellulosic Ethanol

      Purification Distillation

      Process Flow Diagram

8.   Hardboard from Rice Husk                              


      Uses of Hardboard



      Auto Industry

      Packaging and Other

      Manufacturing Processes


      Adhesive Preparation

      Adhesive Mixing

      Mat Formation

      Cole Pressing

      Hot Pressing

      Sanding and Finishing

      Process Flow Diagram

9.   Oxalic Acid from Rice Husk                            

      Physical and Chemical Properties of Oxalic Acids

      Uses of Oxalic Acid

      1. Bleaching

      2. Removing Stains

      3. Removing Rusts

      4. Other Uses

      Manufacturing Process

      Process Flow Sheet

10.   Paper from Rice Husk                                  

      Uses & Applications

      Process of Manufacture for Rice Husk

      Raw Material Storage & Preparation

      Husk Pulping

      Waste Paper Pulping

      Screening of the Pulp

      Pulp Beating & Refining

      Sizing & Loading


      Paper Making and Finishing

11.   Particle Board from Rice Husk                          

      Advantages of Particleboard

      Uses & Applications

      Manufacturing Process of Pre Laminated Board

      Flow Sheet for Manufacturing of Pre-Liminated Particle Board

      Traditional Approach for Manufacturing Rice Husk Particleboards

      Adhesives in Particleboards

      1. Synthetic Adhesives

      Phenol-formaldehyde (PF)

      Urea-formaldehyde (UF)

      2. Natural adhesives

      Soybean Adhesive

      Starch Adhesive

12.   Rice Husk Briquettes                                    

      Various Types of Briquettes

      Biomass Briquettes

      Sawdust Briquettes

      Agro waste Briquettes

      Wood Briquettes

      White Coal Briquettes

      Uses of Briquettes

      Applications of Briquettes in Various Industries

13.   Rice Husk Pellet (RHP)                                  

      Why Make Rice Husk Pellets?

      Property of Rice Husk Pellet

      Advantages of Pelletizing Rice Husk into Pellet

      a. Good to Environment

      b. Convenient

      c. High Effectiveness

      d. Wide Application

      Manufacturing Process

      a. Drying

      b. Pelletizing

      c. Cooling and Packing

      Process Flow Diagram

14.   Silicon from Rice Husk                                


      Physical Properties

      Chemical Properties

      Electrical Properties


      Uses of Silicon Based Products in Different Sectors

      Computers and Electronics




      Personal Care




      Food and Related Industries

      Manufacturing Process

      1. Digestion

      2. Precipitation

      3. Regeneration

      Production of Silicon

      Process Flow Diagram

15.   Sodium Silicate from Rice Husk                        

      Sodium Silicate Physical and Chemical Properties…

      Uses of Sodium Silicate

      Properties of Sodium Silicate

      Manufacturing Process

      Safety Procedures in Handling Sodium Silicates

      Process Flow Diagram

16.   Packaging                                              

      Types of Packaging Materials



      Brick Carton



      Functions of Packaging





      Package Environments

      1. Physical Environment

      2. Ambient Environment

      3. Human Environment

      Levels of Packaging

      Selection of Proper Packaging for Industrial Product

      Flexible Industrial Packaging-Paper and Plastic

      Rigid Industrial Packaging - Wooden, Metal, Plastic


      Labels for Chemical Products

17.   BIS Specifications                                      


      Activated Carbon

      Particle Board



      Sodium Silicate

      Oxalic Acid

18.   Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details                              

19.   Sample Plant Layout & Process Flow Sheets

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