Herbs Cultivation & Their Utilization

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Herbs Cultivation & Their Utilization

Author: NIIR Board
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8178330644
Code: NI55
Pages: 522
Price: Rs. 800.00   US$ 100.00

Published: 2003
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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India is one of the leading Herbs producer and exporter in the world. Several meticulous researches were conducted and experimented with herbs. They arrived at more precise conclusions about the usefulness of diverse plants and herbs that are utilized in different fields like medicine, cosmetics, perfumes and so on. The Ayurveda healing is completely based on herbs, which have definite medicinal importance or significance. In the primeval times, the Indian sagacious held the view that ayurveda herbs are the only resolution to treat numeral health related problems and diseases. Herbal products are replacing the synthetics products because of its harsh nature. Herbal products are in huge demand in the developed world for health care for the reason that they are efficient, safe and have lesser side effects. Growing herbs is easy to do, and people continue to turn their love for gardening into successful businesses growing and selling fresh cut herbs, herb plants, and other herb related products.
The book makes an attempt to provide information on cultivation and utilization of herbs. The book also contains the described process of the cultivation of medicinal herbs, spices etc with photograph and diagrams. This book also describes about the role of perfumery, analysis of essential oils and flavors, recent development of some natural products and more.
This book covers the comprehensive information on herbs cultivation & their utilization. We hope that this book will be very helpful for new Entrepreneurs, Herb Growers, professionals & research Institutions.

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Contents

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1. MEDICINAL PLANTS-PRIORITIES IN INDIAN MEDICINES
Medicinal Plants Based Drug Industry
Medicinal Plants Based Drug Industries in Indian systems of Medicine
Plant Parts Extract and Galenicals
Essential Oils from Plants
Phytopharmaceuticals
India's Strength in Medicinal Plant Wealth
Priorities in Research on Medicinal Plants & Diverse Studies
Antiprotozoal Drugs from Plants
Antiulcer Drugs from Plants
Antirheumatic Plant
Antidiabetic Plants
Antiasthmatic Plants
Antiviral Plants
Hepatoprotective Plants
Fertility Control by Plants
Anti-Cancer Drugs from Plants
Plant for Urinary Stones
Plants as sedatives/tranquillizers
Plant Laxatives
Pitfalls in Plant-Drug Research and Implications
Herbal Drug/Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
Herbal Drug Trade
Herbal Medicines-Medicinal Marvel or Money Spring Malarkey
Sociopolitical,Economical & Ethical Issues in Medicinal Plants Research
Herbal Drug Development
Standardization of Herbal Drugs
2. MEDICINAL PLANTS IN ORAL HEALTH CARE IN INDIA
INTRODUCTION
Use of Medicinal Plants for Dental Care
Plants Useful as Chewing Stick
3. CHAMOMILE CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
Genetics
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Propagation/Nursery
Transplantation, Irrigation and Weeding
Cropping Sequence
Pests and Diseases
Manures and Fertilizers
Harvesting
Collection of Seeds
Yield
Drying and Storage
Distilation
Yield and Characteristics of the Oil
Uses
Specification of the Drug
4. KALMEGH, ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
Genetic Improvement
CULTIVATION
Climate
Soil
Propagation
Transplanting
Manure and Fertilizer
Irrigation
Interculture
Harvesting
Diseases and Pests
Hemical Constituents
Uses
5. CORIANDER CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Irrigation
Harvesting
Pests and Diseases
Distillation
Yield
Chemical Constituents
Uses
6. BHUMYAMALAKI PHYLLANTHUS AMARUS CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Transplanting
Weed Control
Fertilizers and Manures
Irrigation
Harvesting
Cultivar
Chemestry
Extraction
Traditional Medicinal Uses
Pharmacology/Clinical Trials
Drug Preparations from P. Amarus Available in Markets
7. QUINGHAOSU ARTAMISLA ANNUA CULTIVATION
Introduction
Description of the Plant
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Weed Control
Fertilizers and Manures
Harvesting
Chemestry and Uses
Distillation
8. ERGOT CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
History
The Ergot Fungus
Cultivation
Ergot Alkaloids
Uses
9. BELLADONNA CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
Distribution
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Raising of Nursery
Fertilizer Application
Irrigation
Interculture
Harvesting and Drying
Disease and Pests
Chemical Constituents
Uses
10. SOUTH AMERICAN MARIGOLD (TAGETES MINUTA)
INTRODUCTION
Botanical Description of the Plant
Genetic Improvement
Agrotechnology
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Weed Control
Fertilizers and Manures
Intercropping
Irrigation
Harvesting
Crop Rotations
Diseases
Uses
Distillation
Chemistry
Distillation Unit Design Available
11. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Preparation of Land
Propagation
Nursery
Transplanting
Weeding
Manures and Fertilizers
Harvesting
Pest and Diseases
Distillation
Yield
Chemical Constituents
Use
12. ROSEMARY CULTIVATION
Introduction
Description of the Plant
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Transplanting, Interculture and Fertilizer Application 105
Irrigation
Harvesting
Pests and Diseases and their control
Distillation
Oil content and Yield
Chemical Constituents
Uses
13. DUBOISIA CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Botany
Soil and Climate
Cultivation
Preparation of Land
Raising the Nursery
Transplanting
Irrigation
Fertilizers Application
Pests and Diseases
Harvesting
Yield
Active Constituents and Uses
14. MANDOOKPARNI-GUTUKOLA CENTELLA ASIATICA
CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Botanical Description
CULTIVATION
Land Preparation
Varieties
Planting
Fertilizer
Irrigation
Weed Control
Harvesting
Post Harvest Processing
Yield
Chemistry
Uses
15. SAPOGENIN BEARING SPECIES OF YAMS AND THEIR
CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Botany
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Propagation by Seeds
Propagation by stem cutting
Propagation from tuber pieces
Field Preparation and Planting
Provision of Support
Interculture
Fertiliser Application
Irrigation
Pests and Diseases
Harvesting
Chemistry & Uses
16. PERIWINKLE CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Manure and Fertilizers
Weeding
Irrigation
Harvesting
Yield
Pests and Diseases
Active Constituents and Uses
17. SENNA (CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA) CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
Improved Varities
Soil
Climate
Land Preparation
Sowing
Manuring and Fertilization
Irrigation
Weeding and Interculture Operations
Harvesting
Yield
Pest and Diseases
Active Constituent and Uses
Extraction of Sennosides
18. Cultivation of Lentinus Edodes-An Important Medicinal
Mushroom
Cultivation
Materials and Substrates
Diseases, Pests and Control
19. CULTIVATION OF KAEMPFERIA GALANGA L.
INTRODUCTION
Botany
Crop Improvement
Crop Management
Extraction of Essential Oil
Physico-Chemical Properties of Oil
Utilisation
20. CULTIVATION OF SWEET MARJORAM
INTRODUCTION
Floristics and Crop Improvement
Floristics
Ex. Dittany
Studies on Floral Biology
Flowering Anthesis and Pollen Studies
Crop Improvement
Evaluation of Germplasm
Crop Production and Management
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Nursery Raising
Vegetatove Propagation
Studies on Nurtient and Spacing
Use of Growth Regulators
Crop Rotation/Sequencing and intercrops
Irrigation and Interculture
Insect Pests and Diseases
Harvesting Production of Essential Oil and Yield
Chemestry of Oil
Influence of Harvesting stage on the odour values of essential oil
Production of Essential Oil
Yield
21 CULTIVATION OF MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA
INTRODUCTION
Uses
Soil and Climate Requirements
Cultivation
Botanical Characters
Propagation
Crop Growth
Irrigation
Manures and Fertilizers
Weed Control
Harvesting
Fresh Flower and Oil Yield
Seed Collection and Storage
Drying Fresh Flowers
Distillation
Effect of Growth Regulators
Diseases and Pests
Chemical Composition
Chamomilla Waste
Ray and Disc Florets
Roots of Matricaria Chamomilla
Analytical Methods
22 CULTIVATION OF SPICES
INTRODUCTION
Black Pepper
Climate
Soil
Vareties
Production of Rooted Cutting
Cultural Practices
Standards
Planting
Under Planting
Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management
Irrigation
Inter-and Mixed-Cropping
Bush Pepper
Diseases
Pests
Harvesting
Cardamom
Varieties
Propagation
Nursery
Mainfield Planting
Diseases
Pests
Cloves
Climate and Soil
Varieties
Planting Material
Planting
Manuring
Diseases
Pests
Nutmeg
Cultural Practices
Manuring
Diseases
Pests
Clinnamon
Cultural Practices
Manuring and Processing
Diseases
Pests
Ginger
Varities
Cultural Practices
Diseases
Pests
Turmeric
Varities
Cultural Practices
Diseases
Pests
23 PLANTAGO OVATA FORSK. CULTIVATION
Cultivation
Plant Morphology
Chromosome Complement
Breeding System
Diseases
Processing
Chemical Constituents and Characteristics of the Seed
Utility
Toxicity
Improvement
Wild Allies
24 PYRETHRUM CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Preparation of Field
Raising of Nursery
Fertilizer Application
Interculture
Irrigarion
Harvesting and Drying
Yield
Uses
25 FRENCH BASIL CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
European Type
Reunion Type
Methyl Cinnamate Type
Eugenol Type
Botany
Soil and Climate
Field Preparation
Propagation
Raising of Nursery
Planting
Irrigation
Fertilizer Application
Interculture
Harvesting and Yield
Distillation
Diseases and Pests
Active Constituents and Uses
26 PALMAROLSA CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Botany
Soil and Climatic Conditions
Propagation
Transplantation of Seedingd
By Slips
Irrigation
Weeding
Fertilizers
Harvesting
Distillation
Oil Content and Yield
Chemical Constitutents and Uses
27 JAVA CITRONELLA CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Botany
Soil and Climate
Preparation of Land
Propagation
Fertiliser Application
Interculture
Irrigation
Harvesting
Distillation
Oil Content and Oil Yield
Diseases and Pests
Chemical Constituents and Uses
29 PATCHOULI CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Botany
Soil and Climate
Cultivation
Preparation
Raising the Nursery
Transplanting
Irrigation
Fertiliser Application
Interculture
Pests and Diseases
Root-Knot
Leaf Blight
Harvesting
Drying
Distillation
Oil Content and Oil Yield
Storage
Chemical Constituents
Uses
29 CULTIVATION OF DAVANA
INTRODUCTION
Description
Description of the Plant
Soil and Climate
Nursery
Transplanting, Irrigation and Weeding
Manures and Fertilizers
Harvesting
Pests and Diseases
Distillation 281
Oil Content and Yield
Chemical Constituents and Uses
30 CULTIVATION AND UTILIZATION OF AMMI MAJUS
Description fo the Plant
Harvesting
Yield
Pests and Diseases
Extraction of Xanthotoxin
Essential Oil
Uses
31 ROSE CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description
CULTIVATION
Climate
Soil
Propagation
Transplanting
Subtropical Region
Temperate Region
Fertilizer Application
Subtropical Region
Temperate Region
Irrigation
Pruning
Interculture
Harvesting
Diseases and Pests
Distillation
Chemistry of the Oil
Uses
32 CULTIVATION OF GERANIUM
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Transplanting, Irrigation and Weeding
Manures and Fertilizers
Intercropping
Harvesting
Pests and Diseases
Distillation
Oil Content and Yield
Chemical Constituents and Uses
33 CULTIVATION OF MUSKDANA
Description of the Plant
Cytology
Climate
Soil
Seed Sowing
Fertilizers
Irrigation
Weeding
Harvesting
Pests and Diseases
Leaf Hooper (Amrasca biguttula)
Leaf Roller (Sylepta derogata Feb.)
Spotted Ball Worm (Erias fobia Stoll/Erias vittella (F)
Thrips
Uses
Distillation & Separation of Aromatic Principales
Properties of Essential Oil
34 CULTIVATION OF POGOSTEMON
PATCHOULI FOR ITS OIL
Botany
Soil and Climate
CULTIVATION
Preparation of Land
Propagation and Transplanting
Irrigation
Fertilizers Application
Harvesting
Drying
Distillation
Oil Yield
Physicochemical Properties of the Oil
Physiological Studies
Diseases and Pests
Uses
Adulterants
35 CULTIVATION OF PODOPHYLLUM HEXANDRUM
INTRODUCTION
Distribution and Habitat
Parts Used
Therapeutic Uses
Botanicial Description
Seed Germination and Development of Seedlings
Germination is Epigaeous
Cultivation
Recommended Cultural Practices
Climate
Soil
Propagation
Manures and Fertilizers
Irrigation
Interculture
Harvesting and Processing
Expected Yield
Chemical Constituents and Demand in the World Market 332
Future Strategies
36 CULTIVATION OF HYOSCYAMUS
Distribution
Botany
Cytology and Genetics
Soil and Climate
Cultivation
Propagation
Transplanting
Irrigation
Fertilizer Application
Harvesting, Drying and Storage
Physiological Studies
Tissuecultures Studies
Constituents
Diseases and Pests
Uses
Adulterants
37 CULTIVATION LIQUORICE (GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA L.)
Soil and Climate Requirements
Preparation of Land
Propagation
Harvesting
Regenearation
Interplantation
Yield
In Vitro Multiplication
Diseases and Pests
Flowering and Seed Setting
Cytogenetical Studies
Quality and Specification
Substitutes
Important Chemical Constituents of Liquorice
Processing
38 CULTIVATION OF BRAHMI BACOPA MONNIERI
INTRODUCTION
Plant Description
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Land Preparation
Varieties
Transplanting
Fertilizer
Irrigation
Weed Control
Pest
Harvesting
Post Harvest Technology
Yield
Chemistry
Uses
39 LAVENDER CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Botany
Soil and Climate
Propagation
Propagation by Seeds
Propagation Through Vegetative Means
Transplantation
Fertilizers Application
Weeding
Regeneration
Harvesting
Distillation
Oil Content and Oil Yield
Chemical Constituents
Uses
40 ASHWAGANDHA (WITHANIA SOMNIFERA)
CULTIVATION
INTRODUCTION
Description of the Plant
Cultivars
CULTIVATION
Soil and Climate
Land Preparation
Seed Rate and Sowing
Thinning and weeding
Irrigation
Crop Protection
Harvesting
Post Harvest Technology
Yield
Chemistry
Uses
41 LEMONGRASS CULTIVATION
Method of Lemongrass Cultivation
Preparation of Land
Need of Manure
Seeds for Sowing Lemongrass or Planting Material
Time of Sowing
Method of Sowing
Need of Irrigation
Need of Roeing and Weeding
Reaping of Crop
Oil Extraction from Leaves
Various Species/Kinds of Lemongrass
Profits from Lemongrass Cultivation
Where to Contact for Selling of Lemongrass Oil
42 Menthol Mint Cultivation
Present Situation
Various Species of Menthol Mint:
Preparation of Field for sowing Mentha
Method of Sowing Mentha
Irrigation
Manure and Fertilizer
Control
Method of Cropping
Cutting of Crops
Main Insects Causing Damage to Mentha Crop
Production of Oil from Mentha Leaves
Future of Mentha Oil
Present Market Situation of Mentha Industry
and its future Possibilities
The Supplirs of Mentha Seeds
Machinery/Equipment for mentha
43 PRODUCTION OF OIL FROM CITRONELLA GRASS
Agriculture Technique for Cultivation of Citronella
Preparation of Land
Planting Material/Seeds for Citronella Cultivation
Method of Sowing
Main Species of Citronella
Need of Water for Citronella Crop
Main Diseases & Insects in Citronella Crop
Reaping of Crops
Distillation of Leaves
Profit Obtained from Citronella Crop
Obtainging Planting Material
Palmrose or Rosegrass
44 A ROLE OF PERFUMER IN INDUSTRY
45 ADVANCES IN THE ANALYSIS OF ESSENTIAL OILS
AND FLAVOURS
Gas Liquid Chromatography
Capillary and Chiral Gas Chromatography
Preparative Gas Chromatography
Column Chromatography
Thin Layer Chromatography
Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE)/Fractionation
/SFF)/Chromatography (SFC)
Techniques Ancillary to Gas Chromatography
Identification Techniques
Retention Indices
Mass Spectrometry
Multidimensional GC-MS
HRGC-FTIR
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Chemical Transformation
Techniques Ancillary to Liquid Chromatography
Ultra Violet and Infra Red Spectroscopy
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Detection of Synthetics in Natural Oils by Isotopes Analysis
Isotope Analysis by MS
Isotope Analysis by NMR
Intelligent Sensor Technology
46 UTILIZATION OF LIGNO-CELLULOSIC
WASTE OF ESSENTIAL OIL INDUSTRY
Cymbopogon Marc
Mentha Marc
Utilisation of Woody Stems of Eucalyptus Citriodora
47 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS OF SOME
NATURAL PRODUCTS
Monoterpene Iridoids
Valtrats
Saponins
Sataver
Centella Asiatica
Horse Chestnut
Sterols
Sitosterol (Beta-Sitosterols)
Guggul
Cardenolides
Asclepias Curassavica
Pueraria Tuberosa
ALDALOIDS FLAVONOIDS
Aristolochia Indica
Silybum Marianum
Gingko Biliba
Adhatoda Vasica
MISCELLANEOUS
Allium Cepa (Onion)
ADAPTOGENS
Ginseng
Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha)
Titnospora Cordifolia (Guduchi Giloe)
ANTICANCER DRUGS
Vinca Alkaloids
Podophyllotoxin
Maytansinoids
Ellipticine
Gossypol
Taxol
Camptothecins
Bryostanins
Acetogenins
ANTI-AIDS AGENTS
Castanospermine
Hypericin
Cornosolic Acid
Forskolin
Artemisinin (Quinghaosu)
Echinacea Species
48 PRODUCTION OF SECONDARY METABOLITIES IN
PLANT TISSUE CULTURE
Biotransformation or Precursor Feeding
Immobilization of Plant Cells
Elicitation
Induction of Hairy Roots Using
Agrobacterium Rhizogenes
Use of Tools of Molecular Biology
Concluding Remarks

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Senna (Cassia Angustifolia) Cultivation

INTRODUCTION

The name Senna has been given to the species of Cassia which are used as the sources of the sena laxative. The botanical name of the Indian senna plant is Cassia angustifolia Vahl. (Cassia sena). This plant is believed to have its origin in north Africa. It is found growing as perennial bushes in arid tracts of Somalia, Ethiopia, Sudan, Egypt, southern Arabia and their neighbouring countries. The plant is found growing in a wild state in certain coastal parts of Gujarat especially in the Bhuj region of India. Apparently, the plant must have been introduced into India from its endemic areas in north Africa sometimes in the past. Over the centuries the plant has become naturalized in India. The plant can be cultivated all over the subtropical areas of India. However, its cultivation is presently concentrated in the semi-arid parts of Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan and Gujarat.

The leaves, pods and seeds contain the anthraquinone glycosides called the sennoside A and Sennoside B which are used in pharmaceutical industry for prepairing preferred laxatives. The plant has been used in the traditional system of medicine for the same purpose . Its material in the dry powdered or decoction from has been used as a stimulant, vermifuge and cathartic, and for relieving habitual constipation. India is presently the main source of cultivated senna. Large quantities of dried senna leaves and pods and their partially processed material are exported to USA, European countries, Japan and Australia. In the importing countries the sennosides are added to various items of food and confectionery, besides the pharmaceutical preparations. Presently, senna is one of the major item of export from India in the area of herbal material. the demand for senna is observed to be ever increasing.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT

Senna (Cassia angustifolia 2n=24), Family Caesalpinaceae is a small perennial shrub of less than a meter in height with ascending branches. The leaves are compound pinnate, petiolated about 10cm long and bear 5-8 pairs of leaflets each on a small stalk. The leaflets are bluish green to pale green in colour, coraceous in thickness and emit a characteristic foetid smell when crushed. There are 2.5 to 5cm long and 0.5-1.5 cm broad, oval lanceolate in shape with acute apex and smooth underneath. the flowers are bright yellow in colour, arranged in axillary, erect, many flowered racemes, considerably extending the subtending leaf. It has short, ovate, membranous bracts, which fall off early. The pods are slightly curved, 3.5-6.5 cm long and upto 1.5cm broad, light green in colour, changing from greenish brown to drak brown or black on maturity. A pod encloses5-7 obovate compressed, smooth, pale whitish seeds. Flowers and pods are formed on the cultivated plants in May and June in the north western parts of Indian subcontinent.

IMPROVED VARIETIES

Senna crop is in the process of domestication. Seeds collected from the wild plants and pooled together have been the resource material for the cultivation of crop in the different parts of the country. The proper breeding experiments towards development of standard varietieshave been initiated. An open pollinated seed variety Sona has been released for cultivation by CIMAP especially for the northen part of the countyr.

SOIL

Senna can be grown on about all the different kinds of field soils found in the subtripical areas. The crop yields are higher when the plant is cultivated on light well drained sandy loam and lateritic soil of pH7-8.5.

CLIMATE

Senna is a plant of arid environment. Its crop do well in the warm subtropical areas. it is usually cultivated in areas where there is bright sunshine and little rainfall. The areas that receive rains frequently and/or get waterlogged and where temperatures remain low for serveral months are unsuitable for the cultivation of senna. The most suitable areas for the cultivation of senna in India are the dry areas of Haryana. Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

LAND PREPARATION

The land is prepared just before the sowing. A through pulverization of the soil is carried out by the use of the plough. The field is ploughed at least twice, harrowed and levelled. Fine tilth soil is not required of senna.

SOWING

The sowing time of senna seeds varies in the different parts of the country. It is arranged such that the flowering and the pod forming time of the plant does not coincide with the monsoon season.

Senna crop is taken in the northern central region of India in the fields vacated by the rabi crops; mustard, potato or wheat. in such fields sowing is done between February-late March. In the western part of the country senna is sown in the rainy season between July and September. Senna can also be sown in the north central India during the rainy season. In Tamil Nadu, senna is sown in November after the start of winter monsoon there. The seeds rate in about 30kg/ha for the rainfed crop and 15kg/ha for crop raised under irrigation. The seeds are generally broad-casted, dry or after pre-soaking. They may be drilled in lines 30-50cm apart at a depth fo 1.5-2cm using some tractor driven mechanical device.

If there is prolonged dry period after sowing a light irrigation is given to the sown field to ensure timely and uniform germination of seeds.

MANURING AND FERTILIZATION

The fertilizer requirement of senna are low as compared to the other crops. About 5 tonnes per ha of well decomposed farm yard manure (FYM) should be applied at the time of land preparation. Where the soil nutrient is expected to be low, 40kg of N and 40kg of P2O5 may be applied in the field immediately before sowing. Another 40 kg of N may be applied in three equal splits at 40, 80 and 120 days after sowing.

IRRIGATION

Senna is an arid zone plant and can be cultivated as a rainfed crop. Its cultivation under semi-irrigated condition results in higher yields. For a good harvest of senna, 3-4 light irrigations may be necessary.

WEEDING AND INTERCULTURE OPERATIONS

One or two hand weeding followed by howing are necessary for the removal of dicot and grassy weeds. once the growth of senna plants picks up, the weeds get suppressed and further weeding is not necessary. The first weeding and howing should be done at 25-30 days and second one at 70-80 days and second one at 70-80 days from the sowing time.

HARVESTING

The biologically active compounds of senna used in pharmaceutical and food industries are present in the leaves and the pods of the plant. The flowering on the plants occurs usually after 90 days of plant growth. The pods formed from the flowers take about a month to mature Upto 3 harvests of material are taken from senna crop. The first harvest is taken when the plants are of 50-90 days age. In this harvest, bulk of the foliage from the top is removed. The plant throws up new branches in 3-4 weeks time when the second picking of leaves is taken. The plants are allowed to regrow. The final harvest is taken at about 150days of sowing. Now both the leaves and the pods are harvested.

The produce of each harvest is spread in a thin layer in an open field to reduce the moisture content. Further drying of the produce is done in the well ventilated drinking sheds. The leaves and the pods usually dry up in about a weeks time. The colour of the dried up leaves should be yellowish green. If the drying is improper or delayed the leaves may turn black or brown in colour, an indication of the deteriorated quality of the produce.

In locations/situations where the crop of senna is not desired to be rotated with other food and medicinal/aromatic crops, the senna may be ratooned and kept in the field for several cropping seasons. life saving irrigations should be applied as and when necessary. Mulching may also be practiced.

YIELD

A goods crop of senna gives 10q/ha of dry leaves and 5q/ha pods under irrigation and good management practices. The yield under rainfed conditions is about 7q/ha of leaves and 4 q/ha of pods.

PEST AND DISEASES

Under dry weather conditions, the crop of senna escapes any serious attack of pest. However, under highly humid conditions, the larvae of white butterfly, may cause serious damage.

The damping off in seedlings is the most devastating disease caused by Rhizoctonia bataticola. Seed treatment with Thiram or Captan at 2.5g/kg protects the growing seedlings. Leaf sport and leaf blight are other diseases caused by Alternaria, Cercospora and Phyllosticta species, repectively, usually occurring at later stage of growth. Spraying of 0.15 percent Indofil M-45 at fortnightly interval for 3 times in a period of 5-6 weeks in recommended.

ACTIVE CONSTITUENT AND USES

The compounds isolated from Cassia angustifolia leaves are wax, myricyle alcohol, the flavonoids isorhamnetin and kaemp ferol and the anthraquinone rhien and emodin and phenolic compounds. Two glycosides, one easily hydrolysable yielding emodin and actively cathartic, the other hydrolyzable with difficulty and slow in laxative effect are also present. These glycosides namely sennoside A and sennoside B have the same formual C21H20O10 but differ principally with respect to linkage of glucose to the glycone moiety. In addition to these, the other compounds reported to have been isolated from senna are manitol, salicylic acid, chryophanic acid and sodium potassium tartarate.

Senna is valued for its cathartic properties. A paste made of the powdered leaves and vineger is applied to skin diseases and eruptions. Senna is especially useful in the habitual constipativeness. It increases the peristaltic movements of the colon. The tendency to grip caused by senna may be oviated by combining it with aromatics or with a salive laxative. The pods have the same therapeutic effect as of the leaves but they cause less gripping. The green pods are more active than ripe pods. Senna is contraindicated in spastic constipation and in case of colitis. The cathartic principles of senna are soluble in water and dilute alcohol. India senna is reported to suffer no loss of activity even after five years of storage in a sealed vessel.

EXTRACTION OF SENNOSIDES

The powdered leaves and/or pods are serially extracted using 90%, 80% and 70% ethanol. The sennosides are then concentrated from the extract. The extraction scheme is shown diagramatically below:

The extract was stable in amber coloured bottles for 96 hours.

Palmarosa Cultivation

INTRODUCTION

Oil of Palmarosa is obtained from flowering shoots and above-ground parts of motia variety of Cymbopogon martinii (Roxb.) wats. The variety is also referred to as 'Rosha grass' or 'Russa grass' and yields an oil of high geraniol content (75-90%) which is also called East Indian Geranium oil or Russa oil. Another variety sofia is also found growing wild in India which yields oil of lower geraniol content, known as Ginger Grass oil. The oil is of inferior grade and fetches much less price than the palmarosa oil.

Oil of palmarosa is one of the most important essential oils of India which is exported and once India was the principal supplier of this oil to the world. The market for the export has fallen because of deteriorated quality of oil, competition with other countries and appearance of synthetic geraniol in the market.

In India, oil is mostly obtained from wild growing grass in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. A plantation of motia variety was started in Punjab in 1924. The late Prof. Puran Singh, Chief Chemist, Forest Research Institute and Colleges, Dehra Dun, succeeded in establishing the grass at Jaranwala (Lyallpur) over an area of 93 ha in a short period of 4-5 years. He put up a steam distillation plant and 1350-1600 kg of oil was produced annually. It was later cultivated near dehra Dun by Purandad Essential Oil Plantation (Industry) and oil of good quality is being produced at present.

Recently, its cultivation has also been taken up in the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh.

BOTANY

Palmarosa is a perennial aromatic grass, culm 3 m high; leaves linear-lanceolate, cordate and amplexicaul at base, 50 cm long, 3 cm broad, glabrous; panicles 30 cm long, turning reddish, often very bright when mature; racemes 15-18 mm long, occur in pairs, one subsessile and the other pedicelled, each raceme consisting of several pairs of spikelets, in each pair one is sessile and hermaphrodite and the other is pedicelled and male; the lower raceme base and the lower most pedicel swollen and connate to the base of rachis; sessile spikelet 3.5 mm long, lower glume 1 mm wide, ovate with deep median groove, broadly winged, 2-nerved, awn 12-18 mm long; pedicelled spikelet 4 mm long, 8-nerved.

SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

A well-drained sandy loam soil having irrigation facilities and receiving rainfall of about 150 cm annually is an ideal condition for cultivation of palmarosa. It also grows well in well-drained clay loam soil, free from waterlogging. If the soil is not well-drained or if after-heavy irigation, water remains standing in the field in hot weather, the groiwth of the grass is badly affected. Areas which are affected by severe frost are not suitable as the frost kills the grass and reduces the oil content.

PROPAGATION

It is raised by: (i) transplantation of the seedlings and (ii) by slips of halthy plants.

Transplantation of Seedlings:

Nursery beds are well prepared in May. Raised beds are prepared as the seeds are washed off by irrigation. A good amount of farmyard manure should be used in the seed bed.

As the seeds are small and light, they are mixed with fine soil for obtaining even istribution and ease in sowing. They are sown in lines, 15-20cm apart. Seeds should not be sown densely as this will avoid crowding of seedlings thereby resulting in proper growth of the plants. About 2.5 kg seeds are adequate to give seedlings for planting one hectare.

The beds are watered lightly and regularly. Germination starts within two weeks. Later on, 0.2-0.5% solution of urea may be given for good growth. In about 3-4 weeks, seedlings are ready for transplanting.

The seedlings are transplanted in the prepared fields as soon as the rainy season sets in, i.e., by June end or July. They can be transplanted even earlier, if the weather is not very warm and irrigation is available.

The field is prepared before the onset of monsoon. It is ploughed and harrowed so as to give a fine tilth. All the stubble and roots of weds are removed.

Healthy and established seedlings, which are about 15 cm in height, are carefully removed from the nursery and are planted in rows, 60 cm apart, with plants spaced at the same distance. In fertile areas, spacing should be increased.

BY SLIPS :

Plants giving a good yield and a high quality of oil should be used. In this way, it is possible to raise plantations yielding high quality oil, which is not possible when the plantation is raised from seeds as the seeds give rise to many morphologically indistinguishable different varieties. However, the rate of establishment of rooted slips is very poor as compared to nursery transplants. Slips can be planted in June-July or during the rainy season.

IRRIGATION

Requirements of irrigation depend uponthe climatic conditions. The grass requires irrigation fortnightly during the growing season. With an ample supply of water, growth is luxuriant, but if drought prevails, growth is arrested, leaves wither and the oil content is reduced.

WEEDING

Odour is an important factor of the oil quality and it is essential to keep the fields clean of other growing plants, particularly those which impart their own odour. Therefore, the plantation should be kept free from weeds by regular weeding and hoeing. Particular care is required in the initial stage of growth so that weeds do not overpower the grass. Distillation waste of this crop or citronella Java applied as organic mulch @ 3 tonnes/ha would be effective in controlling weeds. Among herbicides, diuron @ 1.5 kg al/ha and oxyfluorfen @ 0.5 kg al/ha have been found ellective for weed control for this crop.

FERTILIZERS

As the grass is perennial, it is necessary to replenish the soil. In fertile soils, manuring may not be required for the first two years. By manuring rich soils, the vegetative growth is increased and oil content may be slightly reduced. However, in general, 40 kg N, 50 kg P2O5 and 40 kg K2 O per ha are used as basal dose at the time of planting. About 60 kg N/ha is applied in three split doses during the growing season. The application of NPK should be repcated in subsequent years.

HARVESTING

The essential oil is distributed in all parts of the grass, viz., flower heads, leaves and stems, the flower heads containing the major portion. Usually, the grass is cut at a height of 5-8 cm from the ground level and the whole plant is used for distillation. The maximum yield of oil is obtained when the etire plant is a at a full flowering stage.

The number of harvests depends upon the climatic condition of the place of cultivation and order of crop management. During the first year, usually one crop is obtained in October-November, whereas 2-3 crops are obtained in the subsequent years in subtropical areas in the North indian plains. Four harvests are taken in tropical areas of South and North East.

Palmarosa plantation remains productive for about eight years. However, the yield of grass and oil starts decreasing from the fourth year onwards. It is, therefore, recommended that the plantation is kept only for four years.

DISTILLATION

Oil of palmarosa in the country is generally obtained by hydrodistillation. The process is primitive and has remained unchanged over the years. The quality of oil suffers because of the crude method of production. To get a maximum yield of good quality oil, it is advisable to use steam distillation.

The distillation equipment consists of a boiler to produce steam, a distillation tub, a condenser and 1-3 separators.

The tub is made of mild steel and has a perforated bottom, on which the grass rests. The tub has a steam inlet pipe at the bottom. A removable lid is fitted at the top. Charging and discharging can be done in perforated cages with iron chains which can be lowered in the tub with the help of a chain-pulley block.

Different types of condensers are available, but tubular condensers are better than others. The condenser is provided with an inlet and outlet by which cold water flows through the chamber to cool the pipes for condensing the distillate.

To obtain a maximum yield of oil and to facilitate release of oil, the grass is chopped into shorter lengths. Chopping the gras shas further advantages that more grass can be charged into the still, and even packing is facilitated. The grass should be packed firmly as this prevents formation of steam channels. Steam is allowed to pass intot he still with a pressure from 18-32 kg in the boiler. The vapour mixture of water and palmarosa oil passes into the condenser. As the distillation proceeds, the distillate collects in the separator. The oil being lighter than water and insoluble, floats on the top of the separator and is continuously drawn off. The oil is then decanted and filtered.

Small cultivators can use direct-fire stills, but properly designed stills should be used. The stills are provided with a boiler at the bottom of the tub. This is separated by a false bottom from the rest of the tub. Water is poured into the bottom of the tub and grass is charged in the top portion. In the still, the water does not come in contact with the grass.

For economic production of the oil, it is advisable that hte harvested material is allowed to dry for a short time.

From the quality point of view, the grass should be distilled as fresh as possible. Oil obtained from dry or fermented grass is of inferior quality. The distillation unit should be clean, rust-free and free from any other odour.

The oil should be free from sediments, suspended matter and moisture before storage. The container should be clean and rust-free.

OIL CONTENT AND YIELD

The content and yield of the oil depend upon many factors, such as climatic conditions of the place fo cultivation, time of harvesting, maturity of the grass, nature of material being distilled, i.e., fresh material or wilted material, method of distillation, etc.

All parts of the plant contain the essential oil, the maximum oil being present in flowers, the stalks containing negligible quantity. On an average, the oil content in the various parts of the plant is:

Whole plant0.10 to 0.40%
Stalks0.01 to 0.03%
Flowering tops0.45 to 0.52%
Leaves0.16 to 0.25%

The yield of oil is low in the first year. It increases with the age of the plantation. From an economic point of view, it is advisable to keep the plantation for four years. Yield of oil for the first 4 years is as under:

1st year60 kg/ha
2nd year80 kg/ha
3rd year80 kg/ha
4th year80 kg/ha

By growing the improved strain, a production of 80 kg oil would be possible in the first year and 80-100 kg of oil in subsequent years.

CHEMICAL CONSITTUENTS AND USES

Indian Standard Specifications for the oil of palmarosa (IS: 526-1986) are given in Table 1.

The characteristic features of oil of palmarosa are first, its sweet odour; second, the solubility test in 70% alcohol; solubility of oil in 2.2-4.2 volumes of alcohol indicats a higher percentage of free geramol.

Oil of palmarosa chiefly contains 75.0-95.0% alcohols, calculated as geraniol, a small but varying amount of esters of the same alcohol, principally acetic and caproic acids. Java oils also have almost the smae geraniol content but their ester content is higher. Oil of palmarosa is used in perfumery, particularly for flavouring tobacco and for blending of soaps due to the lasting rose-note it imparts to the blend. In soap perfumes, it has a special importance by virtue of the fact that geraniol remains stable in contact with alkali. It also serves as a source for very high grade geraniol.

"Geraniol is highly valued as a perfume and as a starting material for a large number of synthetic aroma chemicals, viz., geranyl esters which have a permanent rose-like odour.

Table-1 Indian Standard Specifications for Palmarosa Oil

Sl.CharacteristicsRequirements No.
1.SolubilitySoluble in 2 vol. of ethyl alcohol (70% by volume)
2.ColourLight yellow to yellow
3.OdourRosaceous with a characteristic grassy background
4.Specific gravity0.8740 to 0.8860 at 30°/30°C
5.Optical rotation-2° to +3°
6.Refractive index1.4690 to 1.4735 at 30°C
7.Acid value, max.3
8.Ester value9 to 36
9.Ester value after acetylation266 to 280
10.Total alcohols, calculated as geraniol per cent, min.90.0

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