Handbook on Small & Medium Scale Industries (Biotechnology Products)

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Handbook on Small & Medium Scale Industries (Biotechnology Products)

Author: Dr. H. Panda
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 9788178331713
Code: NI301
Pages: 480
Price: Rs. 1,695.00   US$ 150.00

Published: 2017
Publisher: Asia Pacific Business Press Inc.
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The Indian biotechnology industry is one of the fastest growing knowledge-based sectors in India and is expected to play an important role in small & medium enterprises industries. Biotechnology is not just one technology, but many. There are a wide variety of products that the biotechnology field has produced. Biotechnology as well all know, is the field of combination of various fields such as genetics, environmental biology, biochemistry, environmental, general, agriculture, fermentation, etc.

Biotechnology has a long history of use in food production and processing. It has helped to increase crop productivity by introducing such qualities as disease resistance and increased drought tolerance to the crops. Biotechnology used in processing of wines, beers, Coffee, Tea, Cabbage and Cucumber, etc. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. The products of fermentation are many: alcohol and carbon dioxide are obtained from yeast fermentation of various sugars. Lactic acid, acetic acid and Organic acid are products of bacteria action; citric acid, D-Gluconic acid, Coffee, Tea, Cabbage & Cucumber and Yeasts are some of the products obtained from fermentation.

The worldwide demand for biotech products is the only indication; the speed of its advance is the only set to accelerate. Indian Biotechnology industry is considered as one of the sunrise sectors in India. The industry is divided into five major segments: Bio-Pharma, Bio-Services, Bio-Agri, Bio-Industrial and Bio-Informatics. Biotechnology industry’s growth in India is primarily driven by vaccines and recombinant therapeutics.

The biotechnology sector of India is highly innovative and is on a strong growth trajectory. The sector, with its immense growth potential, will continue to play a significant role as an innovative manufacturing hub. The high demand for different biotech products has also opened up scope for the foreign companies to set up base in India. Today in India there are more than 350 Biotechnology companies in India providing employment for over 20,000 scientists.

The authors cover different aspects of biotechnology such as production of fermented foods, functional foods, enzymes in food processing. The Book contains production of Wines and Beers, Production of Amino Acids, Lactic Acid, Acetic Acid and Organic Acid, Processing of Coffee, Tea, Cabbage, Cucumber, Yeasts and Photographs of Plant & Machinery with Supplier’s Contact Details.

The book provides a better understanding about biotechnology production of value-added products, improve productivity, and enhance product quality in the agro food processing sector. The book is highly recommended to new entrepreneurs, professionals, existing units who wants to start manufacturing business of biotechnology products.

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Contents

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1. WINE
INTRODUCTION
YEASTS AND THE ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
A. Yeasts
1. Taxonomy, ecology
2. Industrially important yeasts
3. Killer (K) Yeasts
4. Effect of yeasts on the organoleptic character of wines.
B. YEAST NUTRIENTS IN GRAPE MUSTS
1.Composition of grape musts
Nutritional requirements of yeast and their provision in musts
C. GROWTH OF YEASTS AND ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
1. Growth cycle of yeasts and kinetics of the fermentation
2. Fermentation problems and their causes
3. Stimulation of the fermentation
4. Concept of the survival factor
D. BIOCHEMISTRY OF THE FERMENTATION OF GRAPE MUST
1. Primary and secondary products
2. Volatile substances contributing to the aroma of wine
LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND THE MALO-LACTIC
FERMENTATION
A. Lactic Acid Bacteria of Wines
1. Taxonomy
2. Ecology
3. The role of lactic acid bacteria in vinification
B. BACTERIAL GROWTH AND MALO-LACTIC FERMENTATION
1. Development of lactic acid bacteria during vinification;
    kinetics and biochemistry of the malolactic fermentation
2. Parameters affecting the development of lactic acid bacteria
  in wines
3. Stimulation of bacterial growth and of the malo-lactic
  fermentation
BACTERIAL SPOILAGE OF WINES
A. Spoilage by Lactic Acid Bacteria
B. SPOILAGE BY ACETIC ACID BACTERIA
1. Taxonomy, ecology
3. Effect of the metabolism of acetic acid bacteria on the
  quality of musts and wine
WINE TECHNOLOGY
A. Grapes and Corrective Measures for the Vintage
B. CLASSIC FERMENTATIONS
1. White wine production
2. Red wine production
C. BIOLOGICAL STABILIZATION OF THE WINE; THE
ROLE OF SULFUR DIOXIDE AND SORBIC ACID
    SPECIAL PROCESSES
A. Sparkling Wines
SHERRY AND PORT
C. Brandy
2. BEER
HISTORICAL
Man’s First Alcoholic Drink
Man’s Earliest Brewing
1. Mesopotamia and Egypt
2. Greece and Rome
3. European tribes
4. Africa
5. China
6. India
7. South America
C. Ancient Brewing and Nutrition
D. Sanitary Considerations
E. Large-Scale Brewing
BEER TYPES IN THE WORLD
A. Classical Beer Types
B. Beer-Like Beverages
C. Beer Production in the world
BEER CONSTITUENTS
A. Water
B. Alcohol
C. Carbohydrates
D. Nitrogen Compounds
E. Inorganic Constituents
F. Organic Acids
G. Carbon Dioxide
H. Other Compounds
MATERIALS USED IN BREWING
A. WATER
1. Water sources
2. Water purity
3. Water minerals
4. Heavy metals
B. BARLEY AND MALT
1. Barley
(a) Harvest and Storage
(b) Weathering
2. Malt
(a) Earliest Malt
(b) The malting process today
Steeping
Germination
Kilning
C. Brewing Adjuncts
D. Hops
1. Earliest use of hops
2. The Hop Family
3. Hop Utilization
4. Hop Chemistry
E. Brewer’s Yeast
CHARACTERISTICS AND CLASSIFICATION
2. Cell morphology and Physiology
3. Yeast Metabolism
(a) Carbohydrate Metabolism
Glycolyses
The Pasteur and Crabtree Effect
(b) Metabolism of Nitrogenous Compounds
(c) Lipid synthesis
(d) Sterol Synthesis
(e) Sulfur Compounds
(f) Miscellaneous Metabolic Reactions
THE BREWING PROCESS
A. Brew house Operations
1. Milling
(a) Malt Milling
(b) Wet Milling
(c) Adjunct Milling
2. Mashing
(a) Infusion Mashing
(b) Decoction Mashing
(c) Malt Conversion
(d) Adjunct Conversion
(e) Enzyme Activity During Mashing
3. Lautering
(a) The Lauter Tub
(b) Run Off
(c) Sparging
(d) Wort Filtration
(e) Spent Grain Removal
4. Wort Boiling
(a) Heating
(b) Function of Wort Boiling
(c) Hop Extraction and Conversion
5. Wort Cooling/Trub Removal
(a) Hot Trub
(b) Wort Cooling
(c) Cold Trub Removal
6. BREWHOUSE AND CELLAR SANITATION
(a) General Practices
(b) Microbiological Precautions
B. WORT CONSTITUENTS
1. Carbohydrates
2. Nitrogenous Compounds
3. Inorganic Constituents
4. Vitamins
5. Polyphenols
6. Hop Compounds
7. Melanoidins and Phenolic Pigments
8. Lipids
C. CELLAR OPERATIONS
1. Cold Wort Aeration
2. Yeast Pitching
(a) Yeast Examination
(b) Yeast Population Count
3. PRIMARY FERMENTATION
(a) Lager Fermentation
(b) High Gravity Brewing
(c) Ale Fermentation
(b) Reuse of Yeast
(c) Yeast Disposal
(d) Continuous Fermentations
(e) CO2 Recovery
4. YEAST RECOVERY AND REUSE
(a) Washing and Preparation
5. YEAST PURE CULTURE SYSTEMS
(a) Culture Propagation
(b) Laboratory Checks
6. AGING AND FINISHING
(a) Flavor Maturation
(b) Carbonation
(c) Standarization
(d) Chillproofing and Stabilizing
(e) Clarification
MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN BEER
A. Bacterial Contaminants
1. Gram Positive Bacteria
(a) Lactobacillus
(b) Pediococcus
(c) Miscellaneous Cocci
2. Gram Negative Bacteria
(a) Acetic Acid Bacteria
(b) Zymomonas
(c) Enterobacteriaceae
(d) Miscellaneous Wort Organisms
B. WILD YEAST CONTAMINANTS
1. Beer Spoiling Yeasts
2. Yeast Spoilage Flavors
3. Killer Yeasts
4. Wild Yeast Control Measures
C. BREWERY PREVENTIVE MEASURES
PACKAGING OPERATIONS
A. Bottling Operations
1. Filling
2. Pasteurization
3. Light Struck Beer
B. CANNED BEER
1. Can Filling
2. Pasteurization
3. Shelf Life of Packaged Beer
(a) Oxygen
(b) Temperature
C. DRAFT BEER
1. Cooperage
2. Racking
QUALITY ASSURANCE
A. Physical and Chemical Measurements
1. Cleaning and Sanitation
2. Raw Materials Acceptability
3. Biological Survey of Beer “in process”
4. Analysis of the Finished Beer
B. Flavor Measurements
1. Tasting beer
C. Tastable Beer Defects
1. Diacetyl
2. Metallic Tastes
3. High Air Beer
4. Light Struck Beer
5. Old, Oxidized Beer
6. Medicinal Odors
7. Grainy, Harsh, Astringent, Bitter
8. Flavor Depression
3.AMINO ACID
INTRODUCTION
MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF AMINO ACIDS
A. Production of Amino Acids by Wild Strains
B. Production of Amino Acids by Auxotrophic Mutants
C. Production of Amino Acids by Regulatory Mutants
D. Production of Amino Acids from Biosynthetic Precursors
ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS
A. Hydrolytic Enzymes
1. L- a -Amino-e-caprolactam hydrolase
2. 2-Amino-D2-thiazoline-4-carboxylate hydrolase
3. Hydantoinase
B. Ammonia Lyases
1. Aspartase
2. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase
C. Arginine Deiminase
D. Pyridoxal 5'-Phosphate Enzymes
1. Asparate b-decarboxylase
2. b-Tyrosinase
    N
3. Tryptophanase
4. Cysteine Desulfhydrase
5. Tryptophan Synthase
6. b-Chloro-D-alanine hydrogenchloride lyase
7. L-Methionine g-lyase
8. Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase
9. L-Threonine Aldolase
E. Other Enzymes
1. Amino Acid Dehydrogenases
2. Glutamine Synthetase
IV. Enzymatic Resolution of Racemic Amino Acids
A. Introduction
B. Enzymatic Methods
1. Resolution by Enzymatic Asymmertic Derivatization
2. Resolution by Asymmetric Hydrolysis
(a) Esterase Method
(b) Amidase Method
(c) Aminoacylase Method
USE OF AMINO ACIDS
A. Use for Food
PRODUCTION FIGURES AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS
4. COFFEE PROCESSING
INTRODUCTION
THE COFFEE PLANT
PROCESSING AND FERMENTATION OF THE COFFEE FRUIT
MICROORGANISMS INVOLVED IN COFFEE FERMENTATION
A. LITERATURE DATA
B. Isolation and Characterization of Microorganisms from Zaire Coffee
THE SUBSTRATE FOR FERMENTATION: COFFEE MESOCARP
MESOCARP DEGRADATION DURING FERMENTATION
A. General
B. Are Plant Enzymes Involved in Coffee Fermentation?
C. Are Microbial Enzymes Involved in Coffee Fermentation?
CONCLUSIONS
5. TEA PROCESSING
WHAT IS TEA?*
A. Origins of Tea
B. Types of Tea
C. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Tea Leaves
BLACK TEA MANUFACTURE
A. Harvest of Tea Shoot Tips
B. Withering
C. Tissue Maceration (Rolling)
D. Fermentation
E. Firing
F. Grading and Storage
GREEN TEA MANUFACTURE
OOLONG AND POUCHONG TEA MANUFACTURE
FLAVORED TEAS
INSTANT TEA
CONCLUSION
6. CABBAGE & CUCUMBER PROCESSING
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
CABBAGE
A. Introduction
B. Cabbage Varietals
1. Crop Distribution
2. New Hydbrids
C. Mechanical Operations
1. Mechanical Harvester
2. Grading
3. Core Removal
4. Trim
5. Shredding
6. Salting
7. Conveyance
8. Fermentation Tanks
  Tank Closure
D. Fermentation
E. Product Defects
1. “Off” Flavor
2. Color Defects
3. Processing Defects
F. PROCESSING
1. Bulk Sauerkraut
2. “Hot Fill” Method
3. Chemical Preservatives
CUCUMBERS
A. Production and Consumption
B. Varietals and Harvesting
C. Grading
D. Fermentation
1. Salt Stock
(a) Development of Flora
(b) Defects
(c) Controlled Fermentation
2. Dill Pickles
3. Spoilage
4. Preservation
7. LACTIC ACID
BIOSYNTHESIS
MICROORGANISMS
TECHNICAL PRODUCTION
A. Fermentation
B. Isolation
C. Economic Aspects
SOME OTHER APPLICATIONS OF LACTIC ACID FERMENTATION
8. ACETIC ACID
INTRODUCTION
A. General
B. Bases of Acetic Acid Fermentation
C. Raw Materials
D. Water for Processing
E. Nutrients
MICROORGANISMS AND TAXONOMY
A. Summary and Basic Problems of Classification
B. Industrially Used Strains
BIOCHEMISTRY
A. Ethanol
B. Sugar
C. Acetate
D. Carbon Dioxide
E. Nitrogen
F. Growth Factors
PHYSIOLOGY
A. Oxygen Demand and Total Concentration
B. Lack of Ethanol
C. Specific Growth Rate
D. Specific Product Formation
E. Changes in Concentration
F. Overoxidation
INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES
A. Submerged Vinegar Fermentation
1. The Frings Acetator
2. Other Processes
3. Abandoned processes
B. Surface and Trickling Processes
1. History and Surface Process
2. Older Trickling Processes
3. The Frings Generator
C. Production of Concentrated Acetic Acid
9. ORGANIC ACID OF MINOR IMPORTANCE
INTRODUCTION
Itaconic Acid
EPOXYSUCCINIC ACID
Malic Acid
OXOGLUCONIC ACIDS
A.2-Oxogluconic Acid
B.5-Oxogluconic Acid
C.2,5-Dioxogluconic Acid
D.2-Oxogulonic Acid
PROPIONIC AND BUTYRIC ACIDS
TARTARIC ACID
2-OXOGLUTARIC ACID
FUMARIC ACID
FUTHER ORGANIC ACIDS
A. Succinic Acid
B. Pyruvic Acid
C. 2-Oxogalactonic Acid
D. Kojic Acid
10. D-GLUCONIC ACID
INTRODUCTION-HISTORY
BIOLOGICAL FUNDAMENTALS
FERMENTATION PROCESSES INVOLVING
Calcium Gluconate Fermentation
B. Sodium Gluconate Fermentation
PRODUCT RECOVERY AND PROCESSING
BACTERIAL GLUCONIC ACID FERMENTATIONS
CONSUMPTION AND PRODUCTION FIGURES
11. CITRIC ACID
Biological Fundamentals
A. Strains
B. Fermentation Medium
C. Other Factors
D. Biochemistry and Enzyme Regulation
PRODUCTION PROCEDURES
A. Production Strains
B. Spore Propagation for Inoculation
C. Raw Materials
D. The Koji Process
E. Surface Process
F. Submerged Process
PRODUCT RECOVERY
CITRIC ACID FROM OTHER SUBSTRATES AND ORGANISMS
COMPARISON OF PROCESS KINETICS
PROCESS ECOLOGY
UTILIZATION OF CITRIC ACID
PRODUCTION FIGURES
12. YEAST
FORMATION OF BIOMASS FROM CARBOHYDRATES
A. Introduction
B. Reactions from Glucose to Cell Material
Some Early Observations
2. Evaluation of the Reactions from Glucose to Cell Material
Yeast Saccharides
Yeast Protein
Nucleic Acids
Neutral Fat
Phospholipids
Sterols
    Equation for Yeast Growth on Glucose
C. Flux of the Substrate During Yeast Growth
BIOMASS FROM MOLASSES
A. Composition and Properties Molasses
B. Compressed Yeast from Molasses
1. The Evolution of Baker’s Yeast Production
2. Aspects of the Biochemistry of Baker’s Yeast
3. Requirements for Baker’s Yeast Production
4. Outline of the Manufacturing Process
5. Analysis and Quality Control of Baker’s Yeast
C. Active Dry Yeast
D. Wine Yeast Cultured on Molasses
E. Feed Yeast from Molasses
BIOMASS FROM SPENT SULFITE LIQUOR
A. Spent Sulfite Liquor
B. Biomass from Spent Sulfite Liquor
1. Candida Yeasts
2. Baker’s Yeast from Spent Sulfite Liquor
3. Pekilo Process
BIOMASS FROM WHEY
BIOMASS FROM STARCH
13. PHOTOGRAPHS OF PLANT & MACHINERY
WITH SUPPLIER’S CONTACT DETAILS

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