Detailed Project Profiles on Selected Hi-Tech Projects (Project Reports)

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Detailed Project Profiles on Selected Hi-Tech Projects (Project Reports)

Author: NIIR Board
Format: Hardcover
ISBN: 9789381039649
Code: NI28
Pages: 192
Price: Rs. 0.00   US$ 0.00

Published: 1998
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NIIR had identified some Hi-Tech Projects for the entrepreneurs and published a book on that projects which titled "Detailed Projects Profile on Selected Hi-Tech Projects". These Hi-tech projects are Aluminium Beverages cans, Beer industry, Compact Disc, Lap Top computers, Optical fibre cables, plastic I. V. Bottles, Solar Power Plant, Telephone Cables and XLPE cables. All the above projects are based on latest technologies. Each project present with uses and application, market position, manufacturing process, flow diagram. Suppliers of machineries and raw material along with cost estimation. These hi-tech projects have bright market potential and demand would be increased. This book is very informative and useful for relevant entrepreneurs.  

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1. Aluminium Beverages Cans
2. Beer Industry
3. Compact Disc
4. Laptop Computers
5. Optical Fibre Cable
6. Plastic I.V. Bottles
7. Solar Power Plant
8. Telephone Cables (Jelly Filled)
9. Xlpe Cables

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(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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            Today, the food containers that are being used in our daily living extend over the widest range, from those which are traditional and made of natural raw materials to those made of new materials such as plastics, the fruit of modern technological innovation. Moreover, these containers are today available in wide diversification, competing violently for an over larger market share.

The principal types of food containers is used today are glass containers, metal containers, plastic containers, wooden containers and containers made of fibrous materials. As observed from the roles and function of food packages and containers, increasing importance has come to be attached in recent years to the sales promotional roles and function of these packages and containers, in addition to the inherent roles and functions of securing the quality and price levels of foods and of providing greater convenience in the transportation, storage, sale and use of the these foods.

The most typical among metal containers are cans. These cans are mostly made of tin, tin-free steel or aluminium. Aluminium has the most of the qualities as for packaging materials. It is attractive in appearance, light and unbreakable, testless, odourless, non-toxic, impermeable to liquid, gases, water-vapour and odours. Because of its capacity it gives complete protection from light.


Various properties of the aluminium cans are listed below :-

1.     It is light in weight

2.     It is non-toxic, odourless and testless

3.     It is impermeable to liquid, gases, water vapour and odours

4.     It protects from light

5.     Growth of bacteria and mould is not possible in its medium

6.     Aluminium cans are unbreakable

7.     They are cheaper as compared to the containers

8.     Transportation of the aluminium cans are also cheaper than the others.

9.     Its outer look is attractive which helps in marketing.


            Aluminium cans are most typical among metal containers. Canned foods are found in great abundance all around us, and include processed fisheries products such as crab, tuna and sardine. Processed fruits, processed agricultural products such as sweet corn and asparagus, and daily products such as corned beef, cheese and butter. More recently, canned soft drink and bear are gaining popularity at a rapid pace in concert with the wide acceptance of automatic vending machine.


I.S. 3603 – 1966

I.S. 9396 – Can for food and drinks

Above Specifications may be obtained from

Bureau of Indian Standards,

9, B.S. Zafar Marg,

New Delhi – 110 002.


            Packaging is the most essential part in the distribution of goods from the producer to the consumers various materials like jute, paper, tin, aluminium foil, plastic materials and aluminium can.

Aluminium can have been one of the most important media for packaging since very long time and still proudly retain prestigious position inspite of many new invention in the field of packaging various materials products like oils, fruits canning, various milk products, beer etc are being packed in the aluminium cans. Among all these materials, the packing of beer in aluminium cans, is gaining more popularities. The demand of aluminium cans for beer packing is depends upon the production and consumption of the beer.

The aluminium industry in our country is at last self-sufficient. In 1989-90, output of aluminium at 470000 tonnes was more than the domestic demand at 430000 tonnes. Today the installed capacity of the industry is 580000 tonnes per year with operative capacity 610000 tonnes per year.





               Beer is generally defined as an alcohol beverage made by fermentation of a farinaceous extract that is obtained from a starchy raw material, like barley, in the form of malt. Although it is possible to replace some part of the barley with other starchy materials (e.g. rice, wheat, oats, or potatoes) it is usually the main constituent of brewing materials.

The making of alcoholic beverages is nearly as old as mankind it self. Wherever any form of culture was established, people discovered how to make some type of fermented drink, and in earlier stages always from some naturally found sugar containing materials, such as the juice of grapes, or honey from wild bees. The making of beer demanded a higher form of cultive, however, since people had to establish a form of agriculture and produce some sort of grain.

Barley was undoubtedly employed in the preparation of fermented liquors long before the down of recorded history. Now Barley is extensively employed for manufacture of malt used in brewing and distilling of beer. If we categories beer, we find four broad categories as follows :

1.     Pale Beer

2.     Dark Beer

3.     Strong Beer

4.     Special Beer

            All above categories are in general. A particular manufacture, uses, colour and flavour of his choice. In handy bottles, it is sold in the market.


            Beer is used soft alcoholic drink. It keeps the body warm and fresh by stimulating body reactions providing energy to work. It is also used as medicine, for instance, black beer is used as cure for cough and cold.

A special of beer is for the control of sodium intake in the treatment of disease such as congestive heart failure, high blood pressure and certain kidney and liver ailments. Beer cannot harbor any pathogenic germs because of its low pH value. Beer is free from fat, it acts as a diaratic, and it promotes the fermentation of gastric acid acting as an appetite inducer.


Beer is a popular beverage all over the world. It is considered good for health in the sense that being very less on alcoholic content i.e. 8 to 9% it is found effective in improving appetite.

In India about 32 units have been registered with DGTD with a total installed capacity of the order of 132,202 kilo litres per annum.

Beer is a consumable item of frequent usage particularly of the urban elite where as in the rural areas today and country liquor are more popular.

The growth in consumption would have been still higher had there not been prohibition in several states of the Indian union. The magnificent growth in beer consumption inspite of all these policy constraints could perhaps be explained by the growing rate of migration to urban areas from rural areas, rise in income level, opening of more or more beer bars, issual of additional licences for liquor shops and so on.  

Beer industry has been operating quite well. The capacity utilization during the last few years has been around 139 percent.

Keeping in view the tremendous export potential, it would be worthwhile to explore the possibilities of setting up an export oriented unit for producting Beer, which is mostly preferred in overseas market. 





It is little over eight years since the computer giant, International Business Machines Corporation introduced the personal computer IBM PC on August 12, 1981, the concept and implementation have revolutionized not only the computer industry but every spheres of business, commercial, research and medical activity of course, this has not been achieved by IBM alone. The compatible-makers, software firms, peripheral manufacturers and add-on manufacturers have also contributed very generously to this growth.

No industry must have changed as much in 10 years as the computer industry during last decade. The change, rather revolution, ushered in by the microprocessor, continues seemingly endlessly, making computers smaller and cheaper, and the computer industry a sunrise industry in the world over.

While portables and laptops are getting powerful, they are also becoming smaller and easy to use. For seeing have entered this field. The portable and laptop sector is the fastest growing sector, while PC sales are coming down Dataquest defines portables as machines that use self contained battery power. The main reason for the large scale acceptance of these machiners in the technology that allows miniaturization, lightweight, long battery life and low price. Analysis foresce the market divided into different areas the high end eill contain the desktop portable and the battery powered laptop, and the low-end will comprise of hand-held personal organizer having spreadsheet and word processing capabilities.


            A question that may occur to the reader is : What are we trying to place a value on? The personal computer is not merely a number cruncher. It is not  measured in terms of the tons of paper it prints. Although this has been the policy with mainframes, it is, fortunately, absolute, even though the policy is still followed by many users. Therefore, we need different criteria. The first thing to be said is that the personal computer is a capable tool for people, one that can do much more than a nonintelligent terminal.

In speaking of personal computers we must think small and scale our thinking to that level as we did in the 1950s after the advent of the Volkswagen. Most jobs are of reasonable size. It is the users in a business environment dominated by giants who destroy the jobs. If we think small, we can view applications clearly and calmly.

In terms of impact and orientation, the personal computer market is showing signs of dividing into six sectors-computer hobbyists, professionals, small businesses, dedicated usage, education, and the home market. For the time being, however, these sectors are not clearly defined; personal computer devices can serve all six sectors with only minor adaptations. (Keep in mind that the personal computer is a general-purpose machine).


            Bureau of Indian Standard has not developed any specification till now. One can the advantage of American Standards and British Standards for this product.


The last few years have seen a significant growth in the Indian electronics industry due to concerted effort of the government. Rationalization of liunsing policies/procedures, libralisation of the telecom sector by allowing private sector participation, measures to discourages SKD imports etc are some of the important steps taken. Fiseal policies for electronics development.

This industry has groson both in terms of physical output as well as range of products introduced in the market. At present, there are over 80 units operating in the area of mini/microprocessor based systems.

Presently, the product range in the area of computer comprises mini, micro, super mini and main frame systems, low end 2D and 3D graphic workstations for CAD and CAM applications. The majority of the production, however, in the area of minicomputer/microprocessor based system was accounted for by PC, PC/XTS, PC/ATS and mini systems based on 80386 microprocessors.

Though the concept of laptops is yet to catch on in the country, there seems to be no death of systems available for the enthusiasts. Pac computer (P) Ltd., Bombay, boasts of six laptop computers ranging from PC-compatibles to 386 sx-based systems in its reperaoire. Though the systems were IBM compatible and had enough memory power there seemed to be few takers, on account of the high price tag and its relatively fewer applications.

The notebook sized computer is expected to set a defacto standard and stir up intense competion among laptop manufacturing an expensive buy. The new 386sx – based laptop version that Pac launched has 2 M – byte RAM, 40 M – byte hard disk and 1.44 M – byte floppy drive. Pac claims that it comes with a built in rechargeable and removable battery and does not require air conditioning.





In case of Photovoltaics or direct conversion of sunlight to electricity via solar cell, the efficiencies limited to about 20 percent of the absorbed sunlight.

Solar thermal conversion involves the production of shaft power and of electricity via a thermodynamic cycle. In this cycle, a heat engine is driven by energy absorbed from sunlight. The heat engine is the principal feature that distinguishes the discipline of solar-thermal electricity from photovoltaics or home heating and cooling. All heat engines are limited in performance by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics.

To achieve the higher temperature associated with heat engine efficiency place special requirement on the solar collector used. The collector must be designed either to suppress normal loses that is, those due to radiation, convection or conduction-or to enhance the intensity of the incident solar energy by optical concentration. Finally, to provide a useful quantity of energy at a central location, some degree of power concentration is often required. 

Solar thermal systems for generating electricity use tracking mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight on to a receiver, where it is converted to high temperature thermal energy. The high-temperature heat in the receiver is then used to drive a heat engine and electric generator to produce electricity.

Currently, three architectures for Solar Thermal Systems show promise for generating; parabolic troughs, central receivers and parabolic dishes (P – 26). In parabolic trough systems, sunlight is focused on to a receiver tube that runs along the focal line of the collector. Through collector’s typically track the sun in one axis. A central receiver system uses a field of heliostats, or sun-tracking mirrors, to focus sunlight on to a tower-mounted receiver. And in a parabolic dish system, both the parabolic mirror and receiver track the sun. Many system configurations are possible. However, the architectures and optical characteristics of solar thermal systems influence the choice of receiver, power conversion equipment, and scale of systems. In typical through systems, the relatively low concentration ratios (typically 20 X – 100 X), as well as the inherent economics of scale of steam-rankine power conversion equipment have led to a large-scale power plants which use a heat transfer oil to collect solar heat in the receiver tube.


            Molten salt central receiver system is most effective approach. Compared to direct-steam generation receiver used in solar one, molten salt systems permit the receiver and steam turbine to be decoupled and provide cost effective thermal storage. Improved dispatch ability and increased capacity factors for the power generation equipment are inherent in molten salt central receiver system.

Perhaps the most important technical development for central receivers has been the demonstration of molten salt pumps and valves on a large-scale.

Dish Technology

            Most of the recent development effort on dish technology has focused on dist-stirling systems progress has been made on stretched-membrance dish concentrator concepts. High-performance, single element, stretched-membrane dishes have been demonstrated in Germany and U.S. Progress was also made on multi-faceted, stretched-membrane dishes, primarily in the areas of improved optical quality and manufacturability.

Through System are parabolic relectors in a trough configuration and the most mature solar thermal technology.  


Through concentrate the sun up to 100 times on to a fluid-filled receiver tube positioned along the ling of focus in the trough.  

Power Tower (Also called Central Receiver)

Dish System

The solar energy ultimately heats a fluid powering a small engine/generator operating at about 800°C, a single dish module can generate up to 50 KW of electric power. Many dishes can be grouped together to produce more power.

Solar Collectors For Utility Applications

The largest cost component in a solar system is the collector, so it must be made economically. This can be accomplished by making it simple and of plentiful materials. To be effective, this low cost collector must be arranged so that the most of energy entering the aperture is intercept by the collector and delivered to the receiver with little or no loss.

It is generally conceded that the system that best meets these requirements and is most suitable for inter connection with the utility gric is the central receiver or solar tower concept. This is a pseudo point-focus system in which tow-axis tracking is used to keep the beams  from each of 15,000 to 30,000 heliostats directed at the central receiver. The individual heliostats are very simple devices. A foundation and a pedestal support a housing in which elevation and azimuth drive trains are mounted. Each is driven by a 30-35 W motor in response to computer (or sensor) generated drive commands are continuously updated so that sunlight intercepted by a large mirror supported by the drive trains is continuously reflected to the elevated central receiver or boiler. At the receiver, the light from each heliostat is interrupted, absorbed as heat, and transferred into a working fluid such as steam, liquid metal, or hot gas. The exact configuration of a solar tower system varies appreciably depending on the imposed requirements and constraints.


Direct conversion of daylight into electricity by photovoltaics or solar-thermal conversion system is the most promising renewable energy options that have emerged in the recent years.

The earth receiver about 75,000 trillion KW of energy from the sun every day. Just 0.1 percent of this is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of the world. Putting this in a different way, at noon, the solar energy striking an area of 70 miles long by 70 mile wide, if converted into photovoltaic electricity, would equal to the peak capacity of all existing power plant in the world.

With the ever growing demand for electric power and continuously depleting fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas various alternative sources of energy have been resorted to by advanced nations. While wind, geothermal and water power are safe to use, they can not be tapped at all times in all places. Ocean and tidal power generation are yet to take off as viable alternatives. Tapping nuclear power poses problems of waste disposal and safety aspects.

Although no alternative energy sources can compete with plentiful, low cost fossil fuel, the days when we can rely on the availability of such fuels are limited. There seems to be no reasons why the solar thermal electricity option should not be pursued aggressively, and if it is, this option can begin to impact our energy requirement by the year 2000.




Telephone  cable users experienced difficulty that the results from moisture entering the cable through mechanically caused breaches in the cable jacket or by vapour diffusing through the jacket and condensing in the core. The problem was solved by displacing the air in the cable with a polyethylene-petroleum jelly blend applied when the cable pairs are assembled. Since the jelly has a dielectric constant that is twice that of the displaced air, it was necessary to increase the conductor insulation thickness for equivalent capacitance with resultant increase in overall cable diameter. The diameter increase in eliminated by including in the insulation resign an azodicarbonamide which liberates nitrogen gas at the approximate 240°C extrusion temperature, thereby causing the insulation to be about 50% cellular and reducing its dielectric constant so that its thickness can be reduced and overall cable diameter is the same as for non filled cable. The insulation is applied in a dual extrusion head with the first head extruding a thin skin of non-cellular insulation to minimize penetration of the jelly filler into the cellular insulation and to provide crush resistance.

Environmental and mechanical protection to jelly filled cabled splices is of almost importance for the effective functioning of telecom Networks. For this, cable jointing kits of epoxy type with lead sleeves were formerly used by the Indian Department of Telecommunications. These are replaced gradually by heat shrinkable types of kits since 1983. The heat shrinkable sleeves required for insulation are manufactured from cross-linked and thermally stabilized polymers. As on today these kits are employed extensively in direct burial, aerial, ducted, straight and branch off types of applications. Thermo shrink Transition (TST) type of kits intended for jointing pressurized paper insulated cables to jelly filled cables is a novel addition to the existing range of kits. Its adoption is gradually on the increase.


IS: 6474 – 1984

-         Polyethylene insulation and sheath of electric cables

IS (3961) (Part – IV)  - 1968

-         Polyethylene insulated cables.

Above Specifications may be obtained from

Bureau of Indian Standards,

9, B.S. Zafar Marg,

New Delhi – 110 002.


Unbelievable as it may seem, the jelly-filled (JF) cables which were thought to be the answer to moisture ingress have been found to be responsible for intermittent, unpredictable faults and cross talk leading to severe maintenance problems.

Various types of cables are used in the telephone transmission network today such as optical fibres, coaxial cables, jelly filled cables and paper core cables (with or without ducting). Optical fibres which are the current rage for trunk routes had the sturdy, coaxial cables as their predessors “ Currently DOT is not laying down any fresh coaxial routes and the only procurement is for maintenance purpose”, says, a DOT’s spokeman. For trunk routes, the popular transmission media are optical fibres, microwave, HF, VHF or satellites. For the local network, paper insulated cable in pressurized ducts has been in use along with the jelly-filled cables which were introduced between 1968 and 1975. AT & T, USA was the first in introducing them in 1968 and currently the entire underground cable network in the US consists of jelly-filled cables. In India roughly 50% of the underground cables are jelly-filled, of the total investment by DOT as much as 40% is in the field of underground cables network.

Although optical fibre cables have large capacity and brand width yet according to the experience of railways who have installed them expensively, they are very much prone to rodent attacks, vendors, claims to the contrary not with standing.

Several administration in countries like Singapore, Iran, Hongkong, Thailand and India have experienced they jelly-filled cables are only partially effective in blocking the entry of water in the cable core.

With jelly-filled cables protection from moisture has been found to the extent of 85% in India 90% abroad. A BP chemicals at Gange mouth U.K. resulted in the conclusion that oxidative stability of insulation is dependent on the temperature of filling compound at the time of  contact and duration of the contact.






Electric Cables from the essential connecting line between one piece of electrical apparatus or machinery and another, but the variety of uses, conditions of service, and technical methods associated with the manufacture and installation of impregnated paper insulated power cables have resulted in a large number of constructions and protective finishes.

Essentially power cables used for transmission and distribution purposes consist of conductors stranded from plain high conductively annealed copper wires insulated with oil-impregnated paper tapes. The single or multi core assemble in them enclosed in an impermeable metal sheath, and where necessary depending on installation conditions, the assembly is protected by steel armourings.

Modern cable technology is still pursuing the above ideal, but today many other additional factors have also to be considered, as indicated in the following notes (dealing with oil impregnated paper insulated cables), which are divided into three main parts, the 1st dealing with cable design, the second part outlines modern manufacturing methods and the third section discusses installation requirements.

Copper and aluminium are, thus, vigorous contenders for the market offered by cable making. Both economic and technical factors have to be taken into account in choosing between them not only as conductors but also in other operation in cable making.


XLPE coated cables and wire are extensively used in all electrical linings, domestic lightings and all other purposes.

Armoured cables are used where only a few cables are to be placed in the same trench and where it is not expected that additional cables will be laid in the near future. Parkway lighting, river crossing, and lighting of the grounds of an institution are among the more common applications of armoured cable. In streets, and in situations generally, where these is a possibility of disturbances from subsequent excavation, the armoured cable it protected by laying a plank or a slab of convert above it. In making crossings under paked road ways, such cables are some times protected by driving an iron pipe across the road under the paving. The cable in then drawn through this pipe.


Electrical and Electronics industry has gathered considerable strength over the past years. As a result, India has emerged as one of the top nations among the developing ones, and has been able to establish a wide international market for its engineering goods.

Cables are important part of electrical and electronics industry and broadly encompass a large variety from power cables to even optical fibre cables which will be produced in India shortly.

Power cables are required for underground distribution in cities, distribution of electric power in industrial complexes. For distribution in households and commercial undertakings, LT house wiring cables are used. One of the remarkable features in India is switch over to aluminium in power cables. Similarly, after introduction of XLPE cables, the Indian industry developed 66 KV and 132 KV cables for different applications and different environmental conditions such as mining, short firing cables, cables for submersible pumps, auto cables, flexible, etc. Winding coils and strips with different insulation coverings are required for winding coils of various electro-magnetic machines and devices. Winding wires industry applies super-enamelled, fibre-glass covered, paper covered etc., wires and strips for motors, generators, transformers etc.

The future demand of XLPE Power cables has been estimated on the basis of the trend in power generation during last ten years and future target fixed by the planning commission. The statistical relationship between addition in power generated and the consumption of power cables is also estimated by way of two regression. It is understood that XLPE and PVC Power cables are being increasingly preferred by state electricity boards and others for new installations and so the demand of these cables is likely to increase very fast and so the penetration of XLPE and PVC Power cables is estimated to increase to 10 percent in coming years.


The quantity of raw materials required for running a PVC cable unit depends upon the types of cables produced and the type of a raw materials used, such as copper conductors or Aluminium conductors, following in the list of the various raw materials required.

(i)                 Aluminium conductors of various sizes or

(ii)              Copper conductors of various sizes

(iii)            Spools for winding finished wire and other packing materials

(iv)             XLPE grade semi-conducting Compound (Chemically, Cross-linked Polyethylene)

(v)                Copper tapes


IS : 694 – 1977

PVC insulated cables for working voltage upto and including 1100 volts (second revision)

IS : 1554 (Part II) – 1981

For working voltage from 3.3 KV upto and including 11 KV (first revision with Amendent No. 1)

IS : 3961 (Part III) – 1967

NC – insulated and PVC sheathed heavy duty cables

IS : 6474 – 1984

Polyethylene insulation and sheath of electric cables

IS : 7098

Cross linked polyethylene insulated PVC sheathed cables.


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NIIR PROJECT CONSULTANCY SERVICES (NPCS) is a reliable name in the industrial world for offering integrated technical consultancy services. Its various services are: Pre-feasibility study, New Project Identification, Project Feasibility and Market Study, Identification of Profitable Industrial Project Opportunities, Preparation of Project Profiles and Pre-Investment and Pre-Feasibility Studies, Market Surveys and Studies, Preparation of Techno-Economic Feasibility Reports, Identification and Selection of Plant and Machinery, Manufacturing Process and or Equipment required, General Guidance, Technical and Commercial Counseling for setting up new industrial projects and industry.

NPCS also publishes varies technology books, directory, databases, detailed project reports, market survey reports on various industries and profit making business. Besides being used by manufacturers, industrialists and entrepreneurs, our publications are also used by Indian and overseas professionals including project engineers, information services bureau, consultants and consultancy firms as one of the input in their research.

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