NIIR had identified some Hi-Tech Projects for the entrepreneurs and published a book on that projects which titled "Detailed Projects Profile on Selected Hi-Tech Projects". These Hi-tech projects are Aluminium Beverages cans, Beer industry, Compact Disc, Lap Top computers, Optical fibre cables, plastic I. V. Bottles, Solar Power Plant, Telephone Cables and XLPE cables. All the above projects are based on latest technologies. Each project present with uses and application, market position, manufacturing process, flow diagram. Suppliers of machineries and raw material along with cost estimation. These hi-tech projects have bright market potential and demand would be increased. This book is very informative and useful for relevant entrepreneurs.
ALUMINIUM BEVERAGES CANS
Today, the food containers that are being used in
our daily living extend over the widest range, from those which are traditional
and made of natural raw materials to those made of new materials such as
plastics, the fruit of modern technological innovation. Moreover, these
containers are today available in wide diversification, competing violently for
an over larger market share.
principal types of food containers is used today are glass containers, metal
containers, plastic containers, wooden containers and containers made of fibrous
materials. As observed from the roles and function of food packages and
containers, increasing importance has come to be attached in recent years to the
sales promotional roles and function of these packages and containers, in
addition to the inherent roles and functions of securing the quality and price
levels of foods and of providing greater convenience in the transportation,
storage, sale and use of the these foods.
most typical among metal containers are cans. These cans are mostly made of tin,
tin-free steel or aluminium. Aluminium has the most of the qualities as for
packaging materials. It is attractive in appearance, light and unbreakable,
testless, odourless, non-toxic, impermeable to liquid, gases, water-vapour and
odours. Because of its capacity it gives complete protection from light.
properties of the aluminium cans are listed below :-
It is light in weight
It is non-toxic, odourless and testless
It is impermeable to liquid, gases, water vapour and odours
It protects from light
Growth of bacteria and mould is not possible in its medium
Aluminium cans are unbreakable
They are cheaper as compared to the containers
Transportation of the aluminium cans are also cheaper than the others.
Its outer look is attractive which helps in marketing.
Aluminium cans are most
typical among metal containers. Canned foods are found in great abundance all
around us, and include processed fisheries products such as crab, tuna and
sardine. Processed fruits, processed agricultural products such as sweet corn
and asparagus, and daily products such as corned beef, cheese and butter. More
recently, canned soft drink and bear are gaining popularity at a rapid pace in
concert with the wide acceptance of automatic vending machine.
I.S. 3603 â€“
I.S. 9396 â€“
Can for food and drinks
Specifications may be obtained from
Bureau of Indian
9, B.S. Zafar
New Delhi â€“
Packaging is the most
essential part in the distribution of goods from the producer to the consumers
various materials like jute, paper, tin, aluminium foil, plastic materials and
have been one of the most important media for packaging since very long time and
still proudly retain prestigious position inspite of many new invention in the
field of packaging various materials products like oils, fruits canning, various
milk products, beer etc are being packed in the aluminium cans. Among all these
materials, the packing of beer in aluminium cans, is gaining more popularities.
The demand of aluminium cans for beer packing is depends upon the production and
consumption of the beer.
industry in our country is at last self-sufficient. In 1989-90, output of
aluminium at 470000 tonnes was more than the domestic demand at 430000 tonnes.
Today the installed capacity of the industry is 580000 tonnes per year with
operative capacity 610000 tonnes per year.
Beer is generally defined as an alcohol beverage
made by fermentation of a farinaceous extract that is obtained from a starchy
raw material, like barley, in the form of malt. Although it is possible to
replace some part of the barley with other starchy materials (e.g. rice, wheat,
oats, or potatoes) it is usually the main constituent of brewing materials.
making of alcoholic beverages is nearly as old as mankind it self. Wherever any
form of culture was established, people discovered how to make some type of
fermented drink, and in earlier stages always from some naturally found sugar
containing materials, such as the juice of grapes, or honey from wild bees. The
making of beer demanded a higher form of cultive, however, since people had to
establish a form of agriculture and produce some sort of grain.
was undoubtedly employed in the preparation of fermented liquors long before the
down of recorded history. Now Barley is extensively employed for manufacture of
malt used in brewing and distilling of beer. If we categories beer, we find four
broad categories as follows :
All above categories are in general. A particular
manufacture, uses, colour and flavour of his choice. In handy bottles, it is
sold in the market.
USES AND APPLICATION
Beer is used soft alcoholic drink. It keeps the
body warm and fresh by stimulating body reactions providing energy to work. It
is also used as medicine, for instance, black beer is used as cure for cough and
special of beer is for the control of sodium intake in the treatment of disease
such as congestive heart failure, high blood pressure and certain kidney and
liver ailments. Beer cannot harbor any pathogenic germs because of its low pH
value. Beer is free from fat, it acts as a diaratic, and it promotes the
fermentation of gastric acid acting as an appetite inducer.
is a popular beverage all over the world. It is considered good for health in
the sense that being very less on alcoholic content i.e. 8 to 9% it is found
effective in improving appetite.
India about 32 units have been registered with DGTD with a total installed
capacity of the order of 132,202 kilo litres per annum.
is a consumable item of frequent usage particularly of the urban elite where as
in the rural areas today and country liquor are more popular.
growth in consumption would have been still higher had there not been
prohibition in several states of the Indian union. The magnificent growth in
beer consumption inspite of all these policy constraints could perhaps be
explained by the growing rate of migration to urban areas from rural areas, rise
in income level, opening of more or more beer bars, issual of additional
licences for liquor shops and so on.
industry has been operating quite well. The capacity utilization during the last
few years has been around 139 percent.
in view the tremendous export potential, it would be worthwhile to explore the
possibilities of setting up an export oriented unit for producting Beer, which
is mostly preferred in overseas market.
is little over eight years since the computer giant, International Business
Machines Corporation introduced the personal computer IBM PC on August 12, 1981,
the concept and implementation have revolutionized not only the computer
industry but every spheres of business, commercial, research and medical
activity of course, this has not been achieved by IBM alone. The
compatible-makers, software firms, peripheral manufacturers and add-on
manufacturers have also contributed very generously to this growth.
industry must have changed as much in 10 years as the computer industry during
last decade. The change, rather revolution, ushered in by the microprocessor,
continues seemingly endlessly, making computers smaller and cheaper, and the
computer industry a sunrise industry in the world over.
portables and laptops are getting powerful, they are also becoming smaller and
easy to use. For seeing have entered this field. The portable and laptop sector
is the fastest growing sector, while PC sales are coming down Dataquest defines
portables as machines that use self contained battery power. The main reason for
the large scale acceptance of these machiners in the technology that allows
miniaturization, lightweight, long battery life and low price. Analysis foresce
the market divided into different areas the high end eill contain the desktop
portable and the battery powered laptop, and the low-end will comprise of
hand-held personal organizer having spreadsheet and word processing
A question that may
occur to the reader is : What are we trying to place a value on? The personal
computer is not merely a number cruncher. It is not measured in terms of the tons of paper it prints. Although
this has been the policy with mainframes, it is, fortunately, absolute, even
though the policy is still followed by many users. Therefore, we need different
criteria. The first thing to be said is that the personal computer is a capable
tool for people, one that can do much more than a nonintelligent terminal.
In speaking of
personal computers we must think small and scale our thinking to that level as
we did in the 1950s after the advent of the Volkswagen. Most jobs are of
reasonable size. It is the users in a business environment dominated by giants
who destroy the jobs. If we think small, we can view applications clearly and
In terms of
impact and orientation, the personal computer market is showing signs of
dividing into six sectors-computer hobbyists, professionals, small businesses,
dedicated usage, education, and the home market. For the time being, however,
these sectors are not clearly defined; personal computer devices can serve all
six sectors with only minor adaptations. (Keep in mind that the personal
computer is a general-purpose machine).
Bureau of Indian
Standard has not developed any specification till now. One can the advantage of
American Standards and British Standards for this product.
The last few
years have seen a significant growth in the Indian electronics industry due to
concerted effort of the government. Rationalization of liunsing
policies/procedures, libralisation of the telecom sector by allowing private
sector participation, measures to discourages SKD imports etc are some of the
important steps taken. Fiseal policies for electronics development.
industry has groson both in terms of physical output as well as range of
products introduced in the market. At present, there are over 80 units operating
in the area of mini/microprocessor based systems.
the product range in the area of computer comprises mini, micro, super mini and
main frame systems, low end 2D and 3D graphic workstations for CAD and CAM
applications. The majority of the production, however, in the area of
minicomputer/microprocessor based system was accounted for by PC, PC/XTS, PC/ATS
and mini systems based on 80386 microprocessors.
the concept of laptops is yet to catch on in the country, there seems to be no
death of systems available for the enthusiasts. Pac computer (P) Ltd., Bombay,
boasts of six laptop computers ranging from PC-compatibles to 386 sx-based
systems in its reperaoire. Though the systems were IBM compatible and had enough
memory power there seemed to be few takers, on account of the high price tag and
its relatively fewer applications.
notebook sized computer is expected to set a defacto standard and stir up
intense competion among laptop manufacturing an expensive buy. The new 386sx â€“
based laptop version that Pac launched has 2 M â€“ byte RAM, 40 M â€“ byte hard
disk and 1.44 M â€“ byte floppy drive. Pac claims that it comes with a built in
rechargeable and removable battery and does not require air conditioning.
In case of
Photovoltaics or direct conversion of sunlight to electricity via solar cell,
the efficiencies limited to about 20 percent of the absorbed sunlight.
conversion involves the production of shaft power and of electricity via a
thermodynamic cycle. In this cycle, a heat engine is driven by energy absorbed
from sunlight. The heat engine is the principal feature that distinguishes the
discipline of solar-thermal electricity from photovoltaics or home heating and
cooling. All heat engines are limited in performance by the fundamental laws of
To achieve the
higher temperature associated with heat engine efficiency place special
requirement on the solar collector used. The collector must be designed either
to suppress normal loses that is, those due to radiation, convection or
conduction-or to enhance the intensity of the incident solar energy by optical
concentration. Finally, to provide a useful quantity of energy at a central
location, some degree of power concentration is often required.
systems for generating electricity use tracking mirrors to reflect and
concentrate sunlight on to a receiver, where it is converted to high temperature
thermal energy. The high-temperature heat in the receiver is then used to drive
a heat engine and electric generator to produce electricity.
architectures for Solar Thermal Systems show promise for generating; parabolic
troughs, central receivers and parabolic dishes (P â€“ 26). In parabolic trough
systems, sunlight is focused on to a receiver tube that runs along the focal
line of the collector. Through collectorâ€™s typically track the sun in one
axis. A central receiver system uses a field of heliostats, or sun-tracking
mirrors, to focus sunlight on to a tower-mounted receiver. And in a parabolic
dish system, both the parabolic mirror and receiver track the sun. Many system
configurations are possible. However, the architectures and optical
characteristics of solar thermal systems influence the choice of receiver, power
conversion equipment, and scale of systems. In typical through systems, the
relatively low concentration ratios (typically 20 X â€“ 100 X), as well as the
inherent economics of scale of steam-rankine power conversion equipment have led
to a large-scale power plants which use a heat transfer oil to collect solar
heat in the receiver tube.
Molten salt central
receiver system is most effective approach. Compared to direct-steam generation
receiver used in solar one, molten salt systems permit the receiver and steam
turbine to be decoupled and provide cost effective thermal storage. Improved
dispatch ability and increased capacity factors for the power generation
equipment are inherent in molten salt central receiver system.
Perhaps the most
important technical development for central receivers has been the demonstration
of molten salt pumps and valves on a large-scale.
Most of the recent
development effort on dish technology has focused on dist-stirling systems
progress has been made on stretched-membrance dish concentrator concepts.
High-performance, single element, stretched-membrane dishes have been
demonstrated in Germany and U.S. Progress was also made on multi-faceted,
stretched-membrane dishes, primarily in the areas of improved optical quality
are parabolic relectors in a trough configuration and the most mature solar
concentrate the sun up to 100 times on to a fluid-filled receiver tube
positioned along the ling of focus in the trough.
Tower (Also called Central Receiver)
solar energy ultimately heats a fluid powering a small engine/generator
operating at about 800Â°C, a single dish module can generate up to 50 KW of
electric power. Many dishes can be grouped together to produce more power.
Collectors For Utility Applications
largest cost component in a solar system is the collector, so it must be made
economically. This can be accomplished by making it simple and of plentiful
materials. To be effective, this low cost collector must be arranged so that the
most of energy entering the aperture is intercept by the collector and delivered
to the receiver with little or no loss.
is generally conceded that the system that best meets these requirements and is
most suitable for inter connection with the utility gric is the central receiver
or solar tower concept. This is a pseudo point-focus system in which tow-axis
tracking is used to keep the beams from
each of 15,000 to 30,000 heliostats directed at the central receiver. The
individual heliostats are very simple devices. A foundation and a pedestal
support a housing in which elevation and azimuth drive trains are mounted. Each
is driven by a 30-35 W motor in response to computer (or sensor) generated drive
commands are continuously updated so that sunlight intercepted by a large mirror
supported by the drive trains is continuously reflected to the elevated central
receiver or boiler. At the receiver, the light from each heliostat is
interrupted, absorbed as heat, and transferred into a working fluid such as
steam, liquid metal, or hot gas. The exact configuration of a solar tower system
varies appreciably depending on the imposed requirements and constraints.
conversion of daylight into electricity by photovoltaics or solar-thermal
conversion system is the most promising renewable energy options that have
emerged in the recent years.
earth receiver about 75,000 trillion KW of energy from the sun every day. Just
0.1 percent of this is sufficient to meet the energy requirements of the world.
Putting this in a different way, at noon, the solar energy striking an area of
70 miles long by 70 mile wide, if converted into photovoltaic electricity, would
equal to the peak capacity of all existing power plant in the world.
the ever growing demand for electric power and continuously depleting fossil
fuels such as coal, oil and gas various alternative sources of energy have been
resorted to by advanced nations. While wind, geothermal and water power are safe
to use, they can not be tapped at all times in all places. Ocean and tidal power
generation are yet to take off as viable alternatives. Tapping nuclear power
poses problems of waste disposal and safety aspects.
no alternative energy sources can compete with plentiful, low cost fossil fuel,
the days when we can rely on the availability of such fuels are limited. There
seems to be no reasons why the solar thermal electricity option should not be
pursued aggressively, and if it is, this option can begin to impact our energy
requirement by the year 2000.
TELEPHONE CABLES (JELLY FILLED)
Telephone cable users experienced difficulty that the results from
moisture entering the cable through mechanically caused breaches in the cable
jacket or by vapour diffusing through the jacket and condensing in the core. The
problem was solved by displacing the air in the cable with a
polyethylene-petroleum jelly blend applied when the cable pairs are assembled.
Since the jelly has a dielectric constant that is twice that of the displaced
air, it was necessary to increase the conductor insulation thickness for
equivalent capacitance with resultant increase in overall cable diameter. The
diameter increase in eliminated by including in the insulation resign an
azodicarbonamide which liberates nitrogen gas at the approximate 240Â°C
extrusion temperature, thereby causing the insulation to be about 50% cellular
and reducing its dielectric constant so that its thickness can be reduced and
overall cable diameter is the same as for non filled cable. The insulation is
applied in a dual extrusion head with the first head extruding a thin skin of
non-cellular insulation to minimize penetration of the jelly filler into the
cellular insulation and to provide crush resistance.
and mechanical protection to jelly filled cabled splices is of almost importance
for the effective functioning of telecom Networks. For this, cable jointing kits
of epoxy type with lead sleeves were formerly used by the Indian Department of
Telecommunications. These are replaced gradually by heat shrinkable types of
kits since 1983. The heat shrinkable sleeves required for insulation are
manufactured from cross-linked and thermally stabilized polymers. As on today
these kits are employed extensively in direct burial, aerial, ducted, straight
and branch off types of applications. Thermo shrink Transition (TST) type of
kits intended for jointing pressurized paper insulated cables to jelly filled
cables is a novel addition to the existing range of kits. Its adoption is
gradually on the increase.
6474 â€“ 1984
insulation and sheath of electric cables
(3961) (Part â€“ IV) - 1968
Specifications may be obtained from
of Indian Standards,
B.S. Zafar Marg,
Delhi â€“ 110 002.
as it may seem, the jelly-filled (JF) cables which were thought to be the answer
to moisture ingress have been found to be responsible for intermittent,
unpredictable faults and cross talk leading to severe maintenance problems.
types of cables are used in the telephone transmission network today such as
optical fibres, coaxial cables, jelly filled cables and paper core cables (with
or without ducting). Optical fibres which are the current rage for trunk routes
had the sturdy, coaxial cables as their predessors â€œ Currently DOT is not
laying down any fresh coaxial routes and the only procurement is for maintenance
purposeâ€, says, a DOTâ€™s spokeman. For trunk routes, the popular transmission
media are optical fibres, microwave, HF, VHF or satellites. For the local
network, paper insulated cable in pressurized ducts has been in use along with
the jelly-filled cables which were introduced between 1968 and 1975. AT & T,
USA was the first in introducing them in 1968 and currently the entire
underground cable network in the US consists of jelly-filled cables. In India
roughly 50% of the underground cables are jelly-filled, of the total investment
by DOT as much as 40% is in the field of underground cables network.
optical fibre cables have large capacity and brand width yet according to the
experience of railways who have installed them expensively, they are very much
prone to rodent attacks, vendors, claims to the contrary not with standing.
administration in countries like Singapore, Iran, Hongkong, Thailand and India
have experienced they jelly-filled cables are only partially effective in
blocking the entry of water in the cable core.
jelly-filled cables protection from moisture has been found to the extent of 85%
in India 90% abroad. A BP chemicals at Gange mouth U.K. resulted in the
conclusion that oxidative stability of insulation is dependent on the
temperature of filling compound at the time of
contact and duration of the contact.
Cables from the essential connecting line between one piece of electrical
apparatus or machinery and another, but the variety of uses, conditions of
service, and technical methods associated with the manufacture and installation
of impregnated paper insulated power cables have resulted in a large number of
constructions and protective finishes.
power cables used for transmission and distribution purposes consist of
conductors stranded from plain high conductively annealed copper wires insulated
with oil-impregnated paper tapes. The single or multi core assemble in them
enclosed in an impermeable metal sheath, and where necessary depending on
installation conditions, the assembly is protected by steel armourings.
cable technology is still pursuing the above ideal, but today many other
additional factors have also to be considered, as indicated in the following
notes (dealing with oil impregnated paper insulated cables), which are divided
into three main parts, the 1st dealing with cable design, the second
part outlines modern manufacturing methods and the third section discusses
and aluminium are, thus, vigorous contenders for the market offered by cable
making. Both economic and technical factors have to be taken into account in
choosing between them not only as conductors but also in other operation in
USES AND SCOPE
coated cables and wire are extensively used in all electrical linings, domestic
lightings and all other purposes.
cables are used where only a few cables are to be placed in the same trench and
where it is not expected that additional cables will be laid in the near future.
Parkway lighting, river crossing, and lighting of the grounds of an institution
are among the more common applications of armoured cable. In streets, and in
situations generally, where these is a possibility of disturbances from
subsequent excavation, the armoured cable it protected by laying a plank or a
slab of convert above it. In making crossings under paked road ways, such cables
are some times protected by driving an iron pipe across the road under the
paving. The cable in then drawn through this pipe.
and Electronics industry has gathered considerable strength over the past years.
As a result, India has emerged as one of the top nations among the developing
ones, and has been able to establish a wide international market for its
are important part of electrical and electronics industry and broadly encompass
a large variety from power cables to even optical fibre cables which will be
produced in India shortly.
cables are required for underground distribution in cities, distribution of
electric power in industrial complexes. For distribution in households and
commercial undertakings, LT house wiring cables are used. One of the remarkable
features in India is switch over to aluminium in power cables. Similarly, after
introduction of XLPE cables, the Indian industry developed 66 KV and 132 KV
cables for different applications and different environmental conditions such as
mining, short firing cables, cables for submersible pumps, auto cables,
flexible, etc. Winding coils and strips with different insulation coverings are
required for winding coils of various electro-magnetic machines and devices.
Winding wires industry applies super-enamelled, fibre-glass covered, paper
covered etc., wires and strips for motors, generators, transformers etc.
future demand of XLPE Power cables has been estimated on the basis of the trend
in power generation during last ten years and future target fixed by the
planning commission. The statistical relationship between addition in power
generated and the consumption of power cables is also estimated by way of two
regression. It is understood that XLPE and PVC Power cables are being
increasingly preferred by state electricity boards and others for new
installations and so the demand of these cables is likely to increase very fast
and so the penetration of XLPE and PVC Power cables is estimated to increase to
10 percent in coming years.
RAW MATERIAL DETAILS
quantity of raw materials required for running a PVC cable unit depends upon the
types of cables produced and the type of a raw materials used, such as copper
conductors or Aluminium conductors, following in the list of the various raw
Aluminium conductors of various sizes or
Copper conductors of various sizes
Spools for winding finished wire and other packing materials
XLPE grade semi-conducting Compound (Chemically, Cross-linked
: 694 â€“ 1977
insulated cables for working voltage upto and including 1100 volts (second
: 1554 (Part II) â€“ 1981
working voltage from 3.3 KV upto and including 11 KV (first revision with
Amendent No. 1)
: 3961 (Part III) â€“ 1967
â€“ insulated and PVC sheathed heavy duty cables
: 6474 â€“ 1984
insulation and sheath of electric cables
linked polyethylene insulated PVC sheathed cables.