The Complete Technology Book on Synthetic Resins with Formulae & Processes

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The Complete Technology Book on Synthetic Resins with Formulae & Processes

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants & Engineers
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 818662399X
Code: NI151
Pages: 512
Price: Rs. 1,150.00   US$ 125.00

Published: 2005
Publisher: National Institute of Industrial Research
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Synthetic resin is typically manufactured using a chemical polymerization process. This process then results in the creation of polymers that are more stable and homogeneous than naturally occurring resin. Since they are more stable and are cheaper, various forms of synthetic resin are used in a variety of products such as plastics, paints, varnishes, and textiles. There are various kinds of synthetic resins; silicones resins, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, gum arabic, epoxy resins, guar gum, carrageenan, carboxymethyl cellulose, etc. Resins are polymeric compound which are available in nature and are also manufactured by synthetic routes. Some resins are also manufactured by partial modification of natural precursor polymer by chemical. Silicones are unique among the commercially important polymers both in chemistry and in variety of industrial applications. Silicones can be applied as high temperature insulating varnishes, impregnates to be used with glass, asbestos, mica products and encapsulating agents for electrical components. Water borne dispersions or emulsions, for example emulsions of vinyl or acrylic copolymers are popular in decorative coatings. The applications of synthetic resins are seen in some important industries like paint industry, adhesive industry, the textile industry, paper, paint, agricultural industry, petroleum industry etc. As it can be seen that there is an enormous scope of application of resins hence it is one of the major field to venture.
Some of the fundamentals of the book are electrodepositable pigmented coating compositions based on alkyd resins, phosphorus containing allyl resins, vapour permeation cure technology, characterization of water soluble anodic electrodepositive pigmented coating compositions, protection of concrete substrates, zinc rich coatings, electro deposition primers, developments in thermosetting powder coatings, application of powder coatings, polyethylene glycol, petroleum recovery and processing, industries using polyethylene glycols, silicones resins, preparation & formulation of silicone resin based coatings, pigments and dyes etc.
Synthetic Resins are used by lot of industries. Yet, little emphasis has been placed on the comparative value on functionality of polymeric material as a class. These resins have been classified in separate categories, usually in terms of their Chemistry, sources or end uses. The present book contains formulae, processes and other valuable details for various synthetic resins. This is very useful book for those concerned with development, consultants, research scholars, new entrepreneurs existing units, institutional libraries etc.

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Contents

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1. PHOSPHORUS CONTAINING ALLYL RESINS
Properties of Monomers
Polymerization
Applications

2. ELECTRODEPOSITABLE PIGMENTED COATING COMPOSITIONS BASED ON ALKYD RESINS
Introduction
Experimental
Materials
Synthesis of water soluble alkyd resin from phthalic
anhydride and maleic anhydride (A1).
Synthesis of water soluble alkyd resin from phthalic
anhydride and trimellitic anhydride (A2).
Synthesis of water soluble alkyd resin from phthalic
anhydride and maleopimaric acid (A3).
Synthesis of water soluble alkyd resin from maleopimaric
acid (A4).
Synthesis of water soluble methylated melamine
formaldehyde resin.
Preparation of water soluble anodic electrodepositive
pigmented coating compositions.
Characterisation of water soluble alkyd resins
Characterisation of water soluble anodic electrodepositive pigmented coating compositions.
Optimisation of anodic electrodepositive parameters
Testing and evaluation of anodic electrodepositive pigmented coating compositions
Results and Discussions
Solvent (MTO) Resistance
Protection Against Corrosion

3. VAPOUR PERMEATION CURE TECHNOLOGY
Introduction
Vapour Permeation Cure (VPC)
Primary Advantages of VPC Coating
Disadvantages
Limitations
Vapour Injection Cure (VIC) Process
Chemical Composition
Reaction and Mechanism
Advantages of VIC
Conclusion

4. PROTECTION OF CONCRETE SUBSTRATES
Differences Between Concrete and Metallic Substrates
Constructions Influence
Coatings Used on Concrete
Organic coatings   Thin film
Modified Epoxies
Furans
Chlorinated Rubbers
Waterborne Coatings
Vinyl Esters
Other Coatings
Organic Coatings   Thick Film
Elastomeric Coatings
Polyurethane Coatings
Synthetic Rubber (Elastomers)
Resin Rich System
Polymer Concretes
Plastic Liners
Brick or Tile and Mortar Systems
Machinery Setting Grouts
Inorganic Coatings
New Versus Aged or Deteriorated Substrates
Quality Assurance
Conclusion

5. ZINC RICH COATINGS
Inhibitive Primers
Organic Zinc Rich Coatings
Inorganic Zinc Rich Coatings
Surface Preparation
White Metal Blasting
Galvanising
Galvanising and Zinc Rich Coating Comparison
Beach Front Exposure
Tidal Exposure
5% Salt Spray Test
Inorganic Zinc Rich Coating   Advantages and Limitations
Application of Inorganic Zinc Rich Coatings
Cost Aspects

6. ELECTRO DEPOSITION PRIMERS
Electrodeposition Primers
Mechanism of Electrodeposition
Electro osmosis
Advantages of Electrodeposition
Types of Electrodeposition Primers
Shift to Cathodic E.D. Primer
Cathodic Electrodeposition Paint
Comparison of AED and CED
Properties of Dry Film
Latest Development in C.E.D.
Comparative Features of Different Types of CED
Plant Design and Process Control
Trends in Top Coats
Upgradation of Appearance & Performance of Top Coats
Solid Colours
Metallic Colours
Developments in Top Coat Application
Developments in Thermosetting Powder Coatings
Powder Manufacture
Types of Powder
Powder Coatings   Method of Application
Electrostatic Spray Corona Charging
Faraday Cage
Back Ionization
Electrostatic Spray Tribo Charging
Advantages of Powder Coatings
Dis Advantages of Powder
Economic Advantages of Powder Coatings
Application of Powder Coatings
General Metal Coatings
Industrial Machinery
Conclusion

7. WATERBORNE DISPERSIONS
Formulating Principles
Pigments
Additives
Binders
Acrylics/Vinyls/Vinyl Acrylic Emulsions
Polyurethane Dispersions
Cross Linking
Epoxy Dispersions
Miscellaneous Systems
Conclusion

8. ALGINATE
Chemical Structure
Chemical Derivatives
Manufacture
Physical Properties
Powdered Alginates
Solution Properties
Rheological Properties
Commercial Uses
Food Applications
Industrial Applications
Formulations
Stabilizing Frozen Foods
Fruit pie Filling
Frozen Gel
Frozen Fruit
Cream Sauce
Barbecue Sauce
Frozen Shortcake Berry Filling
Tomato Sauce (Pizza and Spaghetti)
Macaroni and Cheese
Chopsuey
Food Gels
Dessert Gel
Cold Water Gel
Cold Milk Gel
Instant Chiffon Pie Filling
Instant Chesse Cake Mix
Instant Limitation Bakery Jelly
Banana Gel Base
Meringue Powder with Dried Egg Whites
Dessert Souffles
Vanilla Souffle
Chocolate Souffle
Lemon Souffle
Dressings
Fabricated fruit
Pie fillings
Cooked Fillings
Cold mix Fillings
Industrial Applications
Corrugating Adhesives
Single Starch System
Two Starch System
Fiber Reactive dyes
Pad Dyeing
Laboratory Techniques
Viscosity Measurement
Moisture Determination
Powder Color Determination
Alginates in Mixtures (Detection)
Alginates in Mixtures (Determination)
Spectrophotometric

9. CARBOXYMETHYL CELLULOSE
Chemical Nature
Physical Properties
Equilibrium Moisture Content
Molecular Weights
Solubility
Film Properties
Manufacture
Biological Properties
Toxicological Properties
Six month Oral Toxicity
One year Studies
Chronic Oral Toxicity
Reproduction
Gastrointestinal Absorption
Clinical Study
Skin Irritation and Sensitization
Getting Information
Rheology
Storage and Handling
Packaging
In Plant Handling
Bulk Handling
Bag Handling and Storage
Shipping
Applications
Detergents
Petroleum
Paper
Textiles
BOD and Desizing Wastes
Coatings
Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals
Miscellaneous Applications
Specialties
Future Developments
World Production

10. CARRAGEENAN
Chemical Nature
Structure
Molecular Weight
Reactivities
Physical Properties
Appearance
Particle Size
Density
Solubilities
Manufacture
Biological/Toxicological Properties
Gastrointestinal Ulceration
Teratogenicity
Carcinogenicity
Rheological Properties
Gelation
Milk Gels
Additives/Extenders
Handling
Applications
By Result
By End Product
By Industry
By Process
Application Procedures
Dispersion
Stability
Specialties
Future Developments
Commercial Uses: Compounding and Formulating
Milk Applications
Uses in Dry Mixes
Uses in Manufactured Produts
Water Applications
Uses in Dry Mixes
Uses in Manufactured Products
Nonfood Applications
Pharmaceuticals and Toilet Goods
Other Applications
Commerical Uses: Processing Aids
Beverage Clarification
Abrasive Suspensions
Ceramic Glazes and Core Washes
Industries Using Carrageenans
Food
Dairy
Dairy Substitutes
Packaged Desserts
Other Food Uses
Pharmaceuticals and Toilet Goods
Metal Fabrication
Ceramics
Coatings
Agriculture
Household Products
Formulations
Chocolate Milk
Canned Water Dessert Gel
Air Treatment Gel
Toothpaste
Milk Puddings
Creamy Type (Cold Set)
Cooked Custard Type (Dessert and pie filling)
Cooked Custard or Flan
Antacid Gel
Laboratory Techniques
Water Viscosity Measurement
Water Gel Strength Measurement
Milk Gel Strength measurement

11. GUAR GUM
Manufacture
Seed Structure
Purification
Grades
Chemical and Physical Properties
Structure
Solubility in Water
Rheology
Viscosity
Shear Response
Handling
Dry Storage
Solution Preparation
Applications
Oil and Gas
Explosives
Textile
Food
Ice Cream
Canned Pet Food
Cheese
Sauces and Salad Dressings
Paper
Mining
Commercial Applications: Compounding and Formulating
Food
Explosives
Commercial Uses: Processing Aids
Oil and Gas
Textile
Carpets
Paper
Kraft Papers
Kraft Liner board
Recycled Liner board
Corrugating Medium
Boxboard
Offset News Stock
White Papers
Mining
Industries Using Guar Gum
Oil and Gas
Explosives
Food
Paper
Textile
Mining
Formulations

12. GUM ARABIC
Chemical Nature
Physical Properties
Manufacture
Biological/Toxicological Properties
Rheological Properties
Additives/ Extenders
Additives
Extenders
Handling
Applications
Emulsification
Colloid Stabilization
Encapsulation
Suspension
Application Procedures
Compatibility
Commercial Uses
Food Applications
Confectioneries
Dairy Products
Bakery Products
Flavor Fixation
Flavor Emulsification
Beverages
Pharmaceuticals
Suspending Agent
Demulcent Agent
Emulsification
Antiseptic Preparations
Miscellaneous Applications
Medicines
Cosmetics
Adhesives
Paints
Inks
Record Ink
Soluble Inks
Watercolor Inks
Quick Drying Inks
Fabric   and Laundry Marking Inks
Pigmented Inks
Emulsion or Typographic Inks
Hectographic Inks
Electrically Conductive Inks
Lithography
Textiles
Miscellaneous Uses
Industries Using Gum Arabic
Food Industry
Pharmaceutical Industry
Other Industries
Formulations
Confectioneries
Dietetic or Sugarless Candies
Marshmallows
Food Emulsions
Pickle Oil Emulsion
Pickle Juice
Beverages
Stabilized Fruit Drink
Dry Mix Imitation Orange Drink
Beverage Stabilizers
Nut Coating
Inks
Gloss Finish Inks
Wood Grain Inks
Laboratory Techniques
30% Viscosity Method
Insoluble Residue
Sediment and Color
Peroxidase Content

13. HYDROXY ETHYL CELLULOSE
Chemical Nature
Physical Properties
Solubility in water
Solubility in Organic Solvents
Dissolving Methods
Viscosity Properties
Compatibilities
Interactions
Film Formation
Manufacture
Biological/Toxicological Properties
Rheological Properties of Solutions
Additives/Extenders
Handling
Applications
Application Procedures
Specialties
Future Developments
Commercial Uses: Compounding and Formulating
Protective Colloid in Latex
Thickener for Latex Compositions
Latex Paints
Color Coats for Paper
Textile Binders and Adhesives
Building Specialties
Cosmetics and Pharmaceuticals
Paper Sizes and Coatings
Carpet and Textile Dye Pastes
Special Applications
Commercial Uses: Processing Aids
Crude Oil Drilling and Recovery
Electroplating and Electrowinning
Miscellaneous Binders
Other Specialty Uses
Industries Using Hydroxyethylcellulose
Adhesives
Agricultural Products
Building Products
Cosmetics
Oil and Gas Extraction
Paints and Coatings
Paper and Allied Products
Synthetic Resins
Textile Mill Products
Formulations
`Copolymer Latex
Latex Interior Flat Wall Paint
Textile Printing
Oil Well Workover Fluid
Roll on Antiperspirant
Liquid Shampoo

14. HYDROXY PROPYL CELLULOSE
Chemical Nature
Stability
Chemical Stability
Biological Stability
Insolubilization
Physical Properties
Moisture Content
Solutions
Rheology
Organic Solutions
Hot Melts and Waxes


Compatibility
Film Properties
Thermoplasticity
Manufacture
Toxicological Properties
Additives
Preservatives
Defoamers
Plasticizers
Handling
Applications
Application Procedures
Water Temperature
Compatibility with Salts
Molding Powder Preparation
Specialties
Commercial Uses: Compounding and Formulating
Commercial Uses: Processing Aids
Industries Using Hydroxypropyl Cellulose
Formulations
Cosmetics
Antiperspirant (Roll On)
Hair Grooming Aid
Shampoo (Gel)
Paint Removers
Nonflammable Solvent Type Remover
Acid Type Remover
Pharmaceuticals
Thermoplastics
Injection Molding Formulation (Unfilled)
Laboratory Techniques

15. POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL
Chemical Nature
Physical Properties
Viscosity
Solubility in Water
Solubility in Organic Solvents
Solvency and Compatibility
Hygroscopicity
Surface Tension
Volatility
Thermal Stability
Biological/Toxicological Properties
Manufacture
Handling
Applications
Functions
End Products
Industries
Processes
Application Procedures
Additives/Extenders
Specialties
Future Developments
Commercial Uses: Compounding and Formulating
Chemical Intermediates
Adhesives
Agricultural Formulations
Cellophane Film Humectants
Cosmetics and Toiletries
Detergents and Cleaners
Inks
Paints and Coatings
Pharmaceutical Products
Rubber Compounds
Miscellaneous Products
Cork Products
Food Products
Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids
Paper Products
Photographic Developers
Sponges
Wood swelling agent
Commercial Uses: for Processing Aids
Ceramics
Dialysis Operations
Electroplating
Heat Transfer Baths
Leather Treatment
Metal Working Operations
Paper Products
Petroleum Recovery and Processing
Plastic Compounding
Rubber Products
Textile Products
Wood Products
Industries Using Polyethylene Glycols
Adhesives
Agricultural Products
Ceramics Products
Chemical Specialties
Cosmetics and Toiletries
Electronic and Electrowinning
Food Products
Inks and Printing
Leather Processing
Lubricants and Hydraulic Fluids
Medical Sundries
Metal Fabricating
Packaging Materials
Paints and Coatings
Paper Products
Petroleum Recovery and Processing
Pharmaceuticals
Photographic Products
Plastics Products
Rubber and Elastomers
Textile Products
Wood Processing
Formulations
Fatty Acid Esters
Water Dispersible Alkyd Resin for Paints
Suppository Bases
Ointment Bases
Cosmetic Cream
Hand Lotion
Brushless Shaving Cream
Cream Rouge (Vanishing)
Perfume Stick
Clay Starch Paper Coating
Metal Working Lubricant
Ball point Pen Ink
Laboratory Techniques
Identification of PEGs
Determination of PEGs in Other Materials

16. ALGINATE POLY ETHYLENE OXIDE
Chemical Nature
Narrow Molecular Weight Distribution Grades
Hydrogels
Thermoplastic Compound
Hydrodynamic Drag Reduction Slurry
Oxidative Degradation
Association Complexes
Physical Properties
Bulk Properties
Manufacture
Biological/Toxicological Properties
Toxicological Studies
Biodegradability
Rheological properties
Viscosity
Additives/Extenders
Applications
Application procedures
Boiling Water Dispersion
Nonsolvent Dispersion
Commercial Uses: Compounding and Formulating
Adhesives
Water Soluble Paper Adhesives
Adhesives from Association Complexes
Industrial Supplies
Thickened Cleaning Solutions
Construction Products
Paving Composition
Water Soluble Purge Dam
Paints and Paint Removers
Latex Paints
Spatter Finish
Thickener for Paint and Varnish Remover
Pharmaceuticals
Dispersant for Calamine Lotion
Rubbing Alcohol
Printing Products
Microencapsulated Inks

Lithographic Press Dampening Fluid
Soap, Detergents, and Personal Care Products
Detergents
Toothpastes
Denture Fixative
Shaving Stick
Ophthalmic Solution
Absorbent Pads
Water Soluble Films
Seed Tape
Water Soluble Packaging
Commercial Uses: Processing Aids
Binder
Ceramics
Battery Electrodes
Fluorescent Lamps
Soil Stabilization
Other Binder Applications
Coatings and Sizes
Tablet Coatings
Glass Fiber Size
Dispersant
Vinyl Polymerization
Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete
Flocculation
Clays
Coal
Silica
Filier Retention Drainage Aid (Paper Making)
Hydrodynamic Drag Reduction
Fire fighting Additive
Fluid jet Cutting
Additive to Prevent Sewer Surcharges
Other Drag Reduction Applications
Thermoplastics Manufacture
Textile Antistat
Fugitive Textile Weft
Thickening / Rheology Control
Antimist Additive
Drift Control Additive
Oil Recovery Fluids
Water Retention
Asbestos Cement Extrusion Aid
Soil Amendment
Industries Using Poly (Ethylene Oxide)
Formulations
Aluminum and Metal Cleaner
Calamine Lotion
Denture Fixative, Powder
Detergent Bars
Detergent Liquid
Lithographic Press Dampening Fluid
Microencapsulation
Paint and Varnish Remover
Thickened Acetic Acid
Thickened Hydrochloric Acid (Muriatric Acid)
Thickened Sulfuric Acid
Rubber Lubricant (for Mounting of Tires)
Toothpastes

17. POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE
General Information
Chemical Nature
Physical Properties
Manufacture
Rheological Properties
Intrinsic Viscosity
Toxicological Properties
General
Acute Toxicology
National Cancer Institute
Subacute and Chronic
PVP Films
Compatibilities
Future Developments
Applications of PVP
Pharmacy
Medicine
Beverages
Cosmetics and Toiletries
Textiles
Paper
Adhesives
Detergents and Soaps
Polymers and Polymerization
Agricultural
Photography and Lithography

18. SILICONES RESINS
Chlorosilanes
Commercial Production of Monomeric Intermediates
Silicone Fluids
Manufacture
Properties and Uses
Thermal Stability
Rheological Characteristics
Surface Activity
Lubricating Properties
Electrical Properties
Other Characteristics
Identification
Silicone Elastomers
Manufacture of Base Polymers
Fillers
Processing
Vulcanization
Properties and Uses
High and Low Temperature Applications
Electrical Applications
Molding and Mold Release Applications
Thermal Insulation and Ablative Applications
Construction Products
Medical Applications
Convenience Uses and Miscellaneous Applications
Silicone Resins
Manufacture
Cure
Properties and Uses
Greases and Compounds
Surfactants
Primers and Adhesion Promoters
Preparation & Formulation of Silicone Resin Based Coatings
Cure Catalyst Driers
Pigments and Dyes
Thinners
Formulations
Application Guides
Surface Preparation
Priming
Applying the Coating
Curing
Surfactants and Specialties
Methods of Manufacture
Properties
Emulsions



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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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PROTECTION OF CONCRETE SUBSTRATES

TECHNICAL considerations for selecting coatings for use over concrete substrates are discussed with a review of some of the generic coatings currently being used.

When applying coatings for corrosion protection; concrete substrates present a unique set of circumstances for material selection, surface preparation and application procedures. There are many different aspects to consider as compared to coating steel, although the basic parameters for any successful coating system are the same.

  • Good Specifications
  • Proper Coating Selection
  • Proper Surface Preparation
  • Correct Application Techniques
  • Good Inspection (Quality Control)
  • Good Records Keeping

Over the years, the technology regarding coatings which are applied over metallic substrates, particularly ferrous metals, has been developed to the nth degree. Only in recent years have the problems associated with coatings being used over concrete substrates received serious attention. The spectrum of applications is very wide indeed. Even though metallic substrates also abound in most of these same environments, the nature of the substrate (which is one of the primary factors that dictate the product selection) is significantly different. The function of the coatings may also be different. Steel is not waterproofed, where waterproofing may be a major function of a coating used over concrete.

In addition to what we normally think of as surface type protective coatings, penetrants and special sealers may be used to protect concrete. These products may serve other functions in addition to corrosion protection, such as:

  1. Providing protection from thermal cycling, such as freeze/thaw weathering.
  2. Providing a pre-treatment for subsequent coatings.

The penetrant/sealants work in several ways. Some are merely surface sealers and recoating from time to time is a necessity. Others actually penetrate the porosity of concrete and form a crystalline structure filling the voids in the concrete. Others combine with free lime, which has not been completely reacted in the hydration process, forming an aerosilica gel and filling the porosity and minute cracks in the concrete matrix. Case histories show that some of these products have stopped water seepage when applied to the open face or negative side of a structure as opposed to being applied to the buried or positive side, as is waterproofing.

This discussion leads us to a different set of considerations than is used when selecting a coating, preparing the surface or applying a coating to a steel substrate. Steel has an established set of criteria for surface preparation and for checking film integrity and continuity. (Though being worked on jointly by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers and the Steel Structures Painting Council under a joint task group designation, TG-F, to date there are no consensus industry standards for the surface preparation of concrete).

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CONCRETE AND METALLIC SUBSTRATES

The three most obvious differences between metallic and concrete substrates, as regards coatings, are density, permeability and flexibility. The inherent porosity of concrete allows for the transmission through, and retention within the concrete matrix, of liquids. Concrete's inflexibility allows cracking of its mass from external influences. Hairline cracks may also develop in the curing process. Such cracking along with concrete's permeability poses the dual problems of water or other liquid influence from outside a structure (particularly below grade) and the effluence of dangerous or hazardous fluids from containment structures in the environment. Moisture retention within the concrete, if excessive, will inhibit the bond of most coatings, although there are moisture insensitive coatings on the market.

CONSTRUCTION INFLUENCE

Construction and expansion joints must receive special attention. In an area where ground water could create a problem, a vapor barrier should be used under concrete at ground level. Compounding these considerations is the fact that it is extremely difficult (if not impossible) to get consistent or substantially identical pours of concrete with any degree of repeatability. Nearly every pour will differ to some degree from the next, even though they may come from the same supplier on the same day.

The concrete may vary in the amount of air entrainment, the degree of laitance on the surface, honeycombing, finishing methods (if any), curing/hardening/release agents, etc. From a structural perspective, such variances may fall well within acceptable parameters. But protective coatings can sometimes be unexpectedly sensitive to some naturally occurring material characteristics or construction variables. This can prove downright frustrating to the specifier, supplier, applicator and inspector.

Finally, some coatings are sensitive to the chemistry of concrete and will not bond to it without some special handling or treatment. In the past, acid washes, followed by a thorough rinsing with clean water, have been used to neutralize the high pH of the concrete surface, which is caustic in its original state. Current practice is to avoid acid etching where possible, due to environmental and handling problems.

COATINGS USED ON CONCRETE

We cannot cover all of the coatings applied over concrete in this short space. We will look at some of the more commonly used coatings.

ORGANIC COATINGS - THIN FILM

For the purposes of this paper, thin film coatings are defined as those coatings usually applied by brush, roller or spray; are not reinforced with a scrim or other filler; are applied at less than 30.0 mils in a single coat. It should be noted that thin film coating systems, consisting of more than one coat, may exceed 30.0 mils.

Epoxies - Probably the most commonly used coatings in this category are the high solids/high build epoxies. Generally, a mist or wash coat is first applied to fill and seal the natural porosity of the concrete. This helps prevent bubbling and blistering often seen as the result of air entrapment when applying the full strength materials over porous surfaces.

MODIFIED EPOXIES

Phenolic modified epoxies are used in flooring applications where they have some better chemical resistance and wearability under high traffic conditions.

Coal tar epoxies and their performance are well documented. They were the standard for many years in the wastewater and pipeline industries. In recent years, they have been challenged by newer technologies.

100% solids epoxy coal tars were originally designed to go over green concrete, that is, concrete which has cured just long enough to support and accept the coating. They have proven to be very effective in certain containment and lining applications, where quick turn around is a requirement. Their application characteristics are somewhat unique and require a degree of application expertise. Some are applied by plural component spray.

Oil/moisture tolerant epoxies have been under development for years. Many are 100% solids materials. Recent developments have provided thin film epoxies that bond directly to oil saturated concrete (and oil contaminated steel). The activated resin system absorbs and cross links chemically with certain hydrocarbons. Patch tests should be conducted to ensure good performance, especially where the oils and/or greases may be animal or vegetable in origin. These coatings can significantly reduce the amount of surface preparation necessary to achieve a good bond.

FURANS

Furans that are acid cured will not bond properly to unprimed concrete substrates, and therefore are not applied directly over concrete. They are used in a thick film state as grouts or as the resin for polymer cements.

Conversely, non-acid cured furans have excellent broad spectrum chemical resistance and do bond tenaciously to abrasive blasted concrete.

Chlorinated Rubbers

Chlorinated rubber coatings, once widely used in industry, are now limited for the most part to swimming pools. Because of V. O. C. requirement and newer technologies, these products are not often specified today.

Waterborne Coatings

New 100% acrylic resins are finding more favour in industry. The waterborne epoxies also are becoming more popular V. O. C. and other environmental concerns, as well as ease in handling, are having a positive impact on the widening use of these coatings. Waterborne coatings are not generally specified for immersion service. They are not yet up to the performance levels of their solvent based sister coatings.

Vinyl Esters

There are a limited number of vinyl esters on the market for thin film applications. They are relatively expensive but do offer some advantages over the epoxies in certain chemical environments.

Other Coatings

PV A Latex, epoxy esters, waterborne elastomeric acrylics and others may be used as architectural coatings over concrete substrates. There are other high performance coatings, such as polysulfones, used in special applications.

ORGANIC COATINGS - THICK FILM

Thick film coatings, as defined for this paper, are those coatings and coating sytems, exceeding 30.0 mils in film thickness or system thickness. They may be applied by spray, roller, squeegee or trowel and may contain additives or fillers such as cloth scrims, sand, talc, cab-o-sil, etc. for additional strength, thickness or decorative purposes.

These coatings are often used as linings for storage facilities and secondary containment liners, as well as flooring systems.

ELASTOMERIC COATINGS

Polyurethane Coatings

The family of elastomeric polyurethane coatings, after some bumpy starts, has begun to show significant growth. They offer the advantages of 100% solids coatings, such as V. O. C. compliance, good film build at sharp edges and corners, and the ability to span smaller holes and cracks in a seamless continuous film. The elastomeric quality allows it to expand and contract (within limits) should the substrate move. They are applied in thicknesses from 60.0-120.0 mils or greater, depending on the condition of the substrate. Polyurethanes are not effective in some of the higher concentrations of acids and caustics. They are not usually recommended for organic solvent service.

Qualified applicators, once scarce, are now available throughout all areas.

Synthetic Rubber (Elastomers)

Cloth inserted rubber (elastomer) sheet, such as hypalon and EPDM, are in fairly common use as liners for containment areas and waste collection ponds. They have excellent chemical resistance as well as UV resistance. The installation of these materials require the proper sealing of the seams and in some instances special arrangements for holding them in place or fastening them to the concrete substrate.

RESIN-RICH SYSTEM

These systems are often used in flooring and lining applications which are multi layer and may consist of a thin film primer, a resin-rich layer rolled or squeegeed out, a reinforcing or filler layer (cloth, sand, mineral) and may have a resin-rich top coat or seal coat. The glass cloth reinforced systems are commonly called FRP or GRP (fiberglass reinforced plastic; glass reinforced plastic).

There are three popular generic resin systems used for most applications - polyester, epoxy and vinyl ester. There are numerous formulations and modifications to these basic resins and resin-rich systems depending on the in service conditions.

They are used extensively in architectural applications for decorative and functional flooring systems, such as kitchen areas. The more chemically harsh environments, like wastewater petroleum, chemical and pulp and paper facilities, call for more chemical resistant resins than are used for the architectural applications.

A potential major drawback to these coatings and systems is that they bond so tightly to concrete that, even when reinforced, they may crack if the substrate moves or cracks. Under the current E. P. A. mandates for secondary containment, such cracks would call for repair when discovered. Relatively stable and dense substrates, such as microsilica concrete and the extra reinforcing of standard concrete, can help reduce the problem of cracking.

Polymer Concretes

Polymer concretes have also been researched and worked on for some years with varying degrees of success. Early attempts were frustrating because of the lack of batch to batch consistency. The handling of some of them, such as the furan concrete, was very difficult as they were ultra-sensitive to variations or changes in environmental and climatic conditions. Manufacturing consistency has improved and there are both polyurethane and furan polymer concretes on the market.

Plastic Liners

These are not coatings in the strict sense, in that they do not bond to concrete. They are generally anchored to the substrate in some mechanical fashion. This can be a significant drawback should the retaining mechanism fail.

Some systems have anchoring mechanisms molded into the plastic material. The material is shaped or cut to fit a form, the seams are sealed and the concrete is poured around the corrosion resistant liner. When the concrete cures, the plastic is locked in place.

Although there are some polypropylene and polyethylene plastic used, PVC is the usual material for these liners.

Brick or Tile and Mortar Systems

Since when did brick and tile become organic? They, of course, are not. But the setting beds and mortars used today for corrosion resistant applications are. Since acid cured furans will not bond to concrete because of chemical incompatibility, most setting beds are epoxy. Vinyl ester, epoxy, and furan or carbon-filled furan may be formulated as grouts. These systems are used in dairies, food processing plants, paper mills and other processing plants. Furans are chemically resistant over the full pH range.

Machinery Setting Grouts

Where process equipment used in corrosive environments must be either leveled or stabilized, corrosion resistant organic grouts are used. These are very similar to the polymer concretes in that they are designed for strength as well as corrosion protection. Most are epoxy resin based.

INORGANIC COATINGS

The inorganic corrosion resistant coatings for concrete that are widely used are ...concrete. That is they are cementitious.

Some standard concrete types are considered more corrosion resistant than others. But practically, they are not really very corrosion resistant in H2S gas environments, such as found in wastewater applications where MIC (microbiological induced corrosion) is prevalent. All one needs to do is to put a drop of 10-15% H2SO4 on them and observe the results.

But there are corrosion resistant cementitious products (potassium silicates, sodium silicates and some calcium aluminates, for example, which perform extremely well in concentrated acidic environments at elevated temperatures. These materials are manufactured in castable and gunite grades, as well as mortars. On vertical and overheads surfaces they are nearly always applied over an anchoring system. Thickness may range from a uniform 1.5 inches to as much as 6-10 inches to rehabilitate badly deteriorated concrete. The products are not promoted as structural replacements for standard concretes, but their physical properties may exceed those of the concrete over which they are being applied. Although these materials will perform very well in very low pH (acidic) conditions, they may dissolve in a few days is the pH exceed 8-9.0. They are not recommended for highly caustic in service applications.

Since these cementitious products, like standard cementitous products, like standard cements, are porous (even though they are normally more dense than the concrete substrates they cover), they are usually applied over a corrosion resistant, organic membrane. The membrane serves two functions. First of all, being a corrosion resistant product in its own right, it is a back up to the corrosion resistant cementitious material which may be damaged or cracked. Also being porous, corrosive contaminates can migrate through the corrosion resistant cement and attack the substrate. Secondly, it may also serve as a physical isolation barrier from the substrate. In this manner, the transfer of cracks from the substrate through the topping may be reduced, since the top coat is not bonded directly to the substrate.

Corrosion resistant cementitious mortars are used in conjunction with acid brick for lining exhaust stacks for industrial applications and powder plants. They are also used in applications for brick liners in process areas and certain containment vessels. Where used as linings for containment, there is usually a back up membrane behind the brick and mortar lining.

These products, as compared to thin film coatings, are relatively expensive. But their performance in certain applications have made them cost effective. Their elevated operating temperatures and resistance to physical abuse cannot be matched by most thin film coatings. The gunite grades' ability to fill badly deteriorated areas of concrete substrate eliminates or reduces the rehabilitation work prior to applying the protective cementitious coating.

NEW VERSUS AGED OR DETERIORATED SUBSTRATES

Most of this discussion has revolved around the assumption that the substrate is new concrete. But when concrete has been in service and has been corroded and eroded, a whole new set of conditions rear their ugly heads. Even though steel may be contaminated after years of service containing certain chemicals, such contamination is not as pervasive a problem as it is with concrete that is saturated with a contaminant. The contamination may penetrate the concrete matrix to the reinforcing bars, even exposing them after the concrete has spalled.

To be most effective, some coatings require a relatively smooth surface. How does one reconstruct or rehabiliate such a surface in order that it may be protected with a corrosion resistant coating? We are back once more to a surface preparation consideration, assuming the deterioration is not beyond repair. For many coatings, the most cost effective way to rehabilitate is to apply a less expensive underlayment prior to applying the corrosion resistant coating. Other coatings, notably the 100% solids materials, can be filled with an additive, such as sand, talc, etc., to a putty consistency and used to repair damaged areas or fill voids in a surface prior to applying full top coat(s) of the coating. The manufacturer of the coating being used will specify his requirement for the most effective performance of his product in these areas.

QUALITY ASSURANCE

Assuming that a product has been selected and applied over a properly prepared concrete substrate, what assurance do we have that all of the steps have been correctly followed and the desired results achieved? Standards for inspections, like standards for surface preparation of concrete, are somewhat hit and miss. There are some ASTM test procedures and other practice, which are used as inspection guidelines. But there are no consensus industry standards here either. For example, adhesion testing on concrete has to have a different set of evaluation criteria than for steel because of the basic differences in materials.

In the meantime, we must rely on historical data of coating system on concrete and the manufacturer's best information. Testing procedures and information, if available, should be compiled for inspection standards for different generic coatings over concrete. Hopefully, the coating manufactures will establish the standards where they do not exist.

CONCLUSION

Because of the inherent nature of concrete, the wide variety of surface conditions resulting from construction process or in service conditions, and the requirements of a specific application, the protection of concrete substrates by using protective coatings pose a unique set of problems to industry. Many generic types of coatings are being tailored specifically to cope with these tasks. Most importantly, industry standards need to be defined for coatings used to protect concrete. This is particularly true in the area to surface preparation and inspection procedures. Environmental concerns and federal regulations resulting from those concerns have created a major expansion of applications, such as secondary containment. There is an increasing challenge to the coatings industry to develop products and standards in the area of corrosion control for concrete substrates.


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