Compendium of Medicinal Plants

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Compendium of Medicinal Plants

Author: NIIR Board
Format: Paperback
ISBN: 8186623809
Code: NI121
Pages: 444
Price: Rs. 875.00   US$ 100.00

Published: 2005
Publisher: National Institute of Industrial Research
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Medicinal plants are not only a major resource base for the traditional medicine & herbal industry but also provide livelihood and health security to a large segment of Indian population. Medicinal plants are resources of new drugs. Medicinal plants are important for human health. These plants have been used from the prehistoric times to present day. These plants based medicines are consumed in all civilizations. It is believed that the herbal medicine can give good effect to body without causing side effects to human’s life. Besides, the usage of medical plants has been increasing as an important role that can support the economic system. The medical plants for health are used as herbal treatments and therapies that can be new habits for culture. Medicinal plants constitute a large segment of the flora, which provide raw materials for use by various industries. They have been used in the country for a long time for their medicinal properties. These plants are staging a comeback and herbal renaissance is happening all over the globe. The herbal medicines today symbolise safety in contrast to the synthetics that are regarded as unsafe to human and environment. Although herbs had been priced for their medicinal, flavouring and aromatic qualities for centuries, the synthetic products of the modern age surpassed their importance, for a while. However, the blind dependence on synthetics is over and people are returning to the naturals with hope of safety and security. The decision to cultivate medicinal herbs should only be made in response to demand for particular herbs. The market is very competitive and could easily be oversupplied.
Some fundamentals of the book are bryonopsis laciniosa, cajanus indicus, spreng. and c.bichlorandc.flalvus, cassiaauriculata, linn.cassia angustifolia vahl, dalbergia sissoo, delonixelata, dolichandrone falcata, seem., drosera pellata, eclipta alba hassk, elettaria cardamomum maton, emblica officinalis, embelia ribes burm, enicostema littorale,blume., erythrina indica, grewia tiliaefolia, vahl., gymnema sylvestre, R.BR., or asclepias geminata, haematoxylon campechianum, hedychium spicatum ham. Ex. Smith, hedera helix helicteres isora ,linn., helianthus annuus, linn.91., hellebores niger, linn.92, hepatica nobilis 93., herniaria ,inulahelenium107., ipomoea digitataipomoea turpethum109. Iris germanica110. jatropha gossypifolia, juglans regia, kaempferia galanga etc.
The book contains systematic account of the most important plants used in medicines. Each chapter covers botanical description, parts used, Ayurvedic properties, clinical uses, constituents with the figure of the plant. This book will be very useful for those working on medicinal plants, natural products, entrepreneurs, libraries, consultant, research scholars etc.

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Contents

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1. Agaricus Albus
2. Ailanthus Excelsa
3. Alstonia Scholaris R. BR.
4. Amaranthus Spinosus
5. Annona Squamosa, Linn.
6. Apluda Mutica
7. Aristolochia Bracteata, Retz.
8. Asparagus Adscendens
9. Baliospermum Montanum
10. Bambusa Arudinaceae Wild
11. Barleria Prionitis, Linn.
12. Bauhinia Recemosa
13. Biophytum Sensitivum or Sensilium, LD.
14. Blumea Bal Samifera Dc. And B. Densiflora.
15. Boerhaaria Chinensis
16. Bryophyllum Calycinum
17. Bryonopsis Laciniosa
18. Cajanus Indicus, Spreng. and C. Bichlor and C. Flalvus.
19. Cassia Auriculata, Linn.
20. Cassia Angustifolia Vahl
21. Cayratia Carnosa
22. Centella Asiatica (Linn.)Urban
23. Cichorum Endivia Linn
24. Cinnamomum Tamala Nees & Eberm.
25. Cissus Quadrangularis Linn.
26. Clerodenron Phlomoides, Linn.
27. Cocculus Hirsufus
28. Coccinia Indica
29. Coffea Arabica. Linn.
30. Coleus Aromaticus, Benth, or C. Ambeinicus or C. Carnosus.
31. Convolvulus Microphyllus
32. Commelina Bengalensis
33. Corchorus Capsularis, Linn & C. Trilocularis.
34. Corchorus Fascicularis, Lam.
35. Cordia Dichotama
36. Cressa Cretica
37. Cucumis Trigonus, Roxb. And C. Pseudo-Colocynthis; Var., Pubescens.
38. Cucurbita Maxima, Duchesne.
39. Cymposis Tetragonoloba. Taub.
40. Cynodon Dactylon Pers
41. CymbopogonMaritinii
42. Dalbergia Sissoo
43. Delonix Elata
44. Dolichandrone Falcata, Seem.
45. Drosera Pellata
46. Eclipta Alba Hassk
47. Elettaria Cardamomum Maton
48. Emblica Officinalis
49. Embelia Ribes Burm
50. Enicostema Littorale, Blume.
51. Erythrina indica
52. Eugenia aromatica Kuntze
53. Euphorbia pulurifera
54. Ficus bengalensis Linn.
55. Ficus Cunia, Ham.
56. Ficus Hispida, Linn. & F. Daemona
57. Ficus Racemosa Linn.
58. Fiscus Religiosa Linn.
59. Ficus Tsiela, Roxb
60. Fagopyrum tataricum
61. Feronia ellephantum, Corea, or Anisiphalins Rumphi or crataeva Vallanga.
62. Assaofoetida Or Giant Fennel Ferula Persica
63. Filipendula Ulmaria (Syn. Spiraea Ulmaria)
64. Foeniculum Vulgare, Gaertn, or Anethum Foeniculum.
65. Fraxinus Excelsior Oleaceae
66. Freagaria Vesca Rosaceae
67. Fumaria Officinalis, Linn. Or F. Parviflora.
68. Galega Officinalis Leguminosae/Fabaceae
69. Galeopsis Segetum Labiatae/Lamiaceae
70. Galium Verum Rubiaceae
71. Galium Odoratum
72. Gardenia Turgida, Roxb.
73. Garuga Pinnata, Roxb.
74. Gentiana Lutea
75. Ganista Tinctoria
76. Geranium Robertianum
77. Geum Urbanum
78. Glechoma Hederacea
79. Gloriosa Superba, Linn.
80. A. Glycyrrhiza Glabra, Linn. G. Glandulifera.
81. Glycine Max
82. Gossypium Herbaceum, Linn. See Gossypium Indicum
83. Gratiola Officinalis
84. Grewia Tiliaefolia, Vahl.
85. Gymnema Sylvestre, R. BR. Or Asclepias Geminata.
86. Haematoxylon Campechianum
87. Hedychium Spicatum Ham. Ex. Smith
88. Hedera Helix
89. Helicteres Isora, Linn.
90. Helianthus Annuus, Linn.
91. Helleborus Niger, Linn.
92. Hepatica Nobilis
93. Herniaria Glabra
94. Hibiscus Cannabinus, Linn.
95. Hibiscus Esculentus, Linn.
96. Hibiscus Rosa-Sinensis Linn.
97. Hippophae Rhamnoides
98. Eleusine Coracana, Gaertn. Or E. Indica
99. Holoptelea Integrifolia, Planch.
100. Holarrhena Antidysenterica Wall
101. Humulus Lupulus Cannabaceae
102. Hygrophila Spinosa, T. Anders
103. Hyssopus Officianalis, Linn.
104. Hypericum Perforatum
105. Hyoscyamus Niger
106. Inula Helenium
107. Ipomoea Digitata
108. Ipomoea Turpethum
109. Iris Germanica
110. Jatropha Gossypifolia
111. Juglans Regia
112. Kaempferia Galanga
113. Laburnum Anagyroides
114. Lactuca Scariola
115. Lagenaria Vulgaris
116. Lagertroemia Parir Flosh
117. Lamium Album
118. Laurus Camphor
119. Laurus Nobilis
120. Laurus Sassafras
121. Lavandula Angustifolia
122. Leonurus Cardiaca
123. Leontodon Taraxacum
124. Leptadenia Reticulata
125. Levisticum officinale
126. Linaria vulgaris
127. Lycopus Europaeus
128. Lysimachia nummularia
129. Malva Sylvestris Mauritanica
130. Malva sylvestris
131. Marrubium Vulgare
132. Melissa Officinalis
133. Melitotus Officinalis
134. Mentha aquatica
135. Mentha Arvensis
136. Mentha × Pipertia
137. Penny-Royal
138. Menyanthes Trifoliata
139. Mimosa Pudica
140. Morinda Concanensis
141. Mucuna Pruriens
142. Nelumbo Nucifera Gaertn
143. Nepeta Cataria
144. Ocimum Sanctum
145. Hemlock Water-Parsnep
146. Ononis Spinosa
147. Operculina Turpethum
148. European Ornus of Manna-Tree
149. Orthosiphon Stamineus
150. Origanum Vulgare
151. Origanum Marjorana
152. Common Wood Sorrel
153. Melia Azadirachta
154. Ischoemum Philosum Hack
155. Jatropha Curcas
156. Juneperus Communis
157. Lawsonia Indermis
158. Linum Usitatissimum
159. Luffa Acutangula
160. Lycopersicum Esculentum
161. Mallotus Phillippinensis
162. Mangifera Indica
163. Momordica Charantia
164. Wild Or Spirting Cucumber
165. Musa Spientum
166. Nasturtium Offencinale
167. Negella Sativa
168. Ocimum Basilicum
169. Ocimum Gratissimum
170. Madhuca Indica
171. Mentha Viridis
172. Martynia Annua
173. European Olive

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Sample Chapters


(Following is an extract of the content from the book)
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ASPARAGUS ADSCENDENS

(N.O. -LILIACEAE)

Sanskrit: Musli

Hindi: Safed Musli

Parts used-Tuberous root and rhizome.

Historical Aspects-This plant is listed in Kirtikar and Basu as Shatavar. However, it must be distinguished from Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari).

Habitat-The plant grows in Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Hardwar and in the Himalayas.

Botanical Description-This is a thorny plant growing tall and erect. The rhizomes are 0.25-0.5 cm thick and white in colour. Pharmacognosy-The macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the plant have been studied. The water-soluble part in the root powder is 77.5%.

Phytochemistry-Spirostanol glycosides (asparanin A and asparanin B) and two furostanol glycosides (asparoside A and B) have been isolated from the methanol extract of the fruits of Asparagus adscendens. Sarsasapogenin and diosgenin have also been reported. Mucilaginous extract of Safed musli is also studied. The protein content is significantly high in the root.

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES

Guna: Guru, Snigdha. Rasa: Madhura, Tikta. Veerya: ushna. Vipaka: Madhura. Dosha: Tridoshahara. Karma: Balya, Shukravriddhikara, Rasayana.

Pharmacology-The demulcent properties have been described. The nutritive properties of the plant are ascribed to the protein content.

Safety-With the clinically recommended does no adverse effects have been reported.

Clinical Usage-It is used as an aphrodisiac as well as to increase sperm count. Its use as general tonic is also well known all over India.

INDICATIONS

General weakness.

Oligospermia.

FORMULATIONS AND DOAGES

Root powder-10-15 gms with sugar and milk b.i.d.

Expenditure on cultivation:

1. Planting material 1,80,000/-

(Approx. 4 Quintal/Acre, Rs.450/- kg)

2. Cowdeing Manure 5,000/-

(10 Trollies, Rs.500/- per trolley)

3. Preparation of land 3,000/-

4. Synthetic manure, tonic etc. 2,000/-

5. Green manure and its mixing 5,000/-

6. Weeding 3,000/-

7. Irrigation/Seeding 2,000/-

8. To take out stem & its washing 5,000/-

9. Other misc. expenses 5,000/-

10. To clean and dry 40,000/-

(Rs. 100/- per kg for 400 kg)

Total 2,50,000/-

RETURNS

11. Sale of dry stem 5,00,000/-

(Rs. 1250/- per kg for 4 quintal)

12. Planting material 50,000/-

Total 5,50,000/-

PROFITS:

13. Net Profit (Per Acre) 3,00,000/-

The above-mentioned process takes place between 6 to 9 months.

CINNAMOMUM TAMALA NEES & EBERM.

(N.O.-LAURACEAE)

Sanskrit: Tamalpatra.

Hindi: Tejpata (leaves), Dalchini (bark).

Parts used: Leaves, bark and oil

Historical Aspects: C. tamala is an ingredient of Madhvasava described by Charaka many centuries back. As a spice it has been used in India, China, Middle East and Europe and other countries.

Habitat: Grows in tropical and subtropical Himalayas at 1000-2200 m. Also seen in U.P., Eastern Bengal, the Khasi and the Jaintia Hills and Burma.

Botanical Description: A moderate sized tree, with a slightly rough bark, dark brown in colour. Leaves-opposite or sub-opposite, 5-7.5 by 12.5-20 cm. Glabrous and are scaly, shining above. They are 3-nerved from the base of the apex. Flowers are small, and unisexual. Perianth lobes are 6, oblong and silky. Fruit oblong, dry or slightly fleshy, 13-17 cm. long and dark purple in colour.

Pharmacognosy: The different varieties of bark have been stidued for macroscopic and microscopic features.

Phytochemistry: The leaves contain an essential oil, eugenol, terpin and cinnamic aldehyde. Outer bark on distillation yields an essential oil (similar to cinnamomum oil) having a pale yellow colour. Cinnamic aldehyde is the chief constituent. Roots contain an oil which has eugenol, saffrol, benzaldehyde and terpin.

AYURVEDIC PROPERTIES

Guna: Pichchila, Laghu, Tikshna. Rasa: Madhura, Verrya: Ushna. Vitaka: Katu, Tikshna. Dosha: Kaphavatahara. Karma: Rochana, Kandughna, Krimighna, Sangrahi, Kanthya, Artavaparavartaka.

Pharmacology:The components of the essential oil have a carminative effect. The beneficient effects of C. tamala in patients with diabetes mellitus has been shown. Singh et al report that 20 patients on non-insulin dependent diabeters mellitus with polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia, were treated with powder of C. tamala leaves in the dose of 2 TSF, t.d.s. The response was estimated on the parameters of Joslin's clinic. 50% cases were controlled well, 33.33% fairly so, while 16.67% patients proved refractory. The hypoglycaemic effect of C. tamala in patients with maturity onset diabetes (non-insulin dependent) was tested and probed using the parameters on fasting and post-prandial blood sugar. Its role in the management of diabetes mellitus is stressed.

Safety: In clinical trials, as regards to safety, no side effects were reported. C. tamala Ileaves as well as the bark is used as a spiece or condiment and as a flavouring agent for long, without any ill effects being reported.

Clinical usage: It possesses carminative, astringent and digestive properties and forms an ingredient of many formulations prescribed for gastrointestinal disorders. The drug is diuretic. The oil distilled from leaves is a powerful stimulant. It is used to reduce halitosis.

INDICATIONS

Flatulent dyspepsia.

Halitosis.

Cough.

Diabeter mellitus.

FORMULATIONS AND DOSAGE

Trijataka : 250-350 gms b.i.d./t.i.d.

JATROPHA CURCAS, LINN.

(N.O: - EUPHORBIACEAE)

Sans-Kanana-eranda, Parvata-yeranda, Eng-Angular-leaved physic nut, Fr.-Medicinier, Hind-Jangli-erandi, Bag-bereda, Safe-dind, Bhernda, Ben-Bon-bheranada, Bag-bherenda, Eranda-gach, Gab-bherenda, Guj-Jepal, Mah-Moghi-erendi, Ran-erandi, Arab and Pers-Dande-nahri, Punj-Rattanjot, Japhrota, Tel-Pepalam, Adavia-amudamu, Nepalam, Tam-Kattamanakku, Mal-Katamanak, Can-Kadaharalu, Bettada-haralu, Kon-Kad-eradi, Sinh-Valerandu, Burm-Kesugi, Simbo-kesu, Goa-Gala-mark.

Habitat-This evergreen plant is common in waste places throughout India, in the southern parts it is cultivated chiefly for hedges.

Parts Used-Seeds, juice, leaves and oil.

Constituents-Seeds contain a fixed oil 30 p.c., sugar, starch, a tonic albumin (tax-albumin analogous to ricin and named curcin), caseine and inorganic matters. Oil contains jatrophic acid (the active principle of the oil). Kernels and husks yield ash 6% amd nitrogen 3%.

Action-Seeds are acro-narcotic. Oil from the seeds is purgative internally, and externally it is depurative and antiseptic. Leaves are lactagogue locally, stem-juice is haemostatic and styptic. Root-bark is stomachic astringent.

Uses-Seeds yield pale yellow oil which in doses of 10 to 20 drops as purgative in action to one ounce of castor oil, but it is far less certain in its operation and causes more griping than castor oil. Its ill effects, griping ets., are corrected by lime-juice as in the case of croton seeds. Externally it is an esteemed remedy for itch, herpes and eczema, and it is a cleansing application for wounds, sores and ulcers. Dilutd with a bland oil (1 part to 2 or 3) it forms a useful embrocation in chornic heumatism. It is generally used for adulterating olive oil. "Seeds have also been used as drastic purgative but are likely to give rise to toxic symptoms"- are astringent. Whole plant is anthelmintic, deobstruent, diuretic and emmenagogue. From the flowers a perfumed essential oil or otto is prepared, which is greatly esteemed as cooling and used by the rich for anointing their bodies before bathing, also used as perfume. It is cooling when applied externally, in skin diseases, headache and weak eyes. According to Bhavaprakash, leaves are chewed in aphthae and ulcers in the mouth and leaf-juice or oil obtained form it is dropped into the ear, according to Chakradatta, in cases of otorrhoea etc., and the fresh juice of the leaves is a valuable application for soft corns between the toes. For ulcerations in the mouth, throat and gums, the leaves fried in ghee are recommended to be applied. Mahomedan writers mention the use of flowers applied as a plaster to the loins, genitals and pubes as an aphrodisiac. A poultice of the leaves is also used similarly. The plant is used in scorpion-sting.


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