Steelmaking, Shaping, Treating and Processing, Steel and Steel Products (Fasteners, Seamless Tubes, Casting, Rolling of Flat Products & others), Iron and Steel making by-Products, Steel making and Refining, Manufacturing of Steel, Steel Production

Friday, October 7, 2016

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Steel is one of the most important and widely used products in the world. Currently, the steel industry is undergoing a process of change. As a result of ongoing technical and economic developments, the production and use of electric arc furnace steel is, beneath the steel production in a blast furnace, becoming increasingly important, continuously gaining share of world-wide steel production over the past 30 years.

Steel is a term given to alloys containing a high proportion of iron with some carbon. Other alloying elements may also be present in varying proportions. The properties of steel are highly dependent on the proportions of alloying elements, so that their levels are closely controlled during its manufacture. The properties of steel also depend on the heat treatment of the metal.

The comparative advantage of cheap and high quality iron ore and manganese, has been somewhat set off by the limited accessibility of the steel industry to the supply of coking coal. The adoption of the sponge iron route by the private sector integrated plants helped in circumventing the constraint, and at the same time, ushered in a technological revolution in the industry. As a result, India has come to enjoy a cost advantage compared to most countries.

Not impressed by the Tenth Plan target of 38 mn tonnes (which  was lower than 39 mn tonnes  of the Ninth  Plan), the Government of India had announced a new National Steel Policy in 2005. The policy aimed at achieving a production level of 110 mn tonnes in 2019-20, of which the domestic consumption was aimed to rise to 90 mn tonnes and exports to 26 mn tonnes. The industry was expected to register a CAGR of 7.3%, slightly higher than the 7% annual growth registered during the 15-year period ending 2004-05. According to a study carried out by the International Iron and Steel Institute, the demand in India is projected to a level of 180 mn tonnes by 2020.

Iron and steel have played a leading role in the development of human civilization and their techniques. Together with its derivative, steel, iron has no real rival in its particular fields of application and has become a synonym of progress, being an essential element in mankind greatest technological achievements. It was at the origin of the industrial and scientific revolutions and at the heart of all the great discoveries which have marked the history of humanity from the manufacture of high quality swords in ancient times to today architectural wonders. Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten. Rolling is a metal forming process in which metal stock is passed through a pair of rolls. Rolling is classified according to the temperature of the metal rolled. Steelmaking is the second step in producing steel from iron ore. Processing of steel results in special steel product with required properties, for example; vacuum treated steel for forging ingots; pre strengthened stress relieved elongated steel, metallurgical addition product, forging powder alloy steels, etc. Fasteners are used to join and hold two or more pieces of metal either temporarily or more pieces of metal either temporarily or permanently. Some of the most common are bolts, screws, nuts, rivets and pins. Packaging steels differ from other sheet products particularly in terms of their thickness, mechanical properties and coatings, together with their aptitude to satisfy specific industrial and marketing requirements related to high production rates, design factors etc. Small gage welded tubes have an extremely wide range of applications, including metallic roof frames, mechanical construction in public work and industrial engineering sector, agricultural machinery, fluid distribution circuits, piston, etc. India is among the top producers of all forms of steel in the world. Easy availability of low cost manpower and presence of abundant reserves make India competitive in the global setup. The steel industry in India has witnessed an increase in demand due to expanding oil and gas sector, huge spending on infrastructural facilities coupled with growth in housing, consumer durables and auto sectors.

This book basically deals with structural changes in steel during hot rolling, structural changes during reheating, kinds of grain restoration process, dynamic restoration process, static restoration process, effect of initial grain, size of static re crystallization, effects of temperature and micro alloying, fundamental principles of the metal rolling process, preparing and heating the initial materials, preparations for rolling heating before rolling operations, bolt and nut manufacturing technology, casting of steel for flat products etc.

The present book covers different important aspects of steel processing with the casting method of steel for flat products, rolling of rails, wheels and rings, rolling of different steel products, production of fasteners, welded pipes, steel products for the building trade and many more.

The book is very useful for everybody who wants the thorough study on steel and steel products or wants to diversify in to this field.

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