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Textile Processing with Effluent Treatment (Sizing, Combined Effluent, Primary Treatment, Woollen Textile, Color Removal, Melt Spinning, Dry Spinning, Textile Fibres, Wool Fulling, Printing Process, Weaving of Synthetic Yarns and Blends)

Monday, May 29, 2017

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A textile or cloth is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread). Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool, flax, cotton, hemp, or other material to produce long strands. Textiles are formed by weaving, knitting, crocheting, knotting, or felting.

The words fabric and cloth are used in textile assembly trades (such as tailoring and dressmaking) as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibres. A fabric is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods (garments, etc.). Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a finished piece of fabric used for a specific purpose (e.g., table cloth).

Textile manufacturing is a major industry, it is based in the conversion of three types of fibre into yarn, then fabric, then textiles. These are then fabricated into clothes or other artefacts. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth. There are many variable processes available at the weaving and fabric forming stages coupled with the complexities of the finishing and colouration processes to the production of wide ranges of products. Certain other fiber properties increase its value and desirability in its intended end use but are not necessary properties essential to make a textile fiber. Such secondary properties include moisture absorption characteristics, fiber resiliency, abrasion resistance, density, luster, chemical resistance, thermal characteristics, and flammability. Some primary properties of textile fibers are: fiber length to width ratio, fiber uniformity, fiber strength and flexibility, fiber extensibility and elasticity, and fiber cohesiveness. Some, mostly larger, firms operate in the organized sector where firms must comply with numerous government labour and tax regulations. Most firms, however, operate in the small scale unorganized sector where regulations are less stringent and more easily evaded. The textile industry occupies a unique place in our country. One of the earliest to come into existence in India, it accounts for 14% of the total Industrial production, contributes to nearly 20% of the total exports. Being the largest foreign exchange earner, it accounts for more than 5 per cent of GDP.

Market Outlook

The Indian textiles industry, currently estimated at around US$ 108 billion, is expected to reach US$ 223 billion by 2021. The industry is the second largest employer after agriculture, providing employment to over 45 million people directly and 60 million people indirectly. The Indian Textile Industry contributes approximately 5 per cent to India’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and 14 per cent to overall Index of Industrial Production (IIP).

The growth implies domestic sales to rise to US$ 315 billion from currently US$ 68 billion. At the same time, exports are implied to increase to US$ 185 billion from approximately US$ 41 billion currently.

Indian exports of locally made retail and lifestyle products grew at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 10 per cent from 2013 to 2016, mainly led by bedding bath and home decor products and textiles.

Production of raw cotton in India grew from 28 million bales in FY07 to 38 million bales in FY15 and further increased to 35.2 million bales in FY16.

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