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Dairy Milk Processing, Milk Production, Milk composition, Milk Treatment, Fermentation, Chemistry of Milk

Tuesday, September 20, 2016

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India is the world's largest producer of milk, and is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder, yet it exports very few other milk product. It is the world’s largest consumer of dairy products, consuming almost 100% of its own milk production. The ever increasing rise in domestic demand for dairy products and a large demand-supply gap could lead to India being a net importer of dairy products in the future. Milk has been an integral part of Indian food for centuries.

The largest structures in the fluid portion of the milk are "casein micelles": aggregates of several thousand protein molecules with superficial resemblance to a surfactant micelle, bonded with the help of nanometer-scale particles of calcium phosphate. Each casein micelle is roughly spherical and about a tenth of a micrometer across. There are four different types of casein proteins: αs1-, αs2-, β-, and κ-caseins. Collectively, they make up around 76–86% of the protein in milk, by weight. Most of the casein proteins are bound into the micelles.

Demand for milk and milk proteins in developing countries is growing with rising incomes, population growth, urbanization and changes in diets. The growing demand for milk and milk proteins offers a good opportunity for producers (and other actors in the dairy chain) in high-potential, peri-urban areas to enhance their livelihoods through increased production.

Global milk protein concentrate market is segmented on the basis application and region. Based on the application milk protein concentrate is segmented into nutritional beverages, infant formula, dietary products, frozen food, yogurts, bakery and confectionary. Of which nutritional beverages is expected to be the leading segment, followed by other segments owing to the health benefits associated with the consumption of nutritional beverages coupled with the rising consumer awareness related to the nutritional food products.

Proteins play an important role in nutrition, taste, allergies, texture, structure, processing and yield performance. In the food industry, proteins are a key element of our diet and an important ingredient for food technologists. The total protein component of milk is composed of numerous specific proteins. Isolated milk protein products represent an important and valuable source of protein ingredients due to their recognized superior nutritional, organoleptic and functional properties. Milk protein is a rich source of essential amino acids and they have been the subject of intensive research for an effort to unravel their molecular structure and interactions, relationship between structure and functional attributes, interactions of proteins during processing and, more recently, their physiological functions. Free fatty acids (FFA) in fresh milk normally amount to less than 1% of the total milk fat, yet they are important because of their effect on milk flavour. Now a day, the processing of milk is part of a highly organized and controlled dairy industry, which produces and markets a multitude of dairy products. Functional milk proteins are perfectly suited for use in the dairy sector of food production and the modern food processing industry is placing more and more emphasis upon the utilization of protein ingredients to provide specific functional properties to a wide range of formulated foods. In recent years, there has been a great deal of progress in the understanding and management of milk proteins across the production chain.

Some of the fundamentals of the book are surface tension of milk, lactose chemistry, milk proteins, phosphorylation of milk proteins, comparative aspects of milk proteins, utilization of milk proteins, heat stability of milks, heat stability of homogenized concentrated milk, lysinoalanine in milk and milk products, heat coagulation of type a milk, syneresis of heated milk, fatty acids in milk, milk gel assembly, mechanical agitation of milk, natural, leucocyte and bacterial milk, grass and legume diets and milk production.

This book provides a complete overview and offers insights into topics for more in-depth reading on milk and milk proteins. The book covers chapters on milk proteins, biosynthesis & secretion of milk proteins, utilization, types of milk proteins, phosphorylation, milk glycoproteins and many more. It is hoped that this book will be very helpful to all its readers, students, new entrepreneurs, food technologist, technical institution and scientists.

 

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